Salman Schocken (Hebrew שלמה זלמן שוקן, Schelomo Salman Schocken) (born October 29, 1877 in Margonin near Posen ; † August 6, 1959 in Pontresina , Switzerland ), was a German merchant, publisher and Zionist .
Salman Schocken came from a Jewish family. After completing a commercial apprenticeship, he worked in the Zwickau department store of his brother Simon from 1901 , together with whom he founded several branches a. a. in Oelsnitz in the Ore Mountains, Nuremberg and Stuttgart and thus founded the Schocken department store group . His brother Julius opened Schocken department stores in Bremerhaven independently of the group , but worked with Salman Schocken on purchasing. After the death of his brother Simon, who died in a traffic accident at the age of 55 on October 26, 1929, Salman Schocken became the sole owner of the department store chain.
As early as 1915, Schocken was a co-founder of the Zionist magazine Der Jude, run by Martin Buber . In 1929 he founded the Schocken Institute for the study of Hebrew poetry and in 1931 the Schocken Verlag in Berlin , in which the library of the Schocken Verlag was published based on the model of the Insel-Bücherei , in order to introduce inexpensive editions to Jewish authors. Lambert Schneider became managing director . The publisher held the world rights to Franz Kafka's work . Schocken was one of the most important bibliophiles and collectors of manuscripts and autographs of the 18th and 19th centuries. With the Schocken Library he pursued the goal of supporting German Jews in order to strengthen their spiritual existence during the time of the National Socialist terror. His motto was: "Recalling Jewish values and traditions equals self-assertion." In July 1932 he tried to buy Wildeck Castle near Abstatt , but the purchase by the Fideikommissgericht in Stuttgart was denied, so that the castle was closed in July 1933 the Württemberg state came. At an early stage he promoted the Jewish writer and later Nobel Prize winner Samuel Agnon . In 1934, under the influence of National Socialism, Schocken emigrated to Palestine , where he laid the foundations for the media company of the Haaretz Group by purchasing the daily Ha'aretz . In 1938 his publishing house in Berlin was forcibly closed. In 1940 he emigrated to the USA .
In 1937 the Schocken-Verlag in Berlin published Thirty Years of Construction in Palestine with articles by Arthur Ruppin from 1907 to 1937, with an afterword by HH Thon and an “overview map of Palestine” with the “Jewish settlements” published on behalf of the Palestine Office in Berlin and floors as of 1937 ”.
In Jerusalem , he had Erich Mendelsohn , who had planned pioneering department store buildings in Germany (Nuremberg, conversion; Chemnitz; Stuttgart), build a large residential building and a separate building for his private library of around 60,000 volumes in the Rechavia district . In 1937, the library was expanded by 8,000 volumes with first prints from the Baroque, Classical and Romantic periods, which Schocken had acquired from the writer Karl Wolfskehl in order to financially support his emigration. He became a member of the Board of Directors of the Hebrew University . It followed the establishment of the publishing house Schocken Publishing House Ltd. (which was to be followed by a foundation in New York ), while in Germany the department stores were forcibly sold (so-called Aryanization ) and then operated under the name Merkur AG . After the Second World War (1949) Schocken succeeded in regaining 51% of the shares in the department stores; In 1953 he sold it to Helmut Horten . Salman Schocken died in 1959 on a trip to Switzerland.
- Permanent exhibition in the State Museum of Archeology in Chemnitz
- Volker Dahm : The Jewish Book in the Third Reich . 2., revised. Edition, C. H. Beck , Munich 1993 ISBN 3-406-37641-X (Part 2: S. Schocken and his publishing house. First 1982)
- Hans-Eberhard Happel u. a .: Schocken - a German story . Nordwestdeutsche Verlagsgesellschaft, Bremerhaven 1994 ISBN 3-927857-53-X
- Anthony David: The Patron. A Life of S. Schocken 1877-1959 . New York, Metropolitan Books, 2003, ISBN 0-8050-6630-6 ; Critical review (German), in: Kalonymos: Contributions to German-Jewish history from the Salomon Ludwig Steinheim Institute , Duisburg, issue 1/2006, pp. 6f., . More reviews . The book was also published in Hebrew (Tel Aviv: Schocken, 2006). German version: indefinite. The book contains several actual errors (see http://www.hannaharendt.net/index.php/han/article/view/106/178 ).
- Tilo Richter: Erich Mendelsohn's Schocken department store: Jewish cultural history in Chemnitz . Passage, Leipzig 1998 ISBN 3-9805299-5-9
- Silke Schaeper: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 23, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-428-11204-3 , pp. 352-354 ( version ). In:
- Siegfried Moses : Salman Schocken. Business leader and Zionist, in: Robert Weltsch (Hrsg.): Deutsches Judentum. Rise and Crisis. Design, ideas, works. Fourteen monographs. Publication by the Leo Baeck Institute . Deutsche Verlagsanstalt , Stuttgart 1963, pp. 144–184 (English version in the Institute's Yearbook 1960; slightly longer German version in the Bulletin of the LBI, 4th year 1961, No. 13, pp. 1–43)
- Antje Borrmann, Doreen Mölders, Sabine Wolfram (eds.): Consumption and shape: the life and work of Salman Schocken and Erich Mendelsohn before 1933 and in exile. Hentrich & Hentrich , Berlin 2017, ISBN 978-3-95565-145-9 .
- Fritz Homeyer: German Jews as Bibliophiles and Antiquaries , 2nd edition, Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 1966 (series of scientific papers by the Leo Baeck Institute; 10), pp. 48–50.
- Literature by and about Salman Schocken in the catalog of the German National Library
- “Department store king Salman Schocken: a Jewish hero saga” , Amos Elon in Le Monde diplomatique , January 2005
- Contribution by Christian Wirth (Chemnitz): Salman Schocken - Kaufhauskönig, Jewish Bismarck, patron
- Archived copy ( memento of the original from April 8, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Small chronicle in: CV Zeitung , vol. 8 (1929) issue 44 (November 1, 1929) p. 594 and p. 595 (obituary)
- Lambert Schneider: Accountability ; Heidelberg undated 
- Encyclopedia Judaica , Vol. 18, San-Sol, Thomson Gale 2007, p. 153. ISBN 978-0-02-865946-6
- Julius H. Schoeps: Salman Schocken and others. The rise of the German-Jewish business elite in the German Empire and in the Weimar Republic . In: Cygnea, series of publications by the Zwickau City Archives, Vol. 6 (2008), pp. 9–18 (here pp. 12–13)
- Arthur Ruppin: Thirty Years of Construction in Palestine . Schocken Publishing House. 1937. Retrieved December 26, 2016.
- Annette Gigon, Mike Guyer, et al. (Ed.): Library buildings . gta Verlag at the ETH Zurich, Zurich 2018, ISBN 978-3-85676-381-7 , p. 126-131 .
- Friedrich Voit, Karl Wolfskehl - Life and Work in Exile 1933–1948 , Wallstein Verlag Göttingen 2005, p. 169 ff.
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Shock, Shelomo Salman|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||German-Israeli businessman and publisher|
|DATE OF BIRTH||October 29, 1877|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Margonin near Poznan|
|DATE OF DEATH||August 6, 1959|
|Place of death||Pontresina , Switzerland|