|Emanuel Lasker 1929
|Born||December 24, 1868
Berlinchen , Neumark
|Died||January 11, 1941
New York City
|Best Elo rating||2878 (May 1894; historical )|
Emanuel Lasker (in the Immanuel birth register , born December 24, 1868 in Berlinchen , Neumark , † January 11, 1941 in New York ) was a German chess player , mathematician and philosopher . He was the second official world chess champion after Wilhelm Steinitz and at the same time the only German holder of this title to date. He maintained this position for a period of 27 years (1894 to 1921), longer than any other world chess champion. In 2008 Emanuel Lasker joined theHall of Fame of German Sports inducted .
Lasker was the youngest son of Chasan Adolf Lasker and his wife Rosalie Israelssohn. He had two sisters, Theophilia and Amalie, and a brother, Bertold. In 1879 Lasker left Berlinchen and came to his brother Bertold Lasker in Berlin , where he studied medicine. There he attended high school. At the age of twelve he learned to play chess from his brother, which, however, in the opinion of his parents, prevented him too much from his school duties. In 1887 they sent him to the grammar school in Landsberg an der Warthe , where he passed his Abitur in 1888 . His brother Bertold was married to the writer Else Lasker-Schüler from 1894 to 1903 .
Chess player and student
In 1889 Lasker began to study mathematics in Berlin , but one year later he moved to Göttingen . In the same year his international chess career began with victory in the main tournament in Wroclaw . In 1890 he won a championship tournament in Berlin with his brother and defeated Henry Edward Bird in a competition in Liverpool with 8.5: 3.5 (+7 = 3 −2; seven wins, three draws, two defeats). In 1891 he decided to interrupt his studies and go to London as a professional player . There he celebrated a number of successes in tournaments and competitions, including defeating Joseph Henry Blackburne with 8: 2 (+6 = 4 −0). From 1892 to 1893 he published a chess newspaper , the London Chess Fortnightly . In 1893 he followed the world champion Wilhelm Steinitz across the Atlantic and took up his new residence in New York City . There, too, he managed to make a big impression on the chess-interested audience. After Lasker's further successes in competitions and tournament victories in the New World, enough donors were found in the USA and Canada to organize a world championship match with Wilhelm Steinitz.
World championship fights Lasker - Steinitz
The match took place from March 15 to May 26, 1894. With ten wins, five defeats and four draws, Lasker became the second official world chess champion. He didn't play particularly spectacularly in the match, but made very effective use of the weaknesses of his opponent, who had already passed the zenith of his career. In his first tournament as world champion in Hastings in 1895, however, he had to let the American Harry Nelson Pillsbury win. In the same year he published his first chess book Common sense in chess (German: Common sense in chess ), which was based on lectures he had given in English chess clubs.
Lasker lived mostly in the USA until 1896. He gave Steinitz a revenge competition in Moscow in 1896/1897 , which he won even more clearly with ten wins, two losses and five draws. Then he retired from chess until 1899 to continue his studies in Heidelberg and Berlin. In 1900 he was awarded a PhD with his dissertation on rows on the convergence limit (published in 1901) at the University of Erlangen. phil. (Mathematics) PhD .
In 1899 Lasker took over the editorial office of the Deutsche Schachzeitung and kept it after he moved to New York in 1902. There he planned to embark on an academic career. He had already had this intention since completing his doctorate at the University of Erlangen, but attempts to get a position at universities in Germany and England ( Manchester ) failed. The Columbia University in New York his application did not accept. Lasker was forced to become more active as a professional chess player. In 1904 he gave up editing the Deutsche Schachzeitung and founded Lasker's Chess Magazine , which appeared in New York. Lasker's futile efforts to get an academic job as a mathematician led to his turning to philosophy during this time . In 1907 his first philosophical work appeared in New York in both English and German: Struggle and Kampf . In the same year he defended his world title for the first time since 1897: Various American clubs hosted the unequal fight that was played from January 26th to April 6th. Lasker defeated the American champion and winner of many international tournaments Frank James Marshall without a single defeat with 11.5: 3.5 (+8 = 7 −0).
In 1908 he returned to Germany and took up residence in Berlin. From August 17 to November 30, 1908 he played against his old rival Siegbert Tarrasch a competition for the world championship , who in 1892 had rejected a challenge from the then little-known Lasker. The first four games of the competition took place from August 17th to 24th in the Kunstpalast in Düsseldorf , the other games took place in Munich . Lasker clearly won with 10.5: 5.5 (+8 = 5 −3). He gave up his magazine Lasker's Chess Magazine in January 1909. In 1910 he played what was probably the most exciting competition of his life. The Austrian Carl Schlechter challenged Lasker and showed with the even final score (5: 5; +1 = 8 −1) that he was a worthy challenger. Lasker was behind until the last game and could only save the title with a win in the 10th game. The venues were Vienna and Berlin. The Austrian writer Thomas Glavinic created a literary monument to this competition with his novel Carl Haffner's Love for a Draw (Berlin, 1998). In the same year Lasker defended his title against the Polish-French champion Dawid Janowski . He won the competition, held from November 8th to December 8th in Berlin, with 9.5: 1.5 (+8 = 3 −0). In addition to the writer Thomas Glavinic , another author, Stefan Zweig , mentions Lasker in one of his works. In the chess novella he puts the fictional protagonist of his work in a row with Alekhine, Capablanca, Tartakower, Lasker and Bogoljubow.
On March 1, 1911, he married the writer Martha Cohn in Berlin . In the same year he first received a challenge from the young Cuban José Raúl Capablanca to a world championship fight, but both this and the subsequent negotiations with Akiba Rubinstein over a match failed in the period that followed. Not least under the impression of the fate of his predecessor Steinitz, who died in poverty, Lasker demanded high competitive stakes from his challengers, which they often could not muster. He also made attempts to claim the copyright for the games in his competitions and to reserve the sole right of publication, but was never able to enforce this.
In 1913 he bought a country house in Thyrow near Trebbin, south of Berlin, and during this time also tried his hand at farming. But since he was not very practical, he achieved no success in this area.
From April 21 to May 22, 1914, one of the most important tournaments in chess history took place in St. Petersburg . First, eleven champions played a round-robin tournament that was won by Capablanca (8 points) ahead of Lasker, Tarrasch (6.5 each), Alekhine and Marshall (6 each). These five players then competed against each other in two rounds, taking the previously scored points with them. In this final, Lasker managed to catch up Capablanca's lead through energetic play: he scored 7 points (six wins, two draws ) from the eight games , got a total of 13.5 points and was the tournament winner ahead of Capablanca, who reached 13 points . In the tournament book, Lasker's rival Tarrasch wrote that the entry fee of over 4,000 rubles that Lasker received from the organizers was not too high in view of his performance.
With the outcome of the First World War , Lasker lost his assets invested in war bonds . Like many German Jews, Lasker had shown himself to be patriotic and even published a brochure in 1916 entitled The Self-Deceptions of Our Enemies , in which he criticized Germany's opponents of the war. In the post-war period Lasker devoted himself more to philosophy and published his main work in 1919: The Philosophy of Unfinished .
Another attempt by Capablancas to play for the world championship with Lasker initially failed in 1920 for financial reasons. Lasker was ready to voluntarily renounce the title and hand it over to Capablanca. Renewed efforts then allowed the organization of a competition from March 15 to April 28, 1921 in Havana . Lasker, who was exposed to an unfamiliar tropical climate, gave up the competition after 14 games with a score of 5: 9 (+0 = 10 −4). Capablanca became the new world champion after Lasker had held this title for 27 years.
Last major successes and retirement from chess
Lasker won two very strong tournaments in Mährisch-Ostrau in 1923 and in New York in 1924. The New York tournament is one of the most important in the history of chess. There Emanuel Lasker played the only two tournament games against his namesake Edward Lasker . In one of these games, Emanuel Lasker drew a final with knight against rook and pawn , which is considered one of the greatest defensive performances of his career. In the double-round tournament, world champion Capablanca beat the former world champion 1½: ½, but Emanuel Lasker won the tournament with a total of 16 points from 20 games and 1½ points ahead of Capablanca, who reached 14½ points, and 4 points ahead of future world champion Alekhine . In 1925 he overtook Capablanca in Moscow , where he was second behind Efim Bogolyubov , again by half a point. The Moscow tournament would mean the end of Lasker's chess career for a long time. In the same year his textbook on the game of chess was published , in which, among other things, he paid tribute to the services of his predecessor Steinitz in researching positional play . The book contains numerous philosophical excursions and is one of the classics of chess literature today . In addition, he and his brother Bertold published an expressionist drama inspired by his machological philosophy , Vom Menschen die Geschichte , which, however, was not a success on the stage. From 1926 onwards he devoted himself more and more to the game of Go , which he had been cultivating intensively since 1910. He was soon considered a competitor of the best Go player in Germany at the time, Berlin's Felix Dueball , whom he was able to defeat in 1930 in a tournament game whose notation has been preserved. In addition to Go, the bridge game also became a field of activity for Lasker. He was also considered a good poker player. In 1927 he founded a school for mind games in Berlin . During this time he also invented the board game Laska , a variant of the checkers game , and the Lasker mill . 1929 he published a book The intelligent card game , in 1931 , the Bridge game , The Skat and board games of the peoples . In 1932 he took part in an international bridge tournament in London with a Dutch team he had put together. In the same year he announced his departure from chess and planned to devote himself entirely to bridge.
Difficult times in exile and playing chess again
The repressive anti-Semitic policies that the Nazis came to power in Germany in early 1933 forced Lasker and his wife to flee. After spending a year in the Netherlands , the couple moved to London in 1934 . Lasker now resumed his chess activity, as there was hardly any other opportunity to make money. In addition to writing for chess columns, he gave more and more simultaneous performances and took part in an international tournament in Zurich in 1934 , where he finished fifth.
In 1935 the Academy of Sciences of the USSR invited him to Moscow in the Soviet Union . The invitation included permanent membership in the academy. Lasker accepted and went to Moscow. He officially earned his living at a mathematical institute, but his main work consisted in chess training with Soviet master players and general popularization (simultaneous trips etc.) of chess in the USSR. At the very strong international tournament in Moscow in 1935 he was third, at the Moscow tournament in 1936 sixth. He played his last international tournament in 1936 in Nottingham . Here Capablanca and Botwinnik won together with 10 out of 14 each, Fine, Reshevsky and World Champion Euwe shared third place with 9½ each, Aljechin took 6th place with 9 and Flohr and Emanuel Lasker shared 7th place with 8½ points each. The 67-year-old Lasker scored two points against the first three. In 1937 he wrote the short story How Wanja Meister became in the Soviet Union , which only appeared in the German original in 2001. Before that, a Russian translation was published in 1973.
Concerned about the Great Terror in the Stalinist Soviet Union, Lasker took an opportunity to leave the country in 1937. After visiting his stepdaughter in New York , the Laskers stayed in the United States. In 1938 he and his wife were stripped of their German citizenship . The couple lived the most materially deprived time in this last phase of Lasker's life. Lasker fell ill at the end of 1940 and at the beginning of the new year he was admitted to the Mount Sinai Hospital in New York. Despite a blood donation from his friend Joseph Platz , he died on January 11, 1941. His grave is in the Beth Olom cemetery in Queens .
Lasker's style of play was pragmatic and combative; Alekhine described him in the tournament book, New York 1927, as an "unsurpassed tournament fighter". He was considered a player with undemanding preparation for the opening , but made very few obvious mistakes and was able to defend worse positions excellently. In the final , Lasker was unmatched in his day. Lasker's defensive skills were a riddle for many chess masters, to which, in their desperation, they knew how to give various “answers”: Lasker was simply lucky for Tarrasch , Réti found Lasker's game psychological . In the absence of clear statements by Lasker himself, a sentence from Hannak's biography is often quoted in this context: (Lasker) was not interested in the scientifically correct move, but always only in the most unpleasant move for the specific opponent . This verdict has been closely associated with Lasker's name since then, although attempts have recently been made by Robert Huebner in particular to explain why such undifferentiated judgments came about at the time. Hübner argues that there is very little room for maneuver at the master level for psychological considerations and that moves that are not in keeping with the position are usually refuted. In the case of Réti, who usually had no chance against Lasker, it should therefore be assumed that his own fears were projected .
His game against Capablanca at the 1914 tournament in St. Petersburg is often cited as an example of Lasker's supposedly psychological style . He absolutely had to win this in order to be able to win the tournament. To the surprise of his opponent, Lasker chose the Spanish exchange variant, which is considered harmless . Capablanca was not prepared for this and lost the game.
Several opening variants are named after Lasker:
- The Lasker defense in the Queen's Gambit rejected is based on the sequence of moves 1. d4 d5 2. c4 e6 3. Nc3 Nf6 4. Bg5 Be7 5. e3 0–0 6. Nf3 h6 7. Bh4 Ne4.
- In the Evans Gambit the variant 1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. Bc4 Bc5 4. b4 Bxb4 5. c3 Ba5 6. d4 d6 7. 0–0 Bb6 8. dxe5 dxe5 9. Qxd8 + Nxd8 10. Nxe5 Be6. By returning the extra pawn, Black creates a solid position for himself, which is also psychologically advantageous against attacking players. After Lasker recommended this defense, the Evans Gambit was rarely used in tournament practice.
- In Albin's Counter-Gambit , he gave his name to an opening trap .
Lasker's highest historical rating was 2878 in May 1894. He was in 292 months, so almost 25 years, at number 1 in the world rankings. The first time this happened in June 1890, the last time in December 1926.
Mathematician and philosopher
Lasker was also a mathematician and philosopher . In 1900 he received his doctorate on infinite series at the University of Erlangen . The dissertation supervised by Max Noether bears the title Ueber Serien auf der Convergenzlinie (26 pages). In 1905 he published an important mathematical work on the theory of modules and ideals in the journal Mathematische Annalen , which was later further developed by Emmy Noether . This is the origin of the Lasker-Noether theorem, so-called today . Lasker was acquainted with Albert Einstein and argued with him about physical problems. Lasker questioned the constancy of the speed of light in a vacuum. Despite their differing opinions on this issue, Einstein wrote a preface for Jacques Hannak's Lasker biography, published in 1952 , in which he describes Lasker as one of the most interesting people he met in his later years.
Lasker's first philosophical work was published in New York in 1907 in an English (Struggle) and a German edition (Kampf) . In it Lasker creates a "science of combat" which he calls machology . He abstracts principles from the game of chess and transfers them to other areas of life. The font was reprinted in 2001 with an afterword by Lothar Schmid ISBN 3-935035-08-X . Lasker later developed his theories in two more extensive works ( The Understanding of the World , 1913, and The Philosophy of the Unfinished , 1919). However, the books were hardly noticed by the professional world. This was disappointing for Lasker, as he had hoped that his philosophical work would earn him a more lasting reputation than his chess achievements. Although he became a member of the Kant Society on the recommendation of Paul Natorp , Lasker was considered an “autodidact and outsider” (Ulrich Sieg) in the field of philosophy throughout his life. In 1965 Georg Klaus described his views as pre-forms of modern game theory . Shortly before his death, he published a political pamphlet ( The Community of the Future , 1940) in which he addresses social problems. To combat unemployment , among other things, he proposes the formation of cooperatives and the creation of new training facilities.
Theorists and inventors of other games
Lasker has been involved in many other games as a theorist and inventor. In board games , he tried to reform the game of the mill by giving each player ten (instead of nine) stones and initially giving them the choice of either inserting a new stone or moving one that had already been placed. He developed the game of checkers into the game Laska , in which - among other things - struck stones are not removed from the board, but are taken under the hitting stone; if a stone hits several times, it can carry entire “towers” with it; if you hit such a “tower” piece, you may only “take” the top piece with you, so that the “remaining tower” can also change sides; the game develops a completely new character. He has dealt theoretically with both card games (especially poker ) and other board games (especially Go ) and has published about them.
Lasker composed several endgame studies , the most famous of which shows a systematic maneuver now known as the Lasker maneuver .
German weekly chess, 1890
- Lasker - Bauer, Amsterdam 1889
- Pillsbury - Lasker, Saint Petersburg 1896
- Lasker - Napier, Cambridge Springs 1904
- Lasker - Schlechter, Berlin 1910, 10th competition game
- Lasker - Capablanca, St. Petersburg 1914
Tournament and competition results
|year||competition||place||Result / score||rank|
|1889||Main tournament A||Wroclaw||8/9 (+7 = 2 −0)||1st place|
|Main tournament winning group||Wroclaw||4/6 (+4 = 0 −2)||1st – 2nd place|
|Championship tournament||Amsterdam||6/8 (+5 = 2 −1)||2nd place|
|Competition with Curt von Bardeleben||Berlin||2.5 / 4 (+2 = 1 −1)||Lasker wins with 2.5–1.5|
|1889/90||Competition with Jacques Mieses||Leipzig||6.5 / 8 (+5 = 3 −0)||Lasker wins with 6.5-1.5|
|1890||Competition with Henry Edward Bird||Liverpool||8.5 / 12 (+7 = 3 −2)||Lasker wins with 8.5-3.5|
|Competition with Nicholas Theodore Miniati||Manchester||4/5 (+3 = 2 −0)||Lasker wins with 4–1|
|Championship tournament||Berlin||5.5 / 7 (+5 = 1 −1)||1st – 2nd Place (with Bertold Lasker )|
|Championship tournament||Graz||4/6 (+3 = 2 −1)||3rd place|
|Competition with Berthold Englisch||Vienna||3.5 / 5 (+2 = 3 −0)||Lasker wins with 3.5–1.5|
|1892||British Chess Association (BCA) Congress||London||9/11 (+8 = 2 −1)||1st place|
|Championship tournament||London||6.5 / 8 (+5 = 3 −0)||1st place|
|Competition with Joseph Henry Blackburne||London||8/10 (+6 = 4 −0)||Lasker wins with 8-2|
|Competition with Henry Edward Bird||Newcastle||5/5 (+5 = 0 −0)||Lasker wins by 5–0|
|1892/93||Competition with Jackson Whipps Showalter||Kokomo and Logansport||6.5 / 9 (+6 = 1 −2)||Lasker wins with 6.5-2.5|
|1893||Competition with Celso Golmayo Zúpide||Havana||2.5 / 3 (+2 = 1 −0)||Lasker wins by 2.5-0.5|
|Competition with Andrés Clemente Vázquez||Havana||3/3 (+3 = 0 −0)||Lasker wins by 3–0|
|International tournament||New York City||13/13 (+13 = 0 −0)||1st place|
|1894||Competition for the world championship against Wilhelm Steinitz||New York City / Philadelphia / Montreal||12/19 (+10 = 4 −5)||Lasker wins with 12–7 and becomes world champion|
|1895||International tournament||Hastings||15.5 / 21 (+14 = 3 −2)||3rd place|
|1895/96||International tournament||St. Petersburg||11.5 / 18 (+8 = 7 −3)||1st place|
|1896||International tournament||Nuremberg||13.5 / 18 (+12 = 3 −3)||1st place|
|1896/97||Revenge competition for the world championship against Wilhelm Steinitz||Moscow||12.5 / 17 (+10 = 5 −2)||Lasker wins with 12.5–4.5|
|1899||International tournament||London||22.5 / 27 (+19 = 7 −1)||1st place|
|1900||International tournament||Paris||14.5 / 16 (+14 = 1 −1)||1st place|
|1901||Short competition with Dawid Janowski||Manchester||1.5 / 2 (+1 = 1 −0)||Lasker wins with 1.5-0.5|
|1904||International tournament||Cambridge Springs||11/15 (+9 = 4 −2)||2-3 Place (with Dawid Janowski)|
|1906||Championship tournament||Trenton Falls||5/6 (+4 = 2 −0)||1st place|
|1907||Competition for the world championship against Frank James Marshall||New York City, Philadelphia, Washington , Baltimore , Chicago and Memphis||11.5 / 15 (+8 = 7 −0)||Lasker wins with 11.5-3.5|
|1908||Competition for the world championship against Siegbert Tarrasch||Düsseldorf and Munich||10.5 / 16 (+8 = 5 −3)||Lasker wins with 10.5–5.5|
|1909||Competition with Abraham Speijer||Amsterdam||2.5 / 3 (+2 = 1 −0)||Lasker wins with 2.5-0.5|
|International tournament||St. Petersburg||14.5 / 18 (+13 = 3 −2)||1st – 2nd Place (with Akiba Rubinstein )|
|1. Competition with Dawid Janowski||Paris||2/4 (+2 = 0 −2)||Lasker draw with 2–2|
|2. Competition with Dawid Janowski||Paris||8/10 (+7 = 2 −1)||Lasker wins with 8-2|
|1910||Competition for the world championship against Carl Schlechter||Vienna and Berlin||5/10 (+1 = 8 −1)||Lasker defends his title with a draw (5-5).|
|Competition for the world championship against Dawid Janowski||Berlin||9.5 / 11 (+8 = 3 −0)||Lasker wins 9.5-1.5|
|1914||International tournament||St. Petersburg||13.5 / 18 (+10 = 7 −1)||1st place|
|1916||Competition with Siegbert Tarrasch||Berlin||5.5 / 6 (+5 = 1 −0)||Lasker wins with 5.5-0.5|
|1918||International tournament||Berlin||4.5 / 6 (+3 = 3 −0)||1st place|
|1921||Competition for the world championship against José Raúl Capablanca||Havana||5/14 (+0 = 10 −4)||Lasker gave up the competition when the score was 5-9 (it was played on 6 winning games), Capablanca became the new world champion.|
|1923||International tournament||Moravian-Ostrava||10.5 / 13 (+8 = 5 −0)||1st place|
|1924||International tournament||New York City||16/20 (+13 = 6 −1)||1st place|
|1925||International tournament||Moscow||14/20 (+10 = 8 −2)||2nd place|
|1934||International tournament||Zurich||10/15 (+9 = 2 −4)||5th place|
|1935||International tournament||Moscow||12.5 / 19 (+6 = 13 −0)||3rd place|
|1936||International tournament||Moscow||8/18 (+3 = 10 −5)||6th place|
|International tournament||Nottingham||8.5 / 14 (+6 = 5 −3)||7th-8th Place (with Salo Flohr )|
|1940||Competition with Frank James Marshall||New York City||0.5 / 2 (+0 = 1 −1)||canceled at 1.5-0.5 for Marshall|
Emanuel Lasker Society
The Emanuel Lasker Society was founded on January 11, 2001 in Potsdam . It deals with the work of Lasker, but also other topics of chess history and chess culture.
- Common sense in chess , New York 1895, online at archive.org . German edition: Common sense in chess , Joachim Beyer Verlag , Eltmann 2015, ISBN 978-3-940417-83-1 .
- Kampf , New York 1907, online at archive.org .
- The international chess congress in St. Petersburg 1909 , Zurich 1909, American edition at archive.org
- Understanding the world , Berlin 1913.
- The philosophy of the incomplete , Leipzig 1919.
- Textbook of the game of chess , (first edition 1925), Joachim Beyer Verlag , Eltmann 2015, ISBN 978-3-940417-29-9 .
- The intelligent card game , Berlin 1929.
- Board games of the peoples , Berlin 1931.
- Michael Dreyer, Ulrich Sieg (ed.): Emanuel Lasker - chess, philosophy, science. Philo, Berlin / Vienna 2001, ISBN 3-8257-0216-2 .
- Michael Ehn : Lasker – Schlechter 1910, New facts from Viennese sources. In: SchachReport. No. 8, 1995, pp. 71-74 and No. 9, 1995, pp. 69-72.
- Richard Forster, Stefan Hansen, Michael Negele (ed. On behalf of the Emanuel Lasker Society Berlin): Emanuel Lasker: Thinker, world citizen, world chess champion. Exzelsior, Berlin 2009, ISBN 978-3-935800-05-1 , including Joachim Rosenthal: The mathematician Emanuel Lasker. Pp. 213–230, (online, without pictures, but including the list of sources for the complete work) .
- Richard Forster, Michael Negele, Raj Tischbierek (eds.): Emanuel Lasker. Volume I: Struggle and Victories. World chess champion for 27 years. Berlin 2018, ISBN 978-3-935800-09-9 , Volume II: Choices and chances. Chess and other games of the mind , Berlin 2020, ISBN 978-3-935800-10-5 .
- Bernd Gräfrath : Life as an optimization problem: Emanuel Lasker's “Philosophy of the Unfinished”. In: Heretics, Amateurs and Geniuses: Border Crossers of Philosophy. Junius, Hamburg 1993, ISBN 3-88506-227-5 , pp. 133-159.
- Jacques Hannak : Emanuel Lasker: Biography of a world chess champion. Engelhardt, Berlin 1952.
- Robert Hübner : Emanuel Lasker's concept of style. In: ChessBase Magazine . No. 93, April 2003, pp. 14-19.
- Robert Hübner: The Lasker – Schlechter competition. In: chess. Issue 5, 1999, pp. 39-47, Issue 6, pp. 49-60, Issue 8, pp. 53-66, Issue 10, pp. 36-47, Issue 11, pp. 53-61.
- Robert Huebner: The world championship fight Lasker Steinitz 1894 and other duels Laskers. Edition Marco, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-924833-56-5 .
- Elke-Vera Kotowski (Ed.): Emanuel Lasker: homo ludens, homo politicus. Verlag für Berlin-Brandenburg, Potsdam 2003, ISBN 3-935035-15-2 .
- Isaak and Wladimir Linder: The chess genius Lasker. Sportverlag, Berlin 1991, ISBN 3-328-00399-1 .
- Egbert Meissenburg: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 13, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1982, ISBN 3-428-00194-X , pp. 650-652 ( version ). In:
- Ludwig Rellstab (ed.): World history of chess. Delivery 11: Dr. Emanuel Lasker 573 games. Wildhagen, Hamburg 1958.
- Ken Whyld (Ed.): The Collected Games of Emanuel Lasker. The Chess Player, Nottingham 1998, ISBN 1-901034-02-X .
- Helmut Wieteck: A philosopher on the chessboard - Emanuel Lasker on the 40th anniversary of his death. In: Chess Echo . Issue 1, 1981, title page and pp. 11-13.
- Literature by and about Emanuel Lasker in the catalog of the German National Library
- Emanuel Lasker Society
- Portrait, dates and biography of Emanuel Lasker in the Hall of Fame of German Sports
- Playable chess games by Emanuel Lasker on chessgames.com (English)
- 50 crucial positions from his games
- More compositions by Emanuel Lasker on the PDB server
- Spektrum .de: Emanuel Lasker (1868–1941) January 1, 2011
- Frank Grube, Kirsten Solberg: At the grave of Emanuel Lasker: a search for traces (accessed on January 1, 2014)
- Archiwum Państwowe Gorzów Wielkopolski, Sąd Obwodowy w Barlinku, Duplikaty księg metrykalnych gminy żydowskiej, call number 66/886/0/3/4, entry 158 szukajwarchiwach.pl
- This is how the names are given in Emanuel Lasker's dissertation. In the birth register they are Michaelis Aron Lasker and Rosalie Israelsohn (with an s ).
- Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A. Volume 196, 1901, pp. 431-477, doi: 10.1098 / rsta.1901.0009
- Siegbert Tarrasch: The Grand Master's Tournament in St. Petersburg in 1914. Nuremberg 1914, p. 154 f.
- Emanuel Lasker and his influence on Russian chess. In: de.chessbase.com. January 4, 2019, accessed August 13, 2019.
- Johannes Fischer: Emanuel Lasker and his successors. In: de.chessbase.com. February 19, 2018, accessed August 13, 2019.
- Alexander Alekhine: The New York Chess Tournament 1927. 3rd edition. 2014, p. 9.
- Mathematics Genealogy Project
- On the theory of modules and ideals. In: Mathematical Annals. Volume 60, 1905, pp. 19–116, doi: 10.1007 / BF01447495 , online at DigiZeitschriften (freely accessible)
- Emanuel Lasker - a philosophical forerunner of game theory , in: German Journal for Philosophy, 1965, Volume 13, pp. 976–988, doi: 10.1524 / dzph.19126.96.36.1996
- Jörg Bewersdorff : Luck, Logic and Bluff: Mathematics in Play - Methods, Results and Limits. 5th edition. Vieweg + Teubner Verlag, 2010, ISBN 978-3-8348-0775-5 , doi: 10.1007 / 978-3-8348-9696-4 , Chapter 2.5 Lasker-Nim, pp. 119-125.
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||German chess player, world chess champion, mathematician and philosopher|
|DATE OF BIRTH||December 24, 1868|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Berlinchen , Poland|
|DATE OF DEATH||January 11, 1941|
|Place of death||New York City|