Carlos Manuel de Céspedes calls for the fight against Spanish colonial rule
in Cuba .
Mutsuhito becomes the Tennō of Japan
through the Meiji Restoration .
British punitive expedition to Ethiopia ends with the capture of Magdala and the death of Emperor Theodors II .
|1868 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1316/17 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1860/61 (September 10-11)|
|Baha'i calendar||24/25 (March 20/21)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1273/74 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2411/12 (southern Buddhism); 2410/11 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||76th (77th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1230/31 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4201/02 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1246/47 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1284/85 (April 23/24)|
|Japanese calendar||Meiji 1 ( 明治 1 年 ) (from January 25th)|
|Jewish calendar||5628/29 (September 16-17)|
|Coptic calendar||1584/85 (September 10-11)|
|Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire)||1283/84 (March 1)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2178/79 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2179/80 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1924/25 (April)|
Politics and world events
- May 25 : Emperor Franz Joseph I puts the May laws drawn up by the cabinet under Prime Minister Karl von Auersperg into force for Cisleithanien . This repeals or restricts several provisions of the 1855 Concordat . Among other things, the education system is placed under the direction of the state and secular courts are made responsible for the jurisdiction of marriage. In addition, everyone over the age of 14 can freely choose their religion or renounce one. The May Laws form the basis of the separation of church and state in Austria to this day . Pope Pius IX In the same year, in a secret consistory, condemned the May Laws as leges abominabiles . In a pastoral letter dated September 7th, the Bishop of Linz, Franz Joseph Rudigier, called for resistance to the May Laws.
- August 22nd : In the Bohemian Declaration drawn up by František Ladislav Rieger , the demand of 82 Czech members of the Bohemian Landtag to treat the Bohemian nation in Austria-Hungary and the countries of the Bohemian Crown fairly towards the Austrian state and emperor is expressed .
- September 20 : The Hungarian-Croatian compensating controls in the wake of 1867 concluded Austro-Hungarian balancing the autonomy of the Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia within the Hungarian Empire part of the Austro-Hungarian dual monarchy .
- September 24 : Karl von Auersperg resigns as Prime Minister of the Austrian half of the empire. His successor in the so-called Citizens Ministry will be the previous deputy Eduard Taaffe .
- November 14 : The term Empire of Austria is the name Austro-Hungarian Empire by hand disposal of Emperor Franz Joseph I. replaced.
- November 29th : The nationality law passed in Hungary leads to conflicts with the Croatian minority , because it says that all inhabitants of Hungary form a unified and indivisible nation. The Croatians see the Hungarian-Croatian equalization affected by this Magyarization .
North German Confederation and German Customs Union
- February / March: In the Customs Parliament elections in 1868 , 85 South German MPs are elected to the Customs Parliament of the German Customs Union on various days in Bavaria , Württemberg and Baden as well as in the southern part of the Grand Duchy of Hesse . The federal states of the North German Confederation voted last year. The customs parliament thus has a total of 382 members. Overall, the opponents of a small German solution under Prussian leadership win the election in southern Germany . This tendency is particularly evident in Bavaria and Württemberg. In Baden and Hesse, however, the pro-Prussian national liberals win . The most important political consequence of the election is that the opponents of Otto von Bismarck's policies now have a majority in the customs parliament .
- December 7th : The areas annexed during the German War Electorate of Hesse , Duchy of Nassau and the Free City of Frankfurt are amalgamated into the Prussian Province of Hesse-Nassau . The provincial capital is the previous residence city of Kassel .
- April 23 : After the death of Ramón María Narváez , Luis González Bravo , who is unpopular with all parties, is appointed as the new Prime Minister.
- Early July: The Spanish government uncovered an officer conspiracy in the army to overthrow the Spanish Queen Isabella II and bring Antoine d'Orléans, duc de Montpensier to the throne. The Duke is expelled from Spain, and the generals involved, such as Francisco Serrano Domínguez , a former lover of the Queen, are banished to the Canary Islands .
- September 17 : Under the leadership of Admiral Juan Bautista Topete , a pronunciamiento ( coup ) against the Spanish government begins in Cádiz , which in the following days spreads to the province . Generals Juan Prim and Francisco Serrano Domínguez also join the uprising. Under the chairmanship of Topetes, a junta with equal representation is formed from members of the Unión Liberal, the Progressist and the Democratic Party.
- Juan Prim moves up the Mediterranean coast with his troops and wins the cities of Málaga (23.9.), Almería (25.9.), Cartagena (26.9.), And Valencia (2.10.) For the insurgents, before a big crowd on October 3rd is received in Barcelona .
- September 18 : Luis González Bravo resigns and goes into exile in Biarritz the next day. He is succeeded as Prime Minister by José Gutiérrez de la Concha , who can only stay in office until September 29th .
- September 28th : Isabella II fled into exile in France because of the defeat of royalist troops in the Battle of Alcolea against insurgent troops under the command of General Serranos . The so-called Sexenio Revolucionario begins .
- October 8th : Francisco Serrano forms a provisional government with Juan Prim as Minister of War, Juan Topete as Minister of the Navy and the Práxedes Mateo Sagasta, who has just returned from exile in France, as Minister of the Interior. A three year search for a new king begins . The provisional government under Serrano seeks to establish a moderate monarchy. It largely ignores the juntas' demands for social reform. That is why there is a mass support for the Republicans. There are a number of Republican victories in the municipal elections in December.
Other events in Europe
- January 1st : Jakob Dubs becomes Federal President of Switzerland for the second time .
- June 11 : In the Ottoman Empire , the aid organization for wounded and sick soldiers is formed, from which the Turkish Red Crescent later emerges.
- July 24th : The first international women's rights organization emerges in Switzerland as part of the women's movement . The Genevan marie goegg-pouchoulin founded the Association internationale des femmes .
- December 11 : The Petersburg Declaration is signed by 20 states on the initiative of the Russian Tsar Alexander II . It prohibits the use of small HE shells in war. For the first time in military and legal history, there is a contractually stipulated restriction on the choice of means of waging war .
- January 2 : Lieutenant General Robert Napier arrives with his adjutant Frederic Thesiger at Zula on the Red Sea and takes command of the British Indian Army . Last year, Queen Victoria gave her the job of freeing two British government representatives and several missionaries who were held hostage by Emperor Theodor II of Ethiopia . The force consists of 13,000 British and Indian soldiers, 26,000 civilians and more than 40,000 animals, including 44 trained elephants.
- It takes Napier's army three months to cover the 400 miles through the mountains to the foot of the imperial fortress in Magdala in the Ethiopian highlands . In Antalo, Napier negotiates with Ras Kassai , Prince of Tigray , who assures him of support.
- March 17th : Army reaches Ashangi Lake , 100 miles from their destination. In order to further reduce their luggage, the men there are given half rations.
- April 10 : Theodors II's last attempt to fend off the British punitive expedition set off from British India fails with his defeat in the Battle of Aroge . While no one is killed on the British side, more than 700 of Theodor's men fall and another 1,200 are wounded in just two hours.
- April 13th : The British punitive expedition to Ethiopia ends with the capture of Magdala and the suicide of Theodor II. The soldiers are given the right to loot the fortress and then burn it down. The army then moves back to Zula, where it arrives on June 2nd . The British expedition took with them numerous treasures, manuscripts and relics such as tabots , which are now in various European museums and libraries as well as with private collectors. The manuscripts spark interest in Ethiopian studies in the West.
- March 12 : Basutoland becomes a British crown colony . King Moshoeshoe I remains head of the Basotho and by signing a treaty with the British can withdraw his land from the access of the Boers of the Orange Free State , with whom his people have been at war since 1865 . The Seqiti War ends on March 14th .
- September 9th : After Mzilikazi's death , his son Lobengula becomes ruler of the Matabele Kingdom in what is now Zimbabwe . In contrast to his father, he does not pursue a warlike policy and initially cooperates with the British and other neighbors. During his reign, the capital Bulawayo became an important trade hub in southern Africa. Lobengula continues his father's reforms and introduces progressive social systems. Modern western principles of commercial trade are recognized. Unique on the African continent, a code of individual, albeit severely limited, rights has been established.
- Several Fanti tribes and neighboring tribes found the Fanti Confederation in what is now Ghana . The occasion is a British-Dutch agreement that provides for the exchange of forts in the Fanti area, which is rejected by the tribes.
- Qatar is a British protectorate after it last year, heavy fighting with the already under British rule standing Bahrain has come.
- Azzan ibn Qais from a sideline of the Said dynasty conquered Muscat and overthrew his cousin Salim ibn Thuwaini as Sultan of Oman . As the first sultan since 1783 , he can also be elected Imam of the Ibadites . Nevertheless, he does not succeed in stabilizing his rule.
- January 3rd : The Meiji - Tennō declares the restoration of the old imperial power in Japan . With the overthrow of Tokugawa Yoshinobu , the 700 year long rule of the shoguns in Japan ended and the Meiji restoration began . At the same time, the seppuku ritual is officially banned.
- January: The Boshin War between supporters of the Shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu (who formally resigned in 1867) and the reform troops of the Meiji Restoration begins.
- January 27 to 31 : The battle of Toba-Fushimi ends after four days of fighting with the complete defeat of the shogunate troops. Saigō Takamori now leads the victorious imperial troops without encountering any significant resistance, initially to Edo, which they reach in early April. After negotiations on April 5 and 6 , which were conducted on the Tokugawa side by Katsu Kaishu , Edo was surrendered on May 3 without a fight. A troop of Shogun supporters tries to secure the Kan'ei Temple on Ueno Hill, the shogun's alternative quarters, but is completely defeated on July 4th by the new army led by Ōmura Masajirō .
- In northern Japan, a number of allied Tokugawa-loyal daimyō continued to resist for months, especially the Aizu-Wakamatsu-Han led by Matsudaira Katamori . Finally, he too surrenders on September 23rd .
- The Dutch-trained naval officer Enomoto Takeaki flees with the Kaiyōmaru and seven other ships of the Bakufu and some French advisors, among them Jules Brunet , to Hokkaidō , where on December 25th the Republic of Ezo is established on the model of the United States. However, the republic tries in vain to gain international recognition.
- King Mongkut of Siam falls victim to his love of astronomy. After correctly calculating the solar eclipse of August 18, 1868 , he had an observation post set up in the orbit of the umbra near Prachuap Khiri Khan and invited many scientists and dignitaries. However, the place is in a swamp full of mosquitoes and the king becomes infected with malaria , from which he dies on October 18th .
- November 11th : Chulalongkorn , only 15 years old , ascends the throne of Siam after the Grand Council elected him at the instigation of Kalahom Chaophraya Si Suriyawong . Si Suriyawong takes over the reign for the minor.
Other events in Asia
- July: The Burlingame Treaty between the United States and China is signed. It complements the ten-year-old Treaty of Tianjin and creates the formal basis for the establishment of friendly relations between the two countries. With the treaty, the United States grants China the status of a preferred foreign trade partner in the sense of the " most-favored-nation principle ". In addition, the export of cheap labor ( pen trade ) to the USA is made possible.
- October 16 : Denmark abandons its claim to the Indian Nicobar Islands by royal resolution. After that, the Nicobar Islands are no longer Danish territory .
- February 24 : The US House of Representatives decides to initiate an impeachment with 128 votes to 47 against President Andrew Johnson . The first impeachment trial in the history of the United States fails on May 16 in the US Senate because there is no vote for the required two-thirds majority .
- May 20 : At the Convention of the Republican Party in Chicago , Ulysses S. Grant becomes a presidential candidate with little opposition because of his fame as a war hero in the north and the respect he had in the southern states for his honorable treatment of Lee in Appomattox Court House Republicans elected.
- June 29 : President Andrew Johnson's signature marks the first legal eight-hour day for government officials in the United States. Up to now, a daily working time of ten hours was common. Another six states are following suit. Even if this law is still not widely copied, it has a significant signal effect for the labor movement and the trade unions.
- July: The Burlingame Treaty between the USA and China is signed. It supplements the Treaty of Tianjin and creates the formal basis for the establishment of friendly relations between the two states.
- July 28 : The 14th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States is ratified, the male African Americans and Native Americans grants the right to vote under certain conditions.
- July: The Democratic National Convention elects New York Governor Horatio Seymour to replace ruling President Johnson as a candidate for the 1868 presidential election .
- November 3 : General Ulysses S. Grant and his running mate Schuyler Colfax defeated the Democrat Horatio Seymour in the US presidential election. It will be the first election in the United States since the Civil War and during the Reconstruction . The re-accession of the former Confederate States of Texas , Mississippi and Virginia to the Union has not yet taken place. Therefore, these three states cannot take part in the presidential election.
- November 6th : The Treaty of Fort Laramie 1868 defines the area of the entire present-day US state of South Dakota west of the Missouri, including the Black Hills (from the northern border in Nebraska to the 46th parallel and from Missouri in the east to the 104th meridian in the west) as Indian land for unrestricted and unmolested use and settlement by the Great Sioux Nation . The United States , which after the Civil War still tied up large troop contingents in the south of its national territory, has to give in to almost all of Chief Red Cloud's calls for the Red Cloud War along the Bozeman Trail .
- November 27 : During the attack on Washita , the 7th US Cavalry Regiment under George Armstrong Custer attacked a peaceful village of the Southern Cheyenne under Chief Black Kettle at dawn, killing more than a hundred people, mostly women and children, in their sleep within a few minutes to be surprised.
- Christmas: President Johnson pardons several former Confederates, including former Southern President Jefferson Davis .
- September 22nd : In Puerto Rico , the Grito de Lares revolt , the cry of Lares, against Spanish colonial rule . On November 17, a military court sentenced everyone involved to death for treason and sedition, a verdict that was never carried out due to a general amnesty given by the new governor. Although the revolt itself fails, it has positive results as the Spanish grant the island greater political autonomy.
- October 10 : In Cuba , with the war cry from Yara by Carlos Manuel de Céspedes, the struggle for independence from Spain begins , a ten-year war against the colonial power.
Triple Alliance War
- After Brazilian steamers managed to overcome the last Paraguayan river barriers at Humaitá in the Triple Alliance War , to eliminate the remaining Paraguayan river forces and to bombard Asunción for the first time on February 24, the crew of the had to defend themselves bitterly in July of the same year Humaitá fortress bow to Allied pressure and surrender. The way to Asunción is now finally open for the Allies. On 21 December it comes at Lomas Valentinas far from Asunción to the last major battle of the war. Both sides suffer heavy losses; on December 27, the Paraguayan armed forces are destroyed. Paraguayan President Francisco Solano López , who refuses to surrender, has to give up the capital Asunción and retreat to Piribebuy in the north.
Other events in South America
- February 19 : Four days after the end of his term in office, the former Uruguayan President Venancio Flores is killed in an assassination attempt. An accompanying uprising fails, however, and the leaders are shot dead on the same day.
- March 1st : Lorenzo Batlle y Grau takes office as the constitutionally elected President of Uruguay .
- August 15th : Domingo Faustino Sarmiento is elected President of Argentina . He will take over from Bartolomé Miter on October 12th .
- October 19 : The peseta is set as the future currency in Spain by decree. The country is based on the Latin Monetary Union .
- December 26th or 1869 : Pierre Michaux and Louis-Guillaume Perreaux receive a patent for the Michaux-Perreaux steam wheel they developed , a forerunner of the motorcycle .
- Edmund McIlhenny begins in New Orleans after several years of experiments with the sale of one of Tabasco chilies prepared sauce , which supposedly makes in old perfume bottles dropwise portioning possible.
- The chemical company Brüggemann in Heilbronn is founded.
- The Beuel jute spinning mill is founded.
- Heinrich Schultheis founded Germany's first rose tree nursery in Steinfurth (Wetteraukreis) .
Transport and postal services
- January 1 : For the North German Confederation is North German Confederation established.
- August 19 : Construction of the Murg Valley Railway between Rastatt and Gernsbach begins.
- October 17 : The "Revised Rhine Shipping Act" is signed in Mannheim , an international treaty between Baden , Bavaria , France , Hesse , the Netherlands and Prussia that regulates shipping traffic on the Rhine .
- The first section of the Rudolfsbahn , which was built by the crown prince Rudolf-Bahn AG , a privilege of kk , opens.
science and technology
Heinrich Schliemann is going on his first research trip to Greece from April. He travels to Corfu via Rome and Naples and searches for traces of the Phaiacs , with whom Odysseus stranded, according to Homer , and whose land Scheria was often equated with Corfu. On July 28th he reached Ithaca and spent nine days looking in vain for the palace of Odysseus described in the Iliad . For the first time he tries his hand at digging and hires local helpers. After brief stays in Corinth and Athens , he reached the Troas for the first time on August 9 and carried out intensive research on the presumed location of the legendary city of Priam . After long, detailed on-site inspections, he shares Frank Calvert's opinion that Troy Castle must be hidden under the Hisarlık, and applies for an excavation permit from the Sublime Porte . In September Schliemann returns to Paris, where he has been studying languages, literature and antiquity at the Sorbonne since 1866 , and there he writes his book Ithaca, the Peloponnese and Troy .
- February 25 : The American astronomer George Mary Searle finds the spiral galaxy NGC 4247 in the constellation Virgo in the northern sky .
- March 22nd : George Mary Searle finds the radio galaxy NGC 5487 in the constellation Bearkeeper .
- August 18 : During a solar eclipse in India, the French astronomer Jules Janssen discovers an emission line in the chromosphere that can be assigned to a previously unknown element . Independently of im, the British Joseph Norman Lockyer also made this discovery while observing the sun. He suggests naming the new element helium .
|No. and name||
|Date of discovery||Explorer|
|(96) Aegle||170.0||February 17th||Jérôme-Eugène Coggia|
|(97) Clotho||82.8||February 17th||Ernst Wilhelm Leberecht Temple|
|(98) Ianthe||104.5||April 18||Christian Heinrich Friedrich Peters|
|(99) Dike||69.0||28th of May||Alphonse Louis Nicolas Borrelly|
|(100) Hecate||88.7||July 11th||James Craig Watson|
|(101) Helena||65.8||15th of August||James Craig Watson|
|(102) Miriam||83.0||August 22nd||Christian Heinrich Friedrich Peters|
|(103) Hera||91.2||7th of September||James Craig Watson|
|(104) Clymene||123.7||13.september||James Craig Watson|
|(105) Artemis||119.1||16th September||James Craig Watson|
|(106) Dione||146.6||October 10th||James Craig Watson|
|(107) Camilla||222.6||November 17th||Norman Robert Pogson|
- May 24th : The First German North Pole Expedition , initiated by August Petermann , set sail under the direction of Carl Koldewey with the freighter Greenland in Bergen, Norway . The aim is to reach the coast of Greenland and sail north along it to find out how far the island extends to the north, or to reach the so-called Gillis Land around Svalbard . Due to the unfavorable ice conditions this summer, these goals cannot be achieved, but on September 13th the Greenland reached her highest northern latitude of 81 ° 4 ′ 30 ″, the most northerly proven position of a sailing ship without auxiliary drive to this day . The expedition will return safely on September 30th with extensive meteorological , oceanographic and geomagnetic data.
More natural sciences
- August 13 : An earthquake off Peru causes tidal waves in the Pacific Ocean that hit the east coast of New Zealand on August 15 . The natural scientist Ferdinand von Hochstetter , who has been there since the Novara expedition , then wrote the earliest known scientific description of a tsunami event .
- Bernard Altum publishes his book Der Vogel und seine Leben , which, taking into account the function of bird song, is the first to contain a theory of territorial formation in birds and their territorial behavior
Teaching and Research
- March 23rd : The University of California is founded in what is now Berkeley . Henry Durant becomes the first president .
- August 6th : The later University of Venice is founded as the Scuola Superiore di Commercio .
- March 4th : The railway accident near Chernivtsi , in which one person dies, leads to the replacement of all bridges built by Rudolf Schifkorn over the next 25 years .
- After Emperor Franz Joseph I gave his approval with a resolution of September 12th, the construction work on the Viennese Danube regulation began according to an exposé compiled by Wilhelm von Engerth . Before that, Commissioner Florian Pasetti prevented an agreement on the regulation of the Danube for 20 years.
- April 23 : Construction of the Dale Creek Crossing for the first transcontinental railroad between Omaha and Sacramento is completed.
- August 17 : The North German Order of Measure and Weight , which introduces the metric system in North Germany , becomes federal law. However, it does not come into force until 1872.
- Before the British Association for the Advancement of Science, the British architect and engineer William Thorold presented a monorail system for railways that he designed and from which the Ewing system was later developed.
- June 25th : The Luther monument in Worms designed by Ernst Rietschel is inaugurated.
- September 1st : The Künstlerhaus Vienna , built by August Weber , opens.
- Pierre-Auguste Renoir's painting In Summer shows the portrait of his lover Lise Tréhot .
- Édouard Manet paints the portrait of Mademoiselle Claus and begins with the painting The Balcony .
- Gustave Courbet paints La femme à la vague .
- Rodolphe Julian founds the Académie Julian art academy in Paris' 2nd arrondissement .
- Fyodor Michailowitsch Dostojewski completes his work The Idiot , which will appear in sequels from January in the Russian magazine Russki Westnik .
- October: Louisa May Alcott publishes the novel Little Women, written between May and June .
- The crime novel The Moonstone ( The Moonstone ) of the British writer Wilkie Collins first appears as a serial novel in by Charles Dickens published weekly magazine All the Year Round . A little later the work appears in book form. The diary and letter novel is considered to be groundbreaking in crime fiction .
Music and theater
- January 20 : The operetta Die Frau Meisterin by Franz von Suppè has its world premiere at the Carltheater in Vienna. The libretto is by Karl Costa . The reviews are ambivalent. Today only the overture is known of the music .
- January 21st : The waltz Spheres Sounds by Johann Strauss (son) is premiered in the Sofiensaal in Vienna on the occasion of a medicine ball .
- March 5th : The premiere of the first version of the opera Mefistofele by Arrigo Boito takes place at the Teatro alla Scala in Milan and receives extremely bad reviews.
- March 9 : The opera Hamlet by Ambroise Thomas premieres in the Salle Le Peletier of the Paris Opera . The libretto is by Michel Carré and Jules Barbier , it is based on that of Alexandre Dumas the Elder. Ä. and Paul Meurice wrote the French adaptation of the tragedy Hamlet by William Shakespeare . Jean-Baptiste Faure sings the title role, Christine Nilsson the Ophélie. The choreography of the ballet La fête du printemps came from Marius Petipa .
- May 6 : The opéra bouffe Totos Castle of Jacques Offenbach is in the Palais Royal premiered in Paris. After 15 successful performances, the number of visitors soon begins to decline, although the imperial couple attended the third performance. Even the new equipment that took place at the beginning of July cannot prevent the piece from being removed from the program on July 28th .
- May 9 : Anton Bruckner conducts the world premiere of his 1st symphony ( WAB 101) in the Altes Dom in Linz .
- May 16 : The world premiere of Bedřich Smetana's opera Dalibor with the libretto by Josef Wenzig takes place on the occasion of the laying of the foundation stone of the National Theater in Prague.
- June 19 : The dance waltz Tales from the Vienna Woods by Johann Strauss (son) is premiered in the kk Volksgarten by the Strauss Chapel under the direction of the composer.
- June 21 : The opera Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg by Richard Wagner is premiered under the direction of Hans von Bülow at the National Theater in Munich .
- Summer: Johannes Brahms composes the love song waltzes .
- September 30 : The world premiere of the one-act operetta L'ile de Tulipatan (The Isle of Tulipatan) by Jacques Offenbach takes place in Offenbach's own Théâtre des Bouffes-Parisiens in Paris.
- October 6 : In the Paris Théâtre des Variétés is Jacques Offenbach's operetta La Périchole with the libretto by Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy premiered. Offenbach's favorite singer Hortense Schneider shines in the title role.
- January 9 : After a three-month voyage, the sailing ship Hougoumont from London docks in Fremantle in Western Australia . The Blackwall frigate carries out the final transport of convicts to the Australian convict colony . There are 279 convicts and 108 passengers on board.
- January 10 : The death penalty is carried out for the last time with the sword when the poisoner Héli Freymond is executed. It is the last execution in the canton of Vaud .
- February 20 : In Vienna, the Bavarian Prince Ludwig marries the Archduchess Marie Therese of Austria-Este .
- April 22nd : Umberto , Crown Prince of Italy , marries his cousin Margaret of Savoy in Turin . Numerous European noble houses have previously refused a connection with the "upstart".
- April 27 : Michael Barrett, a member of the Irish Republican Brotherhood , was found guilty of multiple murders by a jury as the main perpetrator of the Clerkenwell bombing last year and sentenced to death. He was hanged on May 26th at the gates of Newgate with great public sympathy . It is the last public execution in the UK and the practice is abolished on May 29 with the Capital Punishment Amendment Act 1868 .
- May 28 : The robber murderer Georg Ratkay is hanged at the last public execution in Vienna . A grandstand built for the audience collapses at the festival-like event.
- July 15 : The Austrian lawyer regulations come into force. It regulates the professional law of lawyers, i.e. the rights and obligations that the lawyer has to observe towards clients and third parties. The most important new regulation is that no official appointment is required to exercise the legal profession, but only the proof of the fulfillment of certain requirements and the entry in the list of advocates. This considerably strengthens the self-administration and autonomy of the legal profession and creates the bar association.
- September 13 : Establishment of the Evangelical Foundation Neuerkerode , an institution for the mentally disabled
- June 29th : on the occasion of the 1800th anniversary of the martyrdom of Peter and Paul, Pope Pius IX calls . the First Vatican Council for the following year . The aim of the council should be the "defense against modern errors and the contemporary adaptation of church legislation". The announcement of the council intensifies the dispute in the Catholic world between state- affiliated Catholics and the ultramontanes or the followers of the Syllabus errorum .
- The Uspenski Cathedral in Helsinki is consecrated.
- The Japanese dam Irukaike breaks. The accident claims more than 1000 deaths,
- April 3 : An earthquake of unknown magnitude in Hawaii kills 77.
- 13. bis 15. August : An earthquake off the South American coast leads to a tsunami , caused heavy in Chile, New Zealand and Australia damages and thousands of lives will cost.
- August 20 : In the railway accident in Abergele , 33 people die in the rubble of the subsequent fire. At the time, it was the worst railway accident in British history.
- October 21 : An earthquake of unknown magnitude in Hayward , California , USA, kills 30.
- November 25th : The British steamer Hibernia sinks 700 miles west of Ireland after breaking the wave in a hurricane . 78 people are killed.
nature and environment
- January 2nd : A centuries-old dragon tree falls over in a storm near La Orotava on Tenerife . The plant was a famous sight for travelers.
- May 17th : The Berlin racecourse Hoppegarten is put into operation in Dahlwitz-Hoppegarten in the presence of King Wilhelm I.
- November 1st : Four participants in Bordeaux hold the first all-female cycling competition in the Parc Bordelais.
- The Norwegian Sondre Norheim reached the width of 19.5 meters in ski jumping on the Telemarkbakken in Skien, Norway, and thus set the first official ski jumping world record.
- January 1 : Albrecht von Graefe , German politician († 1933 )
- January 2 : Robert Luther , chemist († 1945 )
- January 2 : Richard C. McMullen , American politician († 1944 )
- January 3 : Heinrich Brauns , German politician († 1939 )
- January 4 : Anastasia Nikolaevna of Montenegro , noblewoman († 1935 )
- January 4 : Rudolf Lebius , German journalist († 1946 )
- January 7th : Mathias Adlersflügel , Austrian industrialist and politician († 1933 )
- January 8 : Frank Dyson , English astronomer († 1939 )
- January 9 : Søren Sørensen , Danish chemist († 1939 )
- January 10 : Carl Albrecht Bernoulli , Swiss Protestant theologian and writer († 1937 )
- January 10 : Ozaki Kōyō , Japanese writer († 1903 )
- January 10 : Oscar Schlitter , German banker († 1939 )
- January 11th : Cai Yuanpei , Chinese teacher and rector of Peking University († 1940 )
- January 11 : William Purnell Jackson , American politician († 1939 )
- January 13 : Julian Borchardt , German journalist († 1932 )
- January 13 : Julius Wieting , German surgeon († 1922 )
- January 14 : William Anderson , Australian theater director († 1940 )
- January 14 : Emanuel Hegenbarth , German painter († 1923 )
- January 14 : Gottlieb Löffler , German painter († 1946 )
- January 14 : Noe Schordania , Georgian Prime Minister († 1953 )
- January 15 : Otto von Lossow , German general († 1938 )
- January 15 : Johanna Müller-Hermann , Austrian composer († 1941 )
- January 16 : Woldemar Tranzschel , Russian botanist and mycologist († 1942 )
- January 17 : Antonio Maria Arrègui , Spanish religious priest and moral theologian († 1942 )
- January 19 : Gustav Meyrink , Austrian writer († 1932 )
- January 20 : Wilhelm Schäfer , German writer († 1952 )
- January 21 : Felix Hoffmann , German chemist († 1946 )
- January 21 : Ludwig Jacobowski , German poet, writer and publicist († 1900 )
- January 22nd : Otto Stählin , German classical philologist († 1949 )
- January 26 : Joseph Hammels , auxiliary bishop in Cologne († 1944 )
- January 28 : Julián Aguirre , Argentine composer, pianist and music teacher († 1924 )
- January 29 : Albin Egger-Lienz , Austrian painter († 1926 )
- January 29 : Hans Glauning , German officer († 1908 )
- January 31 : Carl Wilhelm Petersen , German politician († 1933 )
- January 31 : Theodore William Richards , American chemist († 1928 )
- February 1 : Ștefan Luchian , Romanian painter († 1916 )
- February 1 : Gustav Zeitzschel , German opera singer († 1951 )
- February 3 : William J. Harris , American politician († 1932 )
- February 4th : Constance Markiewicz , Irish freedom fighter († 1927 )
- February 5 : Henri Hinrichsen , German publisher († 1942 )
- February 8 : Evangeline Adams , American consultant, astrologer and book author († 1932 )
- February 8 : Franja Tavčar , Slovenian women's rights activist († 1938 )
- February 9 : Paul Reusch , German manager († 1956 )
- February 10 : William Allen White , American journalist, politician and writer († 1944 )
- February 12 : Herbert A. Fricker , Canadian choir director, organist, music teacher and composer († 1943 )
- February 12 : Kiến Phúc , seventh emperor of the Vietnamese Nguyễn dynasty († 1884 )
- February 14 : Carlo Alberto Garufi , Italian diplomat and paleographer († 1948 )
- February 18 : Sophie Haemmerli-Marti , Swiss writer († 1942 )
- February 20 : Richard Hesse , German zoologist († 1944 )
- February 22nd : Antoinette Szumowska-Adamowska , Polish pianist and music teacher († 1938 )
- February 22nd : Lars Gabriel Andersson , Swedish teacher and herpetologist († 1951 )
- February 22nd : David Devant , British stage magician († 1941 )
- February 23 : Henry Bergman , American actor († 1946 )
- February 23 : WEB Du Bois , American civil rights activist and social scientist († 1963 )
- February 25 : Josef Albisser , Swiss lawyer and politician (SP) († 1943 )
- February 25 : Erwin Baum , German politician, Prime Minister of Thuringia († 1950 )
- February 25 : Anthony Johannes Blok , Dutch criminal lawyer († 1934 )
- February 29 : Carl Peters , Cologne entrepreneur († 1936 )
- February 29 : Heinrich Claß , German politician († 1953 )
- March 1 : Sophie Chotek , wife of the Austrian heir to the throne Franz Ferdinand († 1914 )
- March 2 : Edmund Schulthess , Swiss politician († 1944 )
- March 3 : Émile Chartier , French philosopher, writer and journalist († 1951 )
- March 3 : Ludwig Freiherr von Stein zu Lausnitz , German officer and explorer († 1934 )
- March 7th : Giovanni Giacometti , Swiss painter († 1933 )
- March 8 : Georges Guiraud , French composer, organist and music teacher († 1928 )
- March 12 : Fritz Berger , Swiss theologian, founder of the Church for Christ († 1950 )
- March 14 : Ascensión del Corazón de Jesús , Spanish nun and founder of the order († 1940 )
- March 15 : Lida Gustava Heymann , German-Swiss women's rights activist († 1943 )
- March 17 : Nathan Edward Kendall , American politician († 1936 )
- March 19 : Senda Berenson Abbott , American sports teacher († 1954 )
- March 19 : Charles Ernest Acker , American electrical engineer, inventor and entrepreneur († 1920 )
- March 19 : Luigi Stefano Giarda , Italian composer, cellist and music teacher († 1952 )
- March 21 : Richard Wachsmuth , German experimental physicist († 1941 )
- March 22nd : Alfred Fowler , British astronomer († 1940 )
- March 22 : Robert Andrews Millikan , American physicist († 1953 )
- March 23 : Dietrich Eckart , German publicist and fatherly friend of Adolf Hitler († 1923 )
- March 23 : John Carson , American country musician († 1949 )
- March 23 : Papken I. Gulesserian , Armenian Coadjutor Catholicos of the Great House of Cilicia of the Armenian Apostolic Church († 1936 )
- March 25 : Agnes Karll , German nursing reformer († 1927 )
- March 26 : Fuad I , King of Egypt († 1936 )
- March 28 : Cuno Amiet , Swiss painter († 1961 )
- March 28 : Maxim Gorki , Russian writer († 1936 )
- March 28 : Albert Jaegers , German-American sculptor († 1925 )
- March 29 : Selwyn Edge , British racing car driver († 1940 )
- March 30th : Koloman Moser , Austrian painter, graphic artist and craftsman († 1918 )
- March 31 : Karl Bonhoeffer , German psychiatrist and neurologist († 1948 )
- April 1 : Edmond Rostand , French playwright († 1918 )
- April 2 : Karl Dunkmann , German Protestant theologian and sociologist († 1932 )
- April 4 : Fredrik Wilhelm Gomnaes , Norwegian composer († 1925 )
- April 5 : Leopold Freund , Austrian radiologist († 1943 )
- April 7 : Federico Caprilli , Italian Rittmeister († 1907 )
- April 7 : José de Castro , Portuguese lawyer, journalist and politician, Prime Minister († 1929 )
- April 8th : Werner von Bolton , inventor of metallic filaments († 1912 )
- April 8 : Simon Gfeller , dialect poet († 1943 )
- April 10 : George Arliss , British actor († 1946 )
- April 10 : Max Eckert-Greifendorff , German geographer († 1938 )
- April 14 : Peter Behrens , German painter and architect († 1940 )
- April 15 : Francisco Braga , Brazilian composer († 1945 )
- April 16 : Frank Spottiswoode Aitken , British-American actor († 1933 )
- April 16 : Christian Alfred Giesecke , German publisher († 1945 )
- April 16 : Charles Silver , French composer († 1949 )
- April 19 : Max von Schillings , German composer, conductor and theater director († 1933 )
- April 20 : August Eckhardt , German-Baltic clergyman and evangelical martyr († 1919 )
- April 20 : Charles Maurras , French writer and political publicist († 1952 )
- April 21 : Alfred Henry Maurer , American painter († 1932 )
- April 21 : Frank Wall , British military doctor and herpetologist († 1950 )
- April 22 : Marie Valerie , Archduchess of Austria († 1924 )
- April 22 : Friedrich Münzer , German classical philologist († 1942 )
- April 22nd : Friedrich Seetzen , German Consistorial President and Lord Mayor of Wurzen († 1943 )
- April 23 : Franz Haböck , Austrian music teacher († 1921 )
- April 23 : Julius Zech auf Neuhofen , German officer and colonial official († 1914 )
- April 24 : Bernardus Dirks Eerdmans , Dutch Protestant theologian and politician († 1948 )
- April 26 : Oswald Galle , painter († 1935 )
- April 26 : Max Geißler , German editor and writer, literary scholar († 1945 )
- April 28 : Georgi Feodosjewitsch Voronoi , Russian mathematician († 1908 )
- April 28 : Hermann Lietz , German reform pedagogue († 1919 )
- May 1 : Afonso Arinos de Melo Franco , Brazilian lawyer and writer († 1916 )
- May 1 : Hugo Johann Asbach , German brandy manufacturer († 1935 )
- May 1 : Väinö I , Prince and Landgrave of Hesse, King of Finland († 1940 )
- May 2 : Robert Williams Wood , American experimental physicist († 1955 )
- May 6 : Gaston Leroux , French journalist and writer († 1927 )
- May 7 : Stanisław Przybyszewski , Polish writer († 1927 )
- May 11 : Paul Schmidt , German inventor and entrepreneur († 1948 )
- May 12 : Al Shean , American-German comedian († 1949 )
- May 13 : Otto von Dandl , Bavarian lawyer and politician († 1942 )
- May 14 : Magnus Hirschfeld , German neurologist, sex researcher († 1935 )
- May 15 : Karl Lautenschlager , German politician, honorary citizen of Stuttgart († 1952 )
- May 18 : Ludwig Landmann , German politician, Lord Mayor of Frankfurt am Main († 1945 )
- May 18 : Nicholas II , last Russian Emperor and Tsar († 1918 )
- May 19 : Adolf Anderle , Austrian politician († 1919 )
- May 19 : Karl Bornhäuser , German Protestant theologian († 1947 )
- May 19 : John Fillmore Hayford , American engineer and geodesist († 1925 )
- May 23 : Harry Graf Kessler , German art collector, patron, author and diplomat († 1937 )
- May 25 : Charles Hitchcock Adams , American chemist, timber merchant and amateur astronomer († 1951 )
- May 27 : Feliks Władysław Starczewski , Polish composer († 1945 )
- May 28 : Claude Anet , French writer († 1931 )
- May 29 : Abdülmecid II , last caliph of the Ottoman Empire († 1944 )
- May 29 : Friedrich Lach , Austrian painter and graphic artist († 1933 )
- May 31 : Jane Avril , French dancer († 1943 )
- June 2 : David Ashworth , English football referee and coach († 1947 )
- June 3 : Georg Jarno , Hungarian composer and conductor († 1920 )
- June 3 : Henning Mankell , Swedish composer († 1930 )
- June 4 : Thomas F. Bayard , American politician († 1942 )
- June 5 : James Connolly , Irish trade unionist and politician († 1916 )
- June 5 : Jan Thorn Prikker , Dutch artist († 1932 )
- June 6 : Heinrich Held , Bavarian politician († 1938 )
- June 6 : Robert Falcon Scott , British naval officer and polar explorer († 1912 )
- June 6 : Dawid Janowski , Polish chess player († 1927 )
- June 7th : Hubert Franz Maria von Andlau-Homburg , Alsatian nobleman, landowner and politician († 1959 )
- June 7 : Charles Rennie Mackintosh , Scottish architect, graphic artist and painter († 1928 )
- June 7th : Peter Nonnenmühlen , local politician and mayor of Mönchengladbach († 1952 )
- June 7 : John Sealy Townsend , British physicist († 1957 )
- June 8 : Adele Gerhard , German writer († 1956 )
- June 11 : Bert Bailey , Australian actor, author and theater impresario († 1953 )
- June 14 : Alfons Dopsch , Austrian medievalist and diplomat († 1953 )
- June 14 : Karl Landsteiner , Austrian bacteriologist and Nobel Prize winner († 1943 )
- June 15 : Berthold Maurenbrecher , German classical philologist († 1943 )
- June 18 : Miklós Horthy , Hungarian politician († 1957 )
- June 20 : Walter Bloem , German writer († 1951 )
- June 20 : Richard Riemerschmid , German architect and artist († 1957 )
- June 28 : John F. Nugent , American politician († 1931 )
- June 29 : George Ellery Hale , American astronomer († 1938 )
- June 30 : Lauri Ingman , Finnish theologian and politician († 1934 )
- June 30th : Alois Musil , Czech orientalist, pastor and theologian († 1944 )
- July 2 : Julius Moses , German doctor and politician, Social Democratic member of the Reichstag († 1942 )
- July 4 : Henrietta Swan Leavitt , American astronomer († 1921 )
- July 4 : Rudolf Presber , German writer and journalist († 1935 )
- July 4 : Albert H. Roberts , American politician, Governor of Tennessee († 1946 )
- July 5 : William Henry Singer , American art collector and painter († 1943 )
- July 9 : Gustav Noske , German politician, minister in the Weimar Republic († 1946 )
- July 12 : Henri Abraham , French physicist († 1943 )
- July 14 : Caesar Ahrens , German chemist († 1934 )
- July 14 : Gertrude Bell , British travel writer and historian († 1926 )
- July 17 : Thorvald Otterstrom , American composer († 1942 )
- July 19 : Moritz Heimann , German writer and journalist († 1925 )
- July 23 : Charles Doughty-Wylie , British career officer and diplomat († 1915 )
- July 28 : Thomas Peter Krag , Norwegian writer († 1913 )
- July 28 : Leonhard Ragaz , Swiss theologian († 1945 )
- July 30th : Alfred Weber , German sociologist and economist († 1958 )
- August 2nd : Constantine I , Greek king († 1923 )
- August 2 : Theodor Wolff , German writer, publicist and critic († 1943 )
- August 3 : Charles Manley Smith , American politician († 1937 )
- August 5 : Oskar Merikanto , Finnish composer († 1924 )
- August 6 : Paul Claudel , French poet and diplomat († 1955 )
- August 7 : Granville Bantock , English composer († 1946 )
- August 9 : Alice Verne-Bredt , English composer, pianist and music teacher († 1958 )
- August 10th : Hugo Eckener , German aeronaut, successor to Ferdinand Graf von Zeppelin († 1954 )
- August 12 : David Farbstein , Swiss politician († 1953 )
- August 13 : Camillo Olivetti , Italian engineer and company founder († 1943 )
- August 14 : José Mardones , Spanish opera singer († 1932 )
- August 15 : Jan Welzl , Czech globetrotter, adventurer, storyteller, writer († 1948 )
- August 16 : Charles Sanford Skilton , American composer and organist († 1941 )
- August 17 : Edward Józef Abramowski , Polish philosopher, psychologist, sociologist and anarchist († 1918 )
- August 20 : Luigi Forino , Italian cellist and music teacher († 1936 )
- August 26 : Henry Franklin Gilbert , American composer († 1928 )
- August 26 : Charles Stewart , Canadian politician († 1946 )
- September 6 : Heinrich Häberlin , Swiss politician and Federal Councilor († 1947 )
- September 8 : Zaven Der Yeghiayan , Armenian Archbishop and Armenian Patriarch of Constantinople († 1947 )
- September 9 : Mary Hunter Austin , American writer and playwright († 1934 )
- September 10 : Albert Hahl , German colonial official († 1945 )
- September 12 : Jan Brandts-Buys , Dutch composer († 1933 )
- September 18 : Jan Verkade , Dutch painter and Benedictine († 1946 )
- September 18 : Hermann Weil , German-Argentinian entrepreneur († 1927 )
- September 20 : Paul Hoering , German pharmacist and chemist († 1919 )
- September 21 : Richard Illge , German politician († 1948 )
- September 21 : Eduard Norden , German classical philologist and historian of religion († 1941 )
- September 22 : Louise McKinney , Canadian suffragette, politician and member of the Famous Five († 1931 )
- September 22 : Eustace Miles , British Jeu de Paume player, non-fiction author and innkeeper († 1948 )
- September 23 : Johannes Bell , German politician († 1949 )
- September 26 : Karel Hoffmeister , Czech pianist and musicologist († 1952 )
- September 29 : Theodor von Hassel , German officer and farmer († 1935 )
- September 29 : Gustav Mie , German physicist († 1957 )
- October 1 : Georg Bredig , German chemist († 1944 )
- October 3 : Francisco de Asís Vidal y Barraquer , Spanish clergyman, Archbishop of Tarragona and Cardinal († 1943 )
- October 4 : Georg Thilenius , German physician and ethnologist († 1937 )
- October 7th : Fred Hovey , American tennis player († 1945 )
- October 8 : Fidus , German painter and illustrator († 1948 )
- October 8 : Coleman Livingston Blease , American politician († 1942 )
- October 8th : Max Slevogt , German painter, graphic artist, illustrator and set designer († 1932 )
- October 10 : Nathan Lewis Miller , American politician († 1953 )
- October 11 : Joseph Anglade , French Romanist, Provençalist and Medievalist († 1930 )
- October 11 : Ernst Kornemann , German ancient historian († 1946 )
- October 12 : August Horch , German mechanical engineer († 1951 )
- October 13 : Carl August Graf von Attems-Petzenstein , Austrian zoologist († 1952 )
- October 16 : Hermann Dernburg , German architect († 1935 )
- October 16 : Franz von Epp , German professional soldier and National Socialist politician († 1947 )
- October 17 : Etienne Soukkarie , Syrian clergyman and patriarchal vicar of Alexandria († 1921 )
- October 18 : Ernst Didring , Swedish writer († 1931 )
- October 20 : Gabriel Montoya , French chansonnier and poet († 1914 )
- October 23 : Alfred Mond, 1st Baron Melchett , British industrialist and politician († 1930 )
- October 24 : Alexandra David-Néel , French travel writer († 1969 )
- October 24 : Fritz Hoffmann-La Roche , Swiss entrepreneur († 1920 )
- October 24 : Gustav Lübcke , German businessman, art collector and museum director († 1925 )
- October 27 : Roy Owen West , American politician († 1958 )
- October 28 : James Connolly , American athlete, first modern Olympic champion († 1957 )
- October 29 : Heinrich Bechtolsheimer , German Protestant pastor and writer († 1950 )
- October 30 : Albertus Antonie Nijland , Dutch astronomer († 1936 )
- November 3 : Karl Kalbfleisch , German classical philologist († 1946 )
- November 4 : Camille Jenatzy , Belgian racing driver and designer († 1913 )
- November 4 : La Belle Otéro , Spanish revue dancer, singer († 1965 )
- November 8 : Felix Hausdorff , German mathematician († 1942 )
- November 9 : Marie Dressler , Canadian actress († 1934 )
- November 11th : Édouard Vuillard , French symbolism painter († 1940 )
- November 13 : Pierre Maurice , Swiss composer († 1936 )
- November 14 : Konrad Biesalski , German orthopedist († 1930 )
- November 14 : Steele Rudd , Australian writer († 1935 )
- November 15 : August Fischer (pharmacist) , pharmacist, company founder of Uhu (adhesive) († 1940 )
- November 17 : Korbinian Brodmann , German neurologist and psychiatrist († 1918 )
- November 17 : Paul Hirsch , German politician, Prime Minister of Prussia 1918–1920 († 1940 )
- November 20 : August Euler , German aviation pioneer († 1957 )
- November 21 : Felix Mach , German agricultural chemist († 1940 )
- November 21 : Peter von Oldenburg , Russian nobleman († 1924 )
- November 22nd : John Nance Garner , Vice President of the USA († 1967 )
- November 24 : Scott Joplin , American composer and pianist († 1917 )
- November 25 : Ernst Ludwig , Grand Duke of Hesse-Darmstadt († 1937 )
- November 27 : Wolfgang von Kries , German civil servant and politician († 1945 )
- December 5 : Arnold Sommerfeld , German physicist († 1951 )
- December 7th : Theophil Wurm , German theologian and Protestant bishop († 1953 )
- December 8 : Giacomo Setaccioli , Italian composer († 1925 )
- December 9 : Fritz Haber , German chemist and pioneer of chemical warfare († 1934 )
- December 11 : Ernst Henrik Ellberg , Swedish composer († 1948 )
- December 13 : Mario Sammarco , Italian singer († 1930 )
- December 14th : Théodore Botrel , French chansonnier († 1925 )
- December 17 : Bernd von Arnim , Prussian politician († 1945 )
- December 17 : Frederic Mosley Sackett , American politician and diplomat († 1941 )
- December 18 : Carlo Perosi , Italian clergyman, Roman Catholic cardinal († 1930 )
- December 19 : Théodore Steeg , French politician († 1950 )
- December 20 : Arturo Alessandri , Chilean politician († 1950 )
- December 20 : Robert L. Williams , American politician († 1948 )
- December 21 : Rudolf Abel , German bacteriologist († 1942 )
- December 21 : Hans Wacker , German painter († 1958 )
- December 22nd : Käthe Paulus , first German professional air skipper († 1935 )
- December 23 : Richard Teichmann , German chess master († 1925 )
- December 24 : Wilhelm Gilbert , German-Baltic pastor and evangelical martyr († 1919 )
- December 24th : Emanuel Lasker , German chess player, 1894–1921 world champion († 1941 )
- December 28 : Ferdinand Birkner , German archaeologist († 1944 )
- December 31 : Arthur Keller , German medic († 1934 )
- December 31 : Erich Ziebarth , German ancient historian († 1944 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Ferdinand Amelin , Austro-Hungarian quarry and stonemason company Amelin († 1947 )
- Emir Emin Arslan , Ottoman politician, diplomat, writer and publisher († 1943 )
- Sattar Khan , Iranian revolutionary leader († 1914 )
- Karl Nováček , Czech cellist, conductor and military bandmaster († 1929 )
- Ramón Emilio Peralta , Dominican composer, conductor, music teacher and saxophonist († 1941 )
- Hassan Vosough , Iranian politician and Prime Minister of Iran († 1951 )
- Caroline Watts , British painter and suffragette († 1919 )
January to March
- January 7th : William Batchelder Bradbury , American composer (* 1816 )
- January 8 : Adolf Heinrich Graf von Arnim-Boitzenburg , Prussian politician (* 1803 )
- January 10 : Karol Szajnocha , Polish writer and historian (* 1818 )
- January 10 : Héli Freymond , Swiss criminal (* 1843 )
- January 11th : Maria von Mörl , South Tyrolean mystic (* 1812 )
- January 16 : Friedrich Wilhelm Schoen , German painter and lithographer (* 1810 )
- January 16 : Theodor Schönemann , German mathematician (* 1812 )
- January 20 : Johann Friedrich Danneil , German prehistorian and educator (* 1783 )
- January 21 : Alexander Sándor Asbóth , Hungarian revolutionary and general (* 1811 )
- January 23 : Heinrich von Brandt , Prussian general of the infantry (* 1789 )
- January 28 : Adalbert Stifter , Austrian writer, painter and teacher (* 1805 )
- January 29 : José María Achá Valiente , Bolivian general and politician (* 1810 )
- January 30th : Éléonore Denuelle , mistress of Napoleon I (* 1787 )
- February 1 : Gustav Eduard Benseler , German classical philologist and lexicographer (* 1806 )
- February 3 : Karl Mathy , Minister of State of Baden (* 1807 )
- February 10 : David Brewster , Scottish physicist, inventor of the kaleidoscope (* 1781 )
- February 11 : Léon Foucault , French physicist (* 1819 )
- February 19 : Venancio Flores , South American general (* 1808 )
- February 21 : Giuseppe Abbati , Italian painter (* 1836 )
- February 22nd : Emmanuele Antonio Cicogna , Venetian secretary and book collector (* 1789 )
- February 28 : Arthur Anderson , English entrepreneur and politician (* 1791 )
- February 28 : August Wissowa , German classical philologist and pedagogue (* 1797 )
- March 2 : Franz Carl Adelbert Eberwein , music director and conductor at the grand ducal opera in Weimar (* 1786 )
- March 4 : Richard H. Bayard , American politician (* 1796 )
- March 28 : James Thomas Earl of Cardigan , British general (* 1797 )
- March 31 : Jacob Ludwig Theodor Reh , German politician (* 1801 )
April to June
- April 3 : Franz Berwald , Swedish composer and violinist (* 1796 )
- April 4 : Eduard van der Nüll , Austrian architect (* 1812 )
- April 8 : Johann Theodor Vömel , German classical philologist, Lutheran theologian and grammar school director (* 1791 )
- April 13th : Theodor II , Emperor of Ethiopia (* 1818 )
- April 24 : Franz Haniel , German entrepreneur (* 1779 )
- April 29th : Karl Maria von Aretin , Bavarian historian, diplomat and politician (* 1796 )
- May 4 : John Adams Gilmer , American politician (* 1805 )
- May 15 : Franz Michael d'Aubert , German politician (* 1795 )
- May 21 : Samuel Hebich , German missionary (* 1803 )
- May 22 : Julius Plücker , German mathematician and physicist (* 1801 )
- May 23 : Kit Carson , American pioneer, border guard and explorer (* 1809 )
- May 25 : Afanassi Grigoryevich Grigorjew , Russian architect (* 1782 )
- May 27 : Georg Egestorff , German industrialist (* 1802 )
- May 29 : Levi Lincoln junior , American politician (* 1782 )
- May 29 : Julius Abegg , German criminal lawyer (* 1796 )
- May 29 : Franz Pfeiffer , German Germanist (* 1815 )
- June 1 : James Buchanan , American politician, 15th President of the USA (* 1791 )
- June 5 : Anselm Hüttenbrenner , Austrian composer and music critic (* 1794 )
- June 11th : August Sicard von Sicardsburg , Austrian architect (* 1813 )
- June 11th : James Brooke , English adventurer (* 1803 )
- June 17th : George Arnott Walker Arnott , Scottish botanist (* 1799 )
- June 26th : Johann Nepomuk Zwerger , German sculptor (* 1796 )
July to September
- July 2 : William Grason , American politician (* 1788 )
- July 3 : Lafayette C. Baker , American officer and secret agent (* 1826 )
- July 7 : Edward Coles , American politician (* 1786 )
- July 12 : Ralph Abercromby, 2nd Baron Dunfermline , British diplomat (* 1803 )
- July 15 : William Thomas Green Morton , American doctor, pioneer of anesthesia (* 1819 )
- July 16 : Louis François Dauprat , French horn player, composer and professor of horn (* 1781 )
- July 18 : Emanuel Leutze , American painter (* 1816 )
- July 20 : Johann Friedrich Kittl , Czech composer (* 1806 )
- July 21 : Friedrich Wilhelm Schubert , German historian and political scientist (* 1799 )
- July 29th : Albrecht Theodor Middeldorpf , physician, founder of galvanocaustics (* 1824 )
- July 30 : Michael Tompa , Hungarian poet (* 1817 )
- August 3 : Ludwig von Alvensleben , German writer (* 1800 )
- August 11 : Halfdan Kjerulf , Norwegian composer (* 1815 )
- August 21 : Franz Peter Adams , German lawyer (* 1800 )
- August 21 : Karl Immanuel Nitzsch , Protestant theologian (* 1787 )
- August 25 : Charlotte Birch-Pfeiffer , German actress and writer (* 1800 )
- August 25 : Jacob van Lennep , Dutch writer (* 1802 )
- August 27 : Franz Xaver Schnyder von Wartensee , Swiss composer and music author (* 1786 )
- August 29 : Christian Friedrich Schönbein , German-Swiss chemist (* 1799 )
- August 31 : Francis Granger , American politician (* 1792 )
- September 4 : Eduard Friedrich Poeppig , German explorer (* 1798 )
- September 9 : Mzilikazi , ruler in the Matabele kingdom in Zimbabwe (* around 1790 )
October to December
- October 2 : François-Christophe-Edouard Kellermann , French statesman and diplomat (* 1802 )
- October 9 : Howell Cobb , American politician (* 1815 )
- October 13 : Tachibana Akemi , Japanese poet (* 1812 )
- October 17 : Laura Secord , Canadian national heroine of the war of 1812 (* 1775 )
- October 18 : Mongkut (Rama IV.), King of Siam (* 1804 )
- October 26 : Wilhelm Griesinger , German psychiatrist and internist (* 1817 )
- October 26 : Henricus Christianus Millies , Dutch Lutheran theologian and orientalist (* 1810 )
- October 27 : Carl Wilhelm Arldt , German draftsman and lithographer (* 1809 )
- October 27 : Carl Abraham Mankell , Swedish composer (* 1802 )
- November 2 : Amos Abbott , American politician (* 1786 )
- November 9th : John Mercer Johnson , English-Canadian politician (* 1818 )
- November 11th : Stephen Royce , American politician (* 1787 )
- November 13th : Gioachino Rossini , Italian composer (* 1792 )
- November 13th : Auguste Delacroix , French painter (* 1809 )
- November 13 : David Tod , American politician (* 1805 )
- November 23 : Friedrich Benedikt Wilhelm von Hermann , German economist and economic statistician (* 1795 )
- November 25 : Francesco Ambrosoli , Italian educator, philologist and writer (* 1797 )
- November 30th : August Theodor Blanche , Swedish writer (* 1811 )
- December 3 : Wilhelm Adolf Lette , German social politician and lawyer (* 1799 )
- December 6th : August Schleicher , German linguist (* 1821 )
- December 13 : Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius , German naturalist, botanist and ethnographer (* 1794 )
- December 14 : Walter Lowrie , American politician (* 1784 )
- December 21 : August Friedrich Moritz Anton , German educator (* 1798 )
- December 21 : Vicente Barrios , Paraguayan military and politician (* 1825 )
- December 24th : Étienne Jules Adolphe Desmier de Saint-Simon, Viscount d'Archiac , French geologist and paleontologist (* 1802 )
- December 25th : Linus Yale , American inventor (cylinder lock) (* 1821 )
- December 28 : Karl Chotek von Chotkow , Czech nobleman, administrator and politician (* 1783 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Pedro de Ampudia , Mexican officer (* 1803 )
- Ivan Malchasowitsch Andronikow , Georgian prince and Russian general (* 1798 )