Elisabeth "Else" Lasker-Schüler b. Schüler (born on February 11, 1869 in Elberfeld (now part of Wuppertal ); died on January 22, 1945 in Jerusalem ) was a German-Jewish poet. She is considered an outstanding representative of avant-garde modernism and expressionism in literature. She was also a draftsman.
Origin and childhood
Else Schüler was born on February 11, 1869 in Elberfeld, today a district of Wuppertal, and grew up in the Briller district of Elberfeld. She was the youngest of six children born to Jeanette Schüler. Kissing (1838-1890). The mother became a central figure in her poetry. Her father was Aaron Schüler (1825-1897), a private banker. He later became the model for the main character in the drama Die Wupper . After the death of her parents, Jeanette Kissing was taken in by the family of the publisher and politician Leopold Sonnemann in Frankfurt am Main. His wife Rosa was Jeanette's foster mother. Else's father Aaron Schüler and the Berlin banker Julius Israel Schüler (1827–1908) were brothers of Rosa Sonnemann. Jeanette met Aaron Schüler through his brother Julius.
Else was considered the family prodigy because she could read and write at the age of four. From 1880 she attended the Lyceum West an der Aue. After dropping out of school, she received private lessons at her parents' home.
When she was 13 years old, her favorite brother, Paul, died. Her mother died on July 27, 1890; for them it meant “the expulsion from paradise”.
Marriages and first poems
Her father died in 1897. Their son Paul (1899–1927) was born on August 24, 1899. This year the first poems were published; her first volume of poetry, Styx, followed in 1901.
On April 11, 1903, the marriage with Berthold Lasker was divorced. On November 30th of the same year she married the writer Georg Lewin. Lewin is known under the stage name Herwarth Walden , which Else Lasker-Schüler came up with.
In 1906 Lasker-Schüler's first prose work, Das Peter Hille-Buch, appeared after Hille's death; he was one of her closest friends. In 1907 the prose collection The Nights of the Tino of Baghdad was published . In 1909 she published the play Die Wupper , which was not performed until 1919. With the volume of poetry Meine Wunder (1911), Lasker-Schüler became a leading German expressionist .
After separating from Herwarth Walden in 1910, the second marriage was divorced in 1912. Walden married the Swede Nell Roslund in London that same year . Else Lasker-Schüler now lived on the support of friends, especially Karl Kraus, without any income of her own . In the summer of 1912 Else Lasker-Schüler met Gottfried Benn . An intense friendship developed, which was reflected in a large number of love poems, which she dedicated to Benn.
The correspondence with Franz Marc
For the title page of the double issue of the September 1912 issue of Herwarth Walden's art magazine Der Sturm , Franz Marc created the woodcut Versöhnung (“A big star will fall into my lap…”), an illustration of the poem of the same name by Else Lasker-Schüler. In December 1912, Franz and Maria Marc met the poet, who had since been divorced from Herwarth Walden, in Berlin. Marc and Lasker-Schüler, between whom a close friendship developed, had already corresponded before this meeting. By the summer of 1914 there was a lively correspondence between Prince Jussuf von Theben (Else Lasker-Schüler) and the Blue Rider (Franz Marc). Of the private, hand-painted greeting cards and letters, 66 have been received from Else Lasker-Schüler and 28 from Franz Marc. While Lasker-Schüler put images and writing into one another and next to one another, Marc used the front of a correspondence card for a watercolor or ink drawing, titled it and wrote on the back.
Marc's first letter with the programmatic title The blue rider presents his blue horse to Your Highness was followed by the watercolor The Tower of Blue Horses as a New Year's greeting for the year 1913. Marc had developed the postcard from a pencil sketch. It is the only surviving colored draft for the lost oil painting of the same name .
In the exhibition catalog Else Lasker-Schüler: The pictures , Ricarda Dick emphasizes that Marc replied "the play of poetic dialogue" by adopting the poet's symbols in his watercolors and enriched her text-picture compositions with his means: This is how the front horse is Crescent moons and stars inscribed or, as she once wrote herself, in the "skin [are] hieroglyphs cut [...] to the core". The watercolor shows her "how your symbolic elements can be integrated into the picture without losing character".
According to Peter Klaus Schuster, the uniqueness of this artist friendship lies in the “double talent”: “Just as Franz Marc shows himself to be a poetic painter in his cards beyond the picture, Else Lasker-Schüler replies in her letters not only with words, but also with Drawings".
With the last greeting card, Marc sent a picture of an Arcadian Bavarian foothills of the Alps. The watercolor Schloss Ried with a fairy tale landscape in which a blue rider on a blue horse hunts deer with a spear, was intended for the sick son Paul. It served as the frontispiece to the front page of her novel The Malik . The letters to the blue rider Franz Marc , which were published between 1913 and 1915 in the magazines Die Aktion and Der Brenner , were revised by Else Lasker-Schüler in 1915 and were the first part of the 1919 novel "Der Malik." An imperial story with self-drawn ones Images and drawings used, with the printed dedication: "To my unforgettable friend Franz Marc / THE BLUE RIDER / in eternity".
Emigration and exile
The early death of her son Paul (1899–1927) from tuberculosis plunged the poet into a crisis; she published the obituary My Son .
Together with Richard Billinger , the poet received the last Kleist Prize awarded in 1932 before the Nazi seizure of power . On April 19, 1933, after physical attacks and in view of the threat to her life, she emigrated to Zurich , but was banned from working there. The cantonal and the municipal aliens police with their control detectives only issued temporary residence permits and thus forced constant changes of location. From Zurich, in 1934 and 1937, she made two trips to Palestine , "her Hebrew country".
In 1938 her German citizenship was revoked and she became “without writing”, as it is called in Switzerland. In 1939 she traveled to Palestine for the third time. The beginning of the war prevented her from returning to Switzerland. In addition, the Swiss authorities had refused her return visa.
In Jerusalem, Lasker-Schüler lived initially in the Hotel Vienna and from May 1940 in the Hotel Atlantic, both on the lively Ben Jehuda Street. Her last home from the summer of 1941 was a private room to sublet on King George Street in Rechavia . The poet received a monthly "honorary pension", half of which was provided by the Jewish Agency and half by the publisher Salman Schocken , and enabled her to have a reasonably secure financial existence. She lost most of her friends in emigration. But she maintained a small group of friends with emigrants, mostly writers and philosophers, including Werner Kraft , Martin Buber , Samuel Hugo Bergman , Salman Schocken and Ernst Simon . In the last years of his life she passionately adored the religious philosopher Simon, as can be seen from numerous poems and letters. Her estate contained 14 letters from Simon from 1940–1943. In her last volume of poetry, Mein Blaues Klavier - Neue Gedichte , published in 1943, 12 poems are dedicated to Simon. Christa Ludwig addressed Lasker-Schüler's admiration for Simon in a biographical novel about the poet.
Lasker-Schüler felt desperate in Palestine. She had imagined life in Jerusalem differently and was disappointed. In addition to her own loss of her homeland and her numerous friends in Germany, the war situation, the murder of Jews in concentration camps, which gradually became known, and the unrest and uprisings of Jews and Arabs in Palestine under British mandate and the regulations also contributed to this the 1939 White Paper with the drastic import restrictions for Jewish refugee ships in the ports. At the same time, Lasker-Schüler was committed to a peaceful understanding between Jews and Arabs and, according to many contemporaries, was known in the streets of Jerusalem as a restless, old poet.
Lasker-Schüler, over 70 years old and impoverished, unable to return to Europe, but still disguised as "Prince Yussuf", became an object of ridicule among settlers and intellectuals in Jerusalem. “In return, she referred to her once beloved 'Erez-Israel' (Land of Israel) as 'Erez-Miesrael' (Land of Misery). She founded 'Kraal', a literary salon that Martin Buber , the philosopher, opened in the French cultural center on January 10, 1942. "
Some leading Jewish writers and promising poets attended their literary programs, but after some time Lasker-Schüler was banned from giving readings and lectures because they were given in German. Desperate, she asked the rabbi of the German synagogue in Jerusalem to be able to use his place of worship again:
“You can't speak German wherever I've been. I would like to arrange the last kraal evening for an already broken poet to recite from his translations of a great Hebrew ”.
In her final years, Lasker-Schüler worked on her drama IchundIch (IandI) , which remained a fragment. Her collection of poems Mein Blaues Klavier (1943, My Blue Piano ), however, was completed in a limited edition of 330 copies. “Her literary farewell was her last attempt to overcome the loneliness of exile. Significantly, she dedicated her work 'with good will to my unforgettable friends in the cities of Germany and those who, like me, were banished and scattered around the world'. In one of her last signs of life she asked the Allies to spare her hometown Wuppertal and the surrounding area from bombing. "
In 1944 she became seriously ill. After a heart attack on January 16, Else Lasker-Schüler died on January 22, 1945. She was buried on the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem.
After the Mount of Olives came under Jordanian administration when Jerusalem was partitioned in 1948, Lasker-Schüler's grave, like many other historical graves, was destroyed. The tombstone created by Leopold Krakauer was found after the Israeli conquest of East Jerusalem in the Six Day War next to a highway that the Jordanian administration had built in 1960 across the millennia-old Jewish cemetery. In 1975 the tombstone was placed in its current location. It lies on a white base. A plaque inscribed in Hebrew and German announces who has rested under the stone.
Else Lasker-Schüler left behind an extensive lyrical work, three dramas, as prose works shorter sketches and stories, as well as letters and documents and numerous drawings. As a pioneer of avant-garde modernism, she established herself primarily through her psalmodying lyrics and her poetic milieu drama Die Wupper .
During her lifetime, her poems appeared in various magazines such as B. the magazine of her second husband Der Sturm , in the torch by Karl Kraus or in combat as well as in a whole series of poetry volumes that she had compiled herself and some of which also illustrated. Examples:
- Styx (first published volume of poetry 1902)
- The seventh day (second volume of poetry 1905)
- My miracles (first edition 1911)
- Hebrew Ballads (1913)
- Collected Poems (1917)
- My blue piano (1943) Last volume of poems from exile, named after the poem My blue piano
In her work, love poetry occupies a large space, but next to it there are deeply religious poems, prayers . The transitions are often fluid. The later work in particular is rich in biblical and more general oriental motifs. Lasker-Schüler is very free of the external rules of poetic form, but she succeeds in works of great inner concentration. She doesn't shy away from linguistic creations either.
An excellent example of her poetry is an old Tibetan carpet , a poem that has received many reprints after its first publication in the "Sturm", the first of which in the "Fackel":
- An old Tibetan carpet
- Your soul that loves mine
- Is forfeited with her in the carpet Tibet.
- Beam in beam, colors in love,
- Stars courting each other for the sky.
- Our feet rest on the precious
- Meshes of a thousand and a thousand.
- Sweet lama son on musk plant throne,
- How long will your mouth kiss mine?
- And Wang the cheek of brightly knotted times?
Else Lasker-Schüler wrote her first and most important drama Die Wupper in 1908. It was published in 1909 and the world premiere took place on April 27, 1919 in the Deutsches Theater Berlin . After the Second World War, the drama was re-staged in Düsseldorf in 1958 by Hans Bauer with a stage design by Teo Otto .
Lasker-Schüler's play Arthur Aronymus und seine Fathers , which was about to premiere in 1933 in the Berlin Schiller Theater, was immediately removed from the program by the National Socialists. In this play, the clairvoyant poet anticipated the persecution of the Jews :
- Our daughters will be burned at the stake
- Based on a medieval model.
- The belief in witches has risen
- From the rubble of the centuries.
- The flame will consume our innocent Jewish sisters.
The reference to current political events becomes even clearer in the last, unfinished drama of the poet - IchundIch -, on which she worked in exile in Jerusalem until shortly before her death. With IchundIch , a multi-layered continuation of Goethe's Faust was created , in which Mephisto and Faust watch from the bottom of Hell as Hitler conquers the world piece by piece. Finally, in view of the atrocities, Mephisto also has to recognize that evil must not be supported. Together with Faust, he asks God for forgiveness. They are both taken to heaven as the Third Reich goes down in a sea of flames.
Me and I led to numerous controversies among the poet's work experts. While some of the Else Lasker pupils assumed almost prophetic foresight, as she described the fall of the Nazi regime long before 1944, others saw the drama as signs of spiritual decline. Armin Juhre wrote with admiration: “Which of the many German emigrated writers has ever dared to be so daring?” Ernst Ginsberg , on the other hand, remarked in a letter to the estate administrator Manfred Sturmann in 1958 : “I was only deeply shocked, yes, I confess: at times can only read with tears. [...] You can feel the spiritual night falling over the aged poet, over whom only rare falling stars flicker. ”So for many years the work was only accessible for scientific purposes: IchundIch did not become at first, in 1961 in a few excerpts and only in 1969 with critical comments published in full in the yearbook of the German Schiller Society. It was finally premiered on November 10, 1979 in the Großes Schauspielhaus Düsseldorf, followed by a performance in the Schauspielhaus Wuppertal on December 8, 1979 . For its 150th birthday, the Wuppertal Theater ( Wuppertaler Bühnen ) is showing Else Lasker-Schüler's IchundIch in a multi-disciplinary room installation in the Riedel Halls directed by Dedi Baron .
The longing for Jerusalem
Else Lasker-Schüler's poetry, which tells of Jerusalem and the Promised Land , stands in the field of tension between ideal pictorial ideas and real political and personal living conditions. The Jerusalem to which one longs may lie in the heart, may be a childhood dream or the place of a sheltered childhood and a fairytale fantasy world, but mostly it is the promised image of the hereafter. Biblical images, the history of the Jewish people, individual exile experiences and the sensual experience of the land and city of Jerusalem are intertwined in prose and poem. In this context, Gershom Scholem refers to an “opposition between messianic and historical existence”.
Franz Kafka wrote to Felice Bauer about Else Lasker-Schüler: “I can't stand your poems, I feel nothing but boredom about their emptiness and reluctance because of the artificial effort. Her prose is also annoying to me for the same reasons; the randomly twitching brain of a city dweller works in it. But maybe I'm completely wrong, there are many who love them, Werfel z. B. speaks of her only with enthusiasm. Yes, she is doing badly, her second husband has left her, as far as I know, we collect for her too; I had to give 5K without showing the slightest sympathy for her; I don't know the real reason, but I always imagine her as a drunk who drags through the coffee houses at night. "
On the day Else Lasker Schüler died, Werner Kraft noted the beginning of her poem Prayer in his diary :
- I'm looking for a city all over the world
- Who has an angel at the gate.
- I carry his big wing
- Broken heavily on the shoulder blade
- And in the forehead his star as a seal!
The Else Lasker Schüler memorial “Angels for Jerusalem” is also inspired by these lines.
Monuments and plaques
- Sculpture Angel for Jerusalem by Horst Meister in the Aminadav Forest next to the Kennedy Memorial near Jerusalem.
- Near the casino roundabout in downtown Wuppertal-Elberfeld, a memorial by the artist Stephan Huber has been commemorating the poet since 1989 . It goes back to an initiative by Heinrich Böll and, with the title Meinwärts, quotes the final word of the poem Weltflucht . The sculpture consists of two facing mosaic steles made of black granite with the image of the poet who, as it were, contemplating herself.
- In Berlin-Halensee , Katharinenstrasse 5, a plaque commemorates the artist who lived here from 1909 to 1911 and who published the magazine Der Sturm with her husband Herwarth Walden .
- In Berlin-Schöneberg , Motzstrasse 7, a plaque commemorates Else Lasker-Schüler. She lived here from 1924 to 1933 in the Hotel Sachsenhof.
Film and theater
- 1979: Film I clean up ( based on the poet's pamphlet of the same name). With Gisela Stein as Else Lasker student. Production: WDR, Director: Georg Brintrup .
- 1989: Feature film Berlin Jerusalem (GB, F, NL, Italy). The film by Amos Gitai (screenplay, direction) is based on the biographies of Else Lasker-Schüler and Manja Schochat . UT: ... or the story of destroyed utopias.
- Gerold Theobalt's play scared away is a scenic homage to Else Lasker-Schüler. It premiered in 2006 at the Zurich Schauspielhaus . The play Stepmotherland , also by Gerold Theobalt, describes her way from Wuppertal to Berlin and her friendship with the vagabond poet Peter Hille . Both pieces were commissioned by the Else-Lasker-Schüler-Gesellschaft.
- 1989: Play Shreds Paradise . A biography collage with texts from Else Lasker-Schüler's works from her time in Berlin. The seven parts illustrate the tragedy and poetry of their life phases. Acting and compilation of the texts: Isabella Mamatis , director: Ilona Zaripov. The production was performed a total of 175 times at home and abroad.
- 2019: Opera IchundIch by Johannes Harneit . World premiere on November 3, 2019 Hamburg State Opera.
- 2005: Well-known singers (e.g. Katja Riemann , Suzie Kerstgens , Mieze Katz or Elke Brauweiler ) interpret poems by Lasker-Schüler as songs on the album I dream so quietly of you from the “Else Lasker Student Project” .
- 2006: CD recording of the Else Lasker-Schüler cycle by Wilhelm Rettich . 26 songs and chants for voice and piano, composed 1923–1928.
- 2006: World premiere of the song cycle Tenet by David Philip Hefti in Zurich. Four songs for soprano and ensemble based on poems by Else Lasker-Schüler, composed in 2003.
- 2019: World premiere of I have chosen you ... , Symphonic Poem No. 2 op.82 for speaker, mezzo-soprano, choir and large orchestra by Lutz-Werner Hesse .
Name giver Else Lasker-Schüler
- The Else-Lasker-Schüler-Gesellschaft was founded in Wuppertal in 1990 as a political literary society.
- Else Lasker Schüler Dramatist Prize (since 1993)
- A comprehensive school in Wuppertal-Elberfeld is named after her, which describes itself as a school without racism .
- The cities of Berlin ( Schöneberg district , 1998), Munich (2012), Cologne , Leverkusen , Wuppertal , Haan , Solingen , Geseke , Göttingen , Wolfsburg , Telgte , Hanau , Bensheim and Zurich named a street after Else Lasker-Schüler .
- The asteroid (20074) Laskerschueler was named after her.
On the occasion of its 150th birthday, Deutsche Post AG issued a postage stamp with a face value of 70 euro cents. The first day of issue was February 7th, 2019. The design comes from the graphic artist Julia Warbanow from Berlin.
In 2020 Else Lasker-Schüler was honored with a doodle by the Google search engine . The occasion was the anniversary of the release of the blue piano.
- Drawings. (Schiller National Museum Marbach am Neckar, January 22nd to April 2nd, 1995)
- Look at my morphed face. ( Kunsthalle Barmen , April 9 to May 28, 1995)
- Else Lasker-Schüler's Jerusalem. (Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 1995)
- I and I, drawings by Else Lasker-Schüler. (Israel Museum, 1997)
- Writing - image - writing. (August-Macke-Haus Bonn, October 29, 2000 to February 18, 2001)
- Not bitter, but I was sad. Exhibition on EL-S., November 27, 2006 to January 26, 2007. Switzerland: Zurich Central Library . Supported by the ELS archive at the Jerusalem National Library
- The Prince of Thebes. Else Lasker-Schüler: poet, draftsman, rebel. (June 3 to September 9, 2007, Felix-Nussbaum-Haus, Osnabrück)
- Heaven and Hell between 1918 and 1989. The burned poets. Kunstmuseum Solingen since March 30, 2008, since then as a permanent exhibition in connection with the German Center for Persecuted Arts
- Else Lasker-Schüler. The pictures. September 8, 2010 to January 9, 2011, Jewish Museum Frankfurt / January 21, 2011 to May 1, 2011, Hamburger Bahnhof Berlin - Museum für Gegenwart
- Else Lasker-Schüler: Stars and Orient. The artist in the circle of the Blue Rider. Franz Marc Museum , Kochel am See / September 23, 2012 to January 6, 2013
- fluxus 32: Else Lasker-Schüler and Moshe Spitzer in Jerusalem in 1943. Museum of Modern Literature , Marbach am Neckar / April 14, 2015 to September 27, 2015
- Else Lasker-Schüler. "Prince Yusuf von Thebes" and the avant-garde. From the Heydt Museum , Wuppertal / October 6, 2019 to February 16, 2020
First editions (chronological)
- Styx . Poems. Juncker, Berlin 1902.
- The seventh day . Poems. Verlag des Verein für Kunst, Berlin-Charlottenburg 1905, http: //vorlage_digitalisat.test/1%3Dhttp%3A%2F%2Fresolver.staatsbibliothek-berlin.de%2FSBB000086ED00000000~GB%3D~IA%3D~MDZ%3D%0A~SZ%3D~doppelsided%3D~LT% 3D ~ PUR% 3D .
- The Peter Hille book . Juncker, Stuttgart & Berlin .
- The nights of Tino of Baghdad . Poems and short stories. Juncker, Berlin a. a. 1907.
- The Wupper . Acting in 5 acts. Oesterheld, Berlin 1909. First performance in 1919.
- My miracles . Poems. Dreililien, Karlsruhe & Leipzig 1911.
- My heart . A romance novel with pictures and really living people. Bachmair, Munich 1912.
- Hebrew ballads . AR Meyer, Berlin-Wilmersdorf 1913.
- Essays . Cassirer, Berlin 1913.
- Faces. Essays and other stories. Wolff, Leipzig 1913.
- The Prince of Thebes . A story book. White Books Publishing House, Leipzig 1914.
- The collected poems . White Books Publishing House, Leipzig 1917.
- The Malik . An imperial story. Cassirer, Berlin 1919.
Poems . 2 parts. Berlin: Cassirer 1920. In it:
- Hebrew ballads (extended version), http: //vorlage_digitalisat.test/1%3Dhttp%3A%2F%2Fsammlungen.ub.uni-frankfurt.de%2Ffreimann%2Furn%2Furn%3Anbn%3Ade%3Ahebis%3A30%3A1-136848~GB%3D~IA% 3D ~ MDZ% 3D% 0A ~ SZ% 3D ~ double-sided% 3D ~ LT% 3D ~ PUR% 3D
- The dome , http: //vorlage_digitalisat.test/1%3D~GB%3D~IA%3Ddiekuppelderged00laskgoog~MDZ%3D%0A~SZ%3D~doppelseiten%3D~LT%3D~PUR%3D
- The wonder rabiner of Barcelona . Narrative. Cassirer, Berlin 1921.
- Thebes . Poems and lithographs. Cross section, Frankfurt a. M. 1923.
- I clean up! My charges against my publisher . Lago, Zurich. 1925.
- Arthur Aronymus. My father's story. Rowohlt, Berlin 1932. Dramatic version 1932 under the title Arthur Aronymus and his fathers . First performance in 1936.
- Concert . Essays and poems. Rowohlt, Berlin 1932.
- The Hebrew country . Prose. Oprecht, Zurich 1937.
- My blue piano. New poems. Jerusalem Press, Jerusalem 1943.
- Me and me . A theatrical tragedy. Edited and with an afterword by Margarete Kupper. Kösel, Munich 1980. First performance 1979.
- The collected poems. White Books Publishing House, Leipzig 1917.
- The collected works. Ten volumes. Cassirer, Berlin 1919–1920.
- Collected works in three volumes. Edited by Friedhelm Kemp and Werner Kraft . Kösel-Verlag, Munich 1959–1961.
- Collected Works. Eight volumes. dtv, Munich 1986.
- Works. Poetry, prose, drama. Edited by Sigrid Bauschinger . Artemis and Winkler, Munich 1991.
Works and letters. Critical edition. 11 volumes. On behalf of the Franz Rosenzweig Center of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, the Bergische Universität Wuppertal and the German Literature Archive Marbach am Neckar ed. by Andreas B. Kilcher [from vol. 9], Norbert Oellers, Heinz Rölleke and Itta Shedletzky:
- Vol. 1: Poems. Edited by Karl Jürgen Skrodzki with the assistance of Norbert Oellers. Jewish publishing house, Frankfurt am Main 1996.
- Vol. 2: Dramas. Edited by Georg-Michael Schulz. Jewish publishing house, Frankfurt am Main 1997.
- Vol. 3: Prose. 1903-1920. Edited by Ricarda Dick. Jewish publishing house, Frankfurt am Main 1998.
- Vol. 4: Prose. 1921-1945. Legacy writings. Edited by Karl Jürgen Skrodzki and Itta Shedletzky. Jewish publishing house, Frankfurt am Main 2001.
- Vol. 5: Prose. The Hebrew country. Edited by Karl Jürgen Skrodzki and Itta Shedletzky. Jewish publishing house, Frankfurt am Main 2002.
- Vol. 6: Letters. 1893-1913. Edited by Ulrike Marquardt. Jewish publishing house, Frankfurt am Main 2003.
- Vol. 7: Letters. 1914-1924. Edited by Karl Jürgen Skrodzki. Jewish publishing house, Frankfurt am Main 2004.
- Vol. 8: Letters. 1925-1933. Edited by Sigrid Bauschinger. Jewish publishing house, Frankfurt am Main 2005.
- Vol. 9: Letters. 1933-1936. Edited by Karl Jürgen Skrodzki. Jewish publishing house, Frankfurt am Main 2008.
- Vol. 10: Letters. 1937-1940. Edited by Karl Jürgen Skrodzki and Andreas B. Kilcher. Jewish publishing house, Frankfurt am Main 2009.
- Vol. 11: Letters. 1941-1945. Supplements. Edited by Karl Jürgen Skrodzki and Andreas B. Kilcher. Jewish publishing house, Berlin 2010.
- All the poems. Edited by Karl Jürgen Skrodzki. Jewish publishing house, Frankfurt am Main 2004.
- The poems . Edited and commented by Gabriele Sander. Reclam, Stuttgart 2016.
- I and I. [Acting.] Ed. By Karl Jürgen Skrodzki and Kevin Vennemann. Jewish publishing house in Suhrkamp Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2009.
- Else Lasker-Schüler. The pictures. [Catalog.] Ed. By Ricarda Dick on behalf of the Jewish Museum Frankfurt am Main. With essays by Ricarda Dick and Astrid Schmetterling. Jewish publishing house in Suhrkamp Verlag, Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-633-54246-8 .
- Heidrun Loeper, editor and author of an afterword: Else Lasker-Schüler: Die Kreisende Weltfabrik. Berlin views and portraits . Transit Verlag, Berlin 2012, ISBN 978-3-88747-282-5 .
- Else Lasker-Schüler, Franz Marc: My dear, wonderful blue rider. Private correspondence. Edited by Ulrike Marquardt. Artemis & Winkler, Düsseldorf 1998, ISBN 3-538-06820-8 .
- Ricarda Dick (ed.): Else Lasker-Schüler - Franz Marc. A friendship in letters and pictures. With all private and literary letters (with facsimile of Malik ). Prestel, Munich 2012, ISBN 978-3-7913-4668-7 .
- Dieter Bänsch : Else Lasker-Schüler. To criticize an established image. Dissertation University of Marburg 1969, 271 pages.
- Franz Baumer: Else Lasker-Schüler. Colloquium, Berlin 1998, ISBN 3-89166-982-8 .
- Sigrid Bauschinger : Else Lasker-Schüler. A biography. Wallstein, Göttingen 2004, ISBN 3-89244-440-4 .
- Sigrid Bauschinger: Else Lasker-Schüler. Your work and your time. Stiehm, Heidelberg 1980, ISBN 3-7988-0038-3 .
- Karl Bellenberg: Else Lasker-Schüler, her poetry and her composers. Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Berlin, 2019, ISBN 978-3-96138-132-6 .
- Lothar Bluhm , Andreas Meier (Hrsg.): Else Lasker-Schüler yearbook on classical modernism. So far four volumes (2000, 2003, 2006, 2009). WVT Wissenschaftlicher Verlag, Trier.
- Kerstin Decker : My heart - nobody. Propylaea, Berlin 2009, ISBN 978-3-549-07355-1 .
- Walter Fähnders: Else Lasker-Schüler and " Senna Hoy ". In Sarah Kirsch , Jürgen Serke , Hajo Jahn (eds.): My dreams fall into the world. An Else Lasker Schüler Almanac. Peter Hammer, Wuppertal 1995, ISBN 3-87294-690-0 , pp. 55-77.
- Rüdiger Frommholz: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 13, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1982, ISBN 3-428-00194-X , pp. 652-656 ( version ). In:
- Iris Hermann: space - body - writing. Mythopoetic procedures in Else Lasker-Schüler's prose. Igel, Paderborn 1997, ISBN 3-89621-047-5 .
- Jakob Hessing : Else Lasker-Schüler. Biography of a German-Jewish poet. von Loeper, Karlsruhe 1985, ISBN 3-88652-100-1 .
- Markus Hofmann: On the relationship between Gottfried Benn and Else Lasker-Schüler. In: Z. Journal for cultural and human sciences. H. 6, 2nd year , Hanover 1994 .
- Karl Josef Höltgen : Investigations into the poetry of Else Lasker-Schülers. Bonn 1958 (also Diss. Phil. University of Bonn 1955).
- Bernd Kettet: Lasker student, Else. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 4, Bautz, Herzberg 1992, ISBN 3-88309-038-7 , Sp. 1193-1201. (extensive information on secondary literature).
- Magnus Klaue : Poetic Enthusiasm. Else Lasker-Schüler's Aesthetics of Colportage. Böhlau, Cologne 2011, ISBN 3-412-20680-6 .
- Erika Klüsener: Else Lasker-Schüler. In self-testimonials and picture documents. Rowohlt, Reinbek 1980, ISBN 3-499-50283-6 .
- Werner Kraft : Else Lasker-Schüler (1869–1945). In: Rheinische Lebensbilder. Volume 5. Edited by Bernhard Poll . Rheinland Verlag, Cologne 1973, pp. 227–242.
- Margarete Kupper: Epilogue to “IchundIch”. In: Else Lasker-Schüler: The Wupper and other dramas. dtv , Munich 1986, ISBN 3-423-10647-6 .
- Birgit Lermen & Magda Motté (eds.): Poems by Else Lasker-Schüler. Interpretations. Reclam, Stuttgart 2010, ISBN 978-3-15-017535-4 .
- Monika Lindinger: glittering gravel and synagogue rock. Childhood and memory in Else Lasker-Schüler's prose . Peter Lang, Frankfurt 2010, Jewish Studies Vol. 8, ISBN 978-3-631-60142-6 .
- Hulda Pankok : ELS. Lecture from April 19, 1969; Preface by Eva Pankok. In Hulda Pankok for the 100th birthday. Series of publications by the Otto Pankok Museum Drevenack , undated (1995).
- Hans-Jürgen Schrader: Lasker student, Else. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland .
- Ulrike Schrader (Ed.): "Nobody recognized me ..." ELS in Wuppertal. Old Synagogue meeting place , Wuppertal 2003.
- Hajo Jahn : Where should I go? Refuge Zurich, vanishing point poetry. ELS-Almanach, Peter Hammer, Wuppertal, ISBN 3-7795-0158-9 .
- Elfriede Jelinek : Declaration of love to Else Lasker-Schüler. In Hajo Jahn (ed.), Zweiseelenstadt. ELS-Almanach, ibid., ISBN 3-7795-0016-7 .
- Reiner Kunze : Counter-reality to the weapon. In Hajo Jahn (ed.), My dreams fall into the world. ELS-Almanach, ibid., ISBN 3-87294-690-0 .
- Hajo Jahn & Petra Urban: Else Lasker-Schüler. Approaching a biography. In: Hajo Jahn (ed.): Moments in Jerusalem. Bleicher, ISBN 3-88350-059-3 .
- George Y. Kohler: Making room for God - Else Lasker-Schüler, Rabbi Kurt Wilhelm and religious liberalism in Palestine. In: Ashkenaz. 2013; 21 (1-2): p. 179-199.
- Bernd Fäthke, Marianne Werefkin: the blue rider. In the exhibition catalog: Marianne Werefkin, From the Blue Rider to the Great Bear. Municipal Gallery Bietigheim-Bissingen 2014, p. 24ff.
- Christa Ludwig : Ein Bundle Wegerich , Verlag Oktaven, Stuttgart 2018, ISBN 978-3-7725-3008-1 (novel about the later years by Else Lasker-Schüler in Jerusalem).
- Literature by and about Else Lasker-Schüler in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about Else Lasker-Schüler in the German Digital Library
- Works by Else Lasker-Schüler in the Gutenberg-DE project
- Else Lasker-Schüler in the Lexicon of Westphalian Authors
- Karl Jürgen Skrodzki, kj-skrodzki.de: The books by Else Lasker-Schüler. With references to contemporary reception
- Online bibliography : project.arts.ubc.ca . University of South Alabama (German / English)
- Annotated link collection of the university library of the Free University of Berlin ( Memento from February 5, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) ( Ulrich Goerdten )
- Else Lasker-Schüler in the Internet Archive
- Else-Lasker-Schüler-Gesellschaft : else-lasker-schueler-gesellschaft.de: Else Lasker-Schüler died 70 years ago on January 22, 1945 in Jerusalem.
- Deutschlandfunk , Long Night , January 31 / January 1 February 2015, Burkhard Reinartz, deutschlandfunk.de: “A big star will fall into my lap”. A long night about Else Lasker-Schüler, Gertrud Kolmar and Simone Weil
- Levke Harders / Sonja Kock: Else Lasker-Schüler. Tabular curriculum vitae in the LeMO ( DHM and HdG )
- Else Lasker-Schüler. In: FemBio. Women's biography research (with references and citations).
- Page no longer available , search in web archives: Else Lasker-Schüler in the online magazine Jewish Heritage (English) ) (
- "I am a deeply sad person" . Portrait for the 150th birthday of Else Lasker-Schüler on February 11, 2019. In title culture magazine
- Assumptions about the causes of the failure of the first marriage can be found, for example, in Bänsch on p. 193: Else Lasker-Schüler must have met the biological father of her only child Paul around May 1898.
- literaturundkunst.net: Else Lasker pupils: My miracle
- Else Lasker-Schüler 1869–1945 . Edited by Erika Klüsener and Friedrich Pfäfflin. Marbacher Magazin 71/1975, Deutsche Schillergesellschaft , Marbach am Neckar 1995, ISBN 3-929146-26-6 , pp. 92 and 93.
- Monacensia Literature Archive and Library: Brief, Sindelsdorf, 1914. Retrieved on July 21, 2019 .
- Michael Baumgartner, Cathrin Klingsöhr-Leroy, Katja Schneider (eds.): Franz Marc. Paul Klee. Dialogue in pictures. Nimbus. Art and books, Wädenswil 2010, ISBN 978-3-907142-50-9 .
- Compare the corresponding illustrations and comments in: Franz Marc - Else Lasker-Schüler, The blue rider presents your highness his blue horse, cards and letters. Edited and commented by Peter-Klaus Schuster. Prestel, Munich 1987, ISBN 3-7913-0825-4 .
- Quoted from Ricarda Dick: Else Lasker-Schüler as an artist. In: Else Lasker-Schüler. The pictures. P. 136.
- Franz Marc - Else Lasker-Schüler, The Blue Rider presents his blue horse to Your Highness. P. 6.
- Franz Marc - Else Lasker-Schüler, The Blue Rider presents his blue horse to Your Highness. P. 159.
- Marbacher Magazin 71/1995, p. 151.
- Herbert Fritsche: Lasker student. Retrieved February 10, 2020 .
- The procedures are precisely documented in Else Lasker-Schüler 1869–1945 . Edited by Erika Klüsener and Friedrich Pfäfflin. Marbacher Magazin 71/1975, Deutsche Schillergesellschaft , Marbach am Neckar 1995, ISBN 3-929146-26-6 .
- Else Lasker-Schüler 1869–1945 . Edited by Erika Klüsener and Friedrich Pfäfflin. Marbacher Magazin 71/1975, Deutsche Schillergesellschaft , Marbach am Neckar 1995, ISBN 3-929146-26-6 , p. 295.
- Dagmar CG Lorenz: 1939: Else Lasker-Schüler becomes permanently exiled in Jerusalem when Swiss immigration authorities deny her reentry to Switzerland . New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1997, pp. 563-570.
- Ricarda Dick. Epilogue in My Blue Piano - New Poems . Jewish publishing house in Suhrkamp Verlag, 2006.
- Friendship with Else Lasker-Schüler. Dedications, portraits, letters A source-historical directory of the works and letters of the poet by Karl Jürgen Skrodzki
- Christa Ludwig: A bundle of plantain , Verlag Oktaven, Stuttgart 2018, ISBN 978-3-7725-3008-1 .
- Henrik Eger: Else Lasker-Schüler . In: Martin Tucker (Ed.): Literary Exile in the Twentieth Century: An Analysis and Biographical Dictionary . Greenwood Press, New York, Westport, CT 1991, ISBN 0-313-23870-7 , pp. 408-410 .
- Sigrid Bauschinger: Else Lasker-Schüler: Your work and your time . Stiehm, Heidelberg 1980, ISBN 978-3-7988-0038-0 , p. 270 .
- Henrik Eger: Else Lasker-Schüler . In: Martin Tucker (Ed.): Literary Exile in the Twentieth Century: An Analysis and Biographical Dictionary . Greenwood Press, New York, Westport, CT 1991, ISBN 0-313-23870-7 , pp. 408-410 .
- Sigrid Bauschinger : Else Lasker-Schüler. Biography , Göttingen 2004, p. 447.
- Kiesel, Helmuth: History of literary modernity. CH Beck, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-406-51145-7 , p. 89.
- Wuppertaler Bühnen und Sinfonieorchester GmbH: ICHUNDICH. Retrieved June 11, 2019 .
- Compare the chapter In Exile in: Monika Lindinger: Glitzernder Kies und Synagogengestein. Childhood and memory in Else Lasker-Schüler's prose . Peter Lang, Frankfurt 2010, Jewish Studies Vol. 8, ISBN 978-3-631-60142-6 , pp. 141–169.
- quoted by Monika Lindinger: Glitzernder Kies und Synagogengestein. Childhood and memory in Else Lasker-Schüler's prose . Peter Lang, Frankfurt 2010, Jewish Studies Vol. 8, ISBN 978-3-631-60142-6 , p. 143.
- Kafka does not like Else Lasker-Schüler franzkafka.de
- Excerpts from Werner Kraft's diary entries in: Klüsener and Päfflin, pp. 337–363.
- Theo Buck : Else Lasker-Schüler: "Weltflucht" (around 1900 ). In: Ders .: Forays through poetry. From Klopstock to Celan. Poems and interpretations. Böhlau Verlag, Cologne, Weimar, Vienna 2010, pp. 171–180, here. P. 180.
- Description of the film on the website of the director Georg Brintrup
- I am clearing the entry in the Internet Movie Database
- Listen! “IchundIch” by Johannes Harneit. Retrieved May 16, 2020 .
- Wilhelm Rettich: Else Lasker-Schüler cycle website of the Gideon Boss music production
- Else Lasker-Schüler: A very nice Google Doodle for the German-Jewish artist & for the blue piano - GWB. In: GoogleWatchBlog. February 6, 2020, accessed on February 6, 2020 (German).
- Home. Retrieved May 17, 2020 .
- Contents on the publisher's website, accessed on September 3, 2014.
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Lasker-Schüler, Elisabeth (real name)|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||German poet|
|DATE OF BIRTH||February 11, 1869|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Elberfeld|
|DATE OF DEATH||January 22, 1945|
|Place of death||Jerusalem|