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Carlos Manuel de Céspedes
Carlos Manuel de Céspedes calls for the fight against Spanish colonial rule
in Cuba .
Tenno Meiji
Mutsuhito becomes the Tennō of Japan
through the Meiji Restoration .
Burning Magdala fortress after the British expeditionary army defeated Theodore II.
The British punitive expedition to Ethiopia ends with the capture of Magdala and the death of Emperor Theodors II .
1868 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 1316/17 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1860/61 (September 10-11)
Baha'i calendar 24/25 (March 20/21)
Bengali solar calendar 1273/74 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)
Buddhist calendar 2411/12 (southern Buddhism); 2410/11 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 76th (77th) cycle

Year of the Earth Dragon龙 辰 ( at the beginning of the year Fire Rabbit 丁卯)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 1230/31 (turn of the year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 4201/02 (October 2/3)
Iranian calendar 1246/47 (around March 21)
Islamic calendar 1284/85 (April 23/24)
Japanese calendar Meiji 1 ( 明治 1 年 ) (from January 25th)
Jewish calendar 5628/29 (September 16-17)
Coptic calendar 1584/85 (September 10-11)
Malayalam calendar 1043/44
Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire) 1283/84 (March 1)
Seleucid era Babylon: 2178/79 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 2179/80 (turn of the year October)

Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1924/25 (April)


Politics and world events


Prince Karl Wilhelm Philipp von Auersperg
  • May 25 : Emperor Franz Joseph I puts the May laws drawn up by the cabinet under Prime Minister Karl von Auersperg into force for Cisleithanien . This repeals or restricts several provisions of the 1855 Concordat . Among other things, the education system is placed under the direction of the state and secular courts are made responsible for the jurisdiction of marriage. In addition, everyone over the age of 14 can freely choose their religion or renounce one. The May Laws form the basis of the separation of church and state in Austria to this day . Pope Pius IX In the same year, in a secret consistory, condemned the May Laws as leges abominabiles . In a pastoral letter dated September 7th, the Bishop of Linz, Franz Joseph Rudigier, called for resistance to the May Laws.
FL Rieger, lithograph by Eduard Kaiser
Depiction of the connection between Hungary and Croatia under the Hungarian
crown of St. Stephen ( Julije Huhn , around 1860)

North German Confederation and German Customs Union

The results of the Customs Parliament election by constituency; Also shown are the election results in the North German Confederation, which was voted in the previous year
Coat of arms of the province of Hessen-Nassau


Francisco Serrano y Domínguez
Isabella in exile in Paris
  • September 28th : Isabella II fled into exile in France because of the defeat of royalist troops in the Battle of Alcolea against insurgent troops under the command of General Serranos . The so-called Sexenio Revolucionario begins .
  • October 8th : Francisco Serrano forms a provisional government with Juan Prim as Minister of War, Juan Topete as Minister of the Navy and the Práxedes Mateo Sagasta, who has just returned from exile in France, as Minister of the Interior. A three year search for a new king begins . The provisional government under Serrano seeks to establish a moderate monarchy. It largely ignores the juntas' demands for social reform. That is why there is a mass support for the Republicans. There are a number of Republican victories in the municipal elections in December.

Other events in Europe


British Indian Army troops in camp, 1868
Magdala shortly before its destruction in April 1868
  • April 10 : Theodors II's last attempt to fend off the British punitive expedition set off from British India fails with his defeat in the Battle of Aroge . While no one is killed on the British side, more than 700 of Theodor's men fall and another 1,200 are wounded in just two hours.
The British troops on their march back to Zula.
  • April 13th : The British punitive expedition to Ethiopia ends with the capture of Magdala and the suicide of Theodor II. The soldiers are given the right to loot the fortress and then burn it down. The army then moves back to Zula, where it arrives on June 2nd . The British expedition took with them numerous treasures, manuscripts and relics such as tabots , which are now in various European museums and libraries as well as with private collectors. The manuscripts spark interest in Ethiopian studies in the West.

Southern Africa

Moshoeshoe I.
  • March 12 : Basutoland becomes a British crown colony . King Moshoeshoe I remains head of the Basotho and by signing a treaty with the British can withdraw his land from the access of the Boers of the Orange Free State , with whom his people have been at war since 1865 . The Seqiti War ends on March 14th .
  • September 9th : After Mzilikazi's death , his son Lobengula becomes ruler of the Matabele Kingdom in what is now Zimbabwe . In contrast to his father, he does not pursue a warlike policy and initially cooperates with the British and other neighbors. During his reign, the capital Bulawayo became an important trade hub in southern Africa. Lobengula continues his father's reforms and introduces progressive social systems. Modern western principles of commercial trade are recognized. Unique on the African continent, a code of individual, albeit severely limited, rights has been established.

Western Africa

  • Several Fanti tribes and neighboring tribes found the Fanti Confederation in what is now Ghana . The occasion is a British-Dutch agreement that provides for the exchange of forts in the Fanti area, which is rejected by the tribes.

Arabian Peninsula


Course of the Boshin War
The French military advisers and their Japanese allies. Front row, second from left: Jules Brunet , next to Matsudaira Tarō , Vice President of the Republic of Ezo.


Prince Chulalongkorn with his father King Mongkut

Other events in Asia

United States

The US Senate during impeachment
Andrew Johnson
14. Amendment to the United States Constitution
Republican election poster 1868


  • September 22nd : In Puerto Rico , the Grito de Lares revolt , the cry of Lares, against Spanish colonial rule . On November 17, a military court sentenced everyone involved to death for treason and sedition, a verdict that was never carried out due to a general amnesty given by the new governor. Although the revolt itself fails, it has positive results as the Spanish grant the island greater political autonomy.
Flag of the resistance movement, first used during the Yara Shout

Triple Alliance War

  • After Brazilian steamers managed to overcome the last Paraguayan river barriers at Humaitá in the Triple Alliance War , to eliminate the remaining Paraguayan river forces and to bombard Asunción for the first time on February 24, the crew of the had to defend themselves bitterly in July of the same year Humaitá fortress bow to Allied pressure and surrender. The way to Asunción is now finally open for the Allies. On 21 December it comes at Lomas Valentinas far from Asunción to the last major battle of the war. Both sides suffer heavy losses; on December 27, the Paraguayan armed forces are destroyed. Paraguayan President Francisco Solano López , who refuses to surrender, has to give up the capital Asunción and retreat to Piribebuy in the north.

Other events in South America


Money economy


Business start-ups

Advertisement for McIlhenny's Tabasco Sauce (around 1900)

Transport and postal services

science and technology


Heinrich Schliemann is going on his first research trip to Greece from April. He travels to Corfu via Rome and Naples and searches for traces of the Phaiacs , with whom Odysseus stranded, according to Homer , and whose land Scheria was often equated with Corfu. On July 28th he reached Ithaca and spent nine days looking in vain for the palace of Odysseus described in the Iliad . For the first time he tries his hand at digging and hires local helpers. After brief stays in Corinth and Athens , he reached the Troas for the first time on August 9 and carried out intensive research on the presumed location of the legendary city of Priam . After long, detailed on-site inspections, he shares Frank Calvert's opinion that Troy Castle must be hidden under the Hisarlık, and applies for an excavation permit from the Sublime Porte . In September Schliemann returns to Paris, where he has been studying languages, literature and antiquity at the Sorbonne since 1866 , and there he writes his book Ithaca, the Peloponnese and Troy .


Solar eclipse of August 18, 1868
List of asteroids discovered in 1868
No. and name Diameter
Date of discovery Explorer
(96) Aegle 170.0 February 17th Jérôme-Eugène Coggia
(97) Clotho 82.8 February 17th Ernst Wilhelm Leberecht Temple
(98) Ianthe 104.5 April 18 Christian Heinrich Friedrich Peters
(99) Dike 69.0 28th of May Alphonse Louis Nicolas Borrelly
(100) Hecate 88.7 July 11th James Craig Watson
(101) Helena 65.8 15th of August James Craig Watson
(102) Miriam 83.0 August 22nd Christian Heinrich Friedrich Peters
(103) Hera 91.2 7th of September James Craig Watson
(104) Clymene 123.7 13.september James Craig Watson
(105) Artemis 119.1 16th September James Craig Watson
(106) Dione 146.6 October 10th James Craig Watson
(107) Camilla 222.6 November 17th Norman Robert Pogson

Polar research

Route of the First German North Polar Expedition

More natural sciences

  • Bernard Altum publishes his book Der Vogel und seine Leben , which, taking into account the function of bird song, is the first to contain a theory of territorial formation in birds and their territorial behavior

Teaching and Research


The collapsed bridge with 2-axle freight train wagons
Drawing of the first wooden Dale Creek Bridge


Visual arts

Renoir: In the summer , oil on canvas
Courbet: The woman in the waves


Music and theater

Poster for the premiere
Ceremonial laying of the foundation stone on May 16, 1868
Tulipatan Island, Arban, Quadrille


Execution of Héli Freymond (contemporary drawing)
The wedding of Umberto and Margarethe in Turin Cathedral
  • April 22nd : Umberto , Crown Prince of Italy , marries his cousin Margaret of Savoy in Turin . Numerous European noble houses have previously refused a connection with the "upstart".
  • April 27 : Michael Barrett, a member of the Irish Republican Brotherhood , was found guilty of multiple murders by a jury as the main perpetrator of the Clerkenwell bombing last year and sentenced to death. He was hanged on May 26th at the gates of Newgate with great public sympathy . It is the last public execution in the UK and the practice is abolished on May 29 with the Capital Punishment Amendment Act 1868 .
  • May 28 : The robber murderer Georg Ratkay is hanged at the last public execution in Vienna . A grandstand built for the audience collapses at the festival-like event.
  • July 15 : The Austrian lawyer regulations come into force. It regulates the professional law of lawyers, i.e. the rights and obligations that the lawyer has to observe towards clients and third parties. The most important new regulation is that no official appointment is required to exercise the legal profession, but only the proof of the fulfillment of certain requirements and the entry in the list of advocates. This considerably strengthens the self-administration and autonomy of the legal profession and creates the bar association.
  • September 13 : Establishment of the Evangelical Foundation Neuerkerode , an institution for the mentally disabled


  • June 29th : on the occasion of the 1800th anniversary of the martyrdom of Peter and Paul, Pope Pius IX calls . the First Vatican Council for the following year . The aim of the council should be the "defense against modern errors and the contemporary adaptation of church legislation". The announcement of the council intensifies the dispute in the Catholic world between state- affiliated Catholics and the ultramontanes or the followers of the Syllabus errorum .
The Uspensky Cathedral in Helsinki


nature and environment




Felix Hoffmann


WEB you Bois


Maxim Gorky



Tsar Nicholas II


Robert Falcon Scott, 1911 during the Terra Nova expedition
Karl Landsteiner's bronze bust


Stefan George
Gertrude Bell (1869-1926)




Max Slevogt


Korbinian Brodmann


Fritz Haber, 1918

Exact date of birth unknown

Sattar Khan


January to March

Adalbert Stifter's death mask
Léon Foucault
Ludwig I of Bavaria

April to June

James Buchanan, (probably around 1860)
August Sicard of Sicardsburg (1813–1868)

July to September

William Thomas Green Morton
August Ferdinand Möbius

October to December

Gioachino Rossini

Exact date of death unknown

Web links

Commons : 1868  - Collection of Images, Videos, and Audio Files