The term expressionism is composed of the two Latin words "ex" and "premere", which initially mean "to express". Therefore, when one speaks of expressionism , one means an "art of expression". Inwardly seen truths and experiences are presented, not the light stimuli as they fall on the eye.
Expressionism was coined as a term by Kurt Hiller in 1911 , who used it to describe the epoch from around 1905 to around 1925 , although important works were also created after the Second World War , the content of which can be assigned to Expressionism. The epoch is shaped by the anti- bourgeois and anti- nationalist thinking of many intellectuals in the Wilhelmine era and turns strongly to subjective , existential and socially relevant issues. Examples of this are political repression , the big city problem during the still developing industrialization , social power mechanisms (family and social patriarchy , sexual obsession).
Expressionist fonts are stylistically diverse, which is why expressionism as an epoch term is controversial. Some works by Heinrich Mann , Franz Kafka or Arnolt Bronnen are attributed to Expressionism. What remains, however, as a connecting element is a distinct “we-feeling” in a mostly socially critical context.
Expressionist authors rebel against "dehumanization" through industrialization and warn against a society that has no consideration and morality . They feel threatened by the anonymity of the big city and by machines , which are omnipresent due to the rapidly growing industry, as well as by the dictatorial authority of the big businessmen and are degraded to machines themselves. In addition, there was the turbulent foreign policy after the First World War and the Treaty of Versailles (1919) with immense demands on the Weimar Republic and the associated economic problems that led to political destabilization.
Humanities scholars like Henri Bergson (1859–1941), who tried to prove that only intuition (the inner perception, not the “dissected” mind) can grasp the essentials, or as successor Oswald Spengler with his work “ Der Untergang of the Occident ”. Friedrich Nietzsche calls for the new man (the “ superman ”) who should approach the new regardless of the dangers (tightrope walker in the work “ Also sprach Zarathustra ”).
Active transcendence of reality through the "spirit of utopia" ( Ernst Bloch ), "essence view" ( Edmund Husserl ), typification of the people portrayed, rejection of psychology and causality, appreciation of elementary feelings, pathos and action are constantly recurring keywords in the contemporary self - and descriptions of expressionism by others. Ivan Goll wrote - in satirical terms - in 1921 in the typical diction: “So: demand. Manifest. Appeal. Accusation. Incantation. Ecstasy. Struggle. The man screams. We are. Each other. Pathos."
The young generation criticized the social grievances. Similar to Sturm und Drang , she had the firm will to renew and fought for spiritual and creative freedom. The young expressionists, on the other hand, tried to save the world from impending chaos in addition to these goals. This is how dark visions of the end of the world emerged. This mood can easily be seen in the poem "Aufbruch der Jugend" by Ernst Wilhelm Lotz .
Early Expressionism (until 1914)
Most of the critical authors are representatives of the middle class. The background to this seeming paradox is frozen education; That is, ideals were taught that had long since ceased to correspond to reality. The youth noticed these contradictions and made their personal values insecure. So it happened that the career was suppressed and the new artists either saw themselves as heralds of a new era or they simply wanted to free themselves from conventions.
The first representatives of Expressionism are u. a. the magazine Der Sturm (1910–1932) by Herwarth Walden (including contributions by Walter Serner ), Der Brenner (1910–1954) by Ludwig von Ficker , Die Aktion (1911–1932) by Franz Pfemfert or Jakob van Hoddis , who in the poem Weltende (1911) describes the dynamics and turmoil of big city life through a succession of images.
Expressionism as an experimentally oriented movement can be read as a reaction of a young generation to the turmoil of the times, the consequences of industrialization and urbanization at the beginning of the 20th century. The rapid development of traffic and communication technologies, increasing urbanization, life in the city, the overstimulation it emanates, its short-lived nature and fluctuation cause a feeling of disorientation, powerlessness, isolation and alienation in the young intelligentsia. At the same time, people's daily routines and everyday lives are perceived as oppressive and restrictive in a conservative, bourgeois society. These feelings become the starting point of a new artistic-literary movement that radically breaks with the values of the paternal world in order to provoke the conservative bourgeoisie in its literary work and to rebel against it.
A central theme of Expressionist literature is therefore the awakening, which is reflected in the expressionists' pathos of proclamation. The awareness of having to free oneself from the political, social and aesthetic shackles of the past was common to all representatives of this literary movement and expressed itself in new forms and contents.
The desire of expressionist lyric poets for the downfall of this inhumane world rests on the feelings of being lost, of disgust at the ruthlessness of people, which is associated with life in an increasingly urbanized and industrialized society, and the fear of dependence on an alien, overpowering world conjure up (see Georg Heym : The God of the City ). The awareness of standing at the end of an epoch is to be classified as a central aspect of the new perception of reality, and in some cases this general apocalyptic awareness is concretized in the premonition of a coming war (see Heym: The War ), which is the way to overthrow the Conditions, interpreted as a way out of the wasteland of time and accordingly longed for. This also explains the collective euphoria of the Expressionists at the beginning of the First World War; one now had the hope that the end of this world, which was perceived as sick, dreary and banal, had come. In view of the devastating development of the unprecedented degree of mechanized war, the initial euphoria was soon replaced by disillusionment, horror and horror (see Trakl : Grodek ).
Another central motif is that of the big city, which is considered to be the central sphere of activity of the Expressionist writers. Berlin in particular moves into the focus of interest and can be interpreted as the center of the expressionist movement. The massive, confusing and fluctuating stimuli of the big city, the narrow and depressing life in it and the anonymity and alienation as a central aspect of interpersonal relationships are processed differently, the feelings of fear, nervousness and hectic are articulated in images of reification (cf. Wolfenstein: Städter ), mythological projection of the threatening (see Heym: The God of the City ) or a successive string of impressions in paratactic language patterns (see Boldt: On the terrace of Café Josty ).
The protagonists' loss of reality, which is expressed in many poems, is closely linked to the motif of the big city. The multitude of impressions, the pace of industrial and urban development and the feeling of alienation conveyed by it leads to a dissociation of the self and the world , The whole of perception breaks down into a multitude of meaningless details, which the lyric I cannot put together into a whole, but can only reproduce in fragments. This results in disparate, unrelated individual images, paratactic sequences of sentences, associative structures that can lead to a complete loss of grammatical cohesion. Especially with August Stramm , whose poems often seem like a meaningless and incoherent sequence of individually broken words, the resulting break with the traditional forms of lyric poetry of previous centuries becomes clear.
This break is certainly an expression of the entire consciousness, one wanted to formally distance oneself from the traditional, previous rules and laws. Seen in this way, the paratactic language pattern that can often be observed is also an expression of an awareness of detachment, of breaking with the paternal world. Heym's poems are an exception here; he always maintains the formal rigor in his poems and wrote many as sonnets, the strictest form of lyrical aesthetics. The content of the poem contrasts all the more violently with its external form. With his apocalyptic, messianic texts, Heym can be seen as the prototype of the expressionist poet.
Gottfried Benn made the most radical break with the values and moral concepts of the previous generation . In his Morgue poems (e.g .: man and woman go through the cancer barracks ) he addresses the sick, ugly and repulsive with a linguistic precision that represents a provocative turn against bourgeois norms of taste. The shock induced by this and the alienation are intended to break up conventional aesthetic and moral concepts, but also meet the requirement to represent the whole of reality. The "aesthetics of the ugly" created in this way also represents the bridge to preoccupation with death and decay. Decay is another central motif, it is also the literary reaction to a society that is regarded as frozen and terminally ill and that appears to the expressionist poet to be falling apart (see Benn: Morgue poems , Heym: Ophelia ).
Just as the critique of society and civilization always plays a role in the motifs mentioned above, the expressionists' preoccupation with madness, with the figure of the madman, represents a wishful fantasy with a socially critical component. The madman thus became a contrast to the despised citizen Interpreted in his saturation and normality, in acting out his affects, the madman smashes the norms and values of the bourgeoisie and thus takes the pressure off the people who suffer from these norms. The depiction of madness is certainly an expression of a wishful fantasy, but at the same time it is a real reference to the suffering and oppressed figure of the modern self in a heartless, conservative-bourgeois world (see Heym: Die Irren ; Huelsenbeck : Der Idiot ).
Georg Kaiser bridges the gap to film with the first German urban drama From Mornings to Midnight (1920, film adaptation as cinematographic expressionism 1920). After the narrative (in prose), stage and film are increasingly being followed by one-act plays (e.g. by Oskar Kokoschka ) and dramaturgy in the style of the 1920s and 1930s.
Expressionism between the First World War and 1925
The First World War changed expressionism. Before the war, the war in poetry is often used as a motif in order to overcome the existing (for example, in The War of Georg Heym) and the awakening to something new (for example, in The departure of Ernst Stadler to address). After the outbreak of war, on the other hand, the war motif was almost exclusively composed of poems that reflect the authors' experiences at the front. The perspective on familiar surroundings changes radically (for example in Patrouille by August Stramm ) and subjective experiences are not only processed but also dated (for example in Grodek by Georg Trakl ). A large number of Expressionist authors died in the First World War.
Only through front experiences and misery after the war created an increasing pacifism and the curse of the technical mass destruction as part of a radical pacifist thrust. Thus, fantasies of dark and morbid visions were no longer in the foreground (as in early Expressionism), but politically left-wing models of an (alternative) new society, whereby the actual social message often takes a backseat behind vague, unspecified utopias of salvation .
Representatives of the drama are Ernst Toller or Ernst Barlach with politically motivated texts (many of them also implemented as stage plays). There was still a great sense of togetherness among the Expressionists, so that associations like “ Der Charon ” were formed. These published magazines such as Der Sturm , Der Brenner , Die Aktion , Das neue Pathos or Die Brücke . The latter was published by Karl Röttger from 1911 to 1914 in order to publicize the ideas of the “Charontiker”.
These publications attempted to publicly communicate the programs of this movement, including the revolutionary Marxist activism in Kurt Hiller's target yearbooks . The idea of the renewal of mankind through the poet's words shows the naivety of the Expressionists after the collapse of the Soviet Republic after the war. Authors like Bertolt Brecht therefore turned away from their own ideals and saw Frank Thiess as the "end of the republic". Answers to this can be found in Dadaism and in the New Objectivity (actually the resignation to the ideals of Expressionism). In the 1930s Georg Lukács voiced the controversial charge that Expressionism had an “affinity for fascism”. The legacy of Expressionism is more to be found in Surrealism and the influence of younger authors such as Friedrich Dürrenmatt .
Further representatives of Expressionism and the end of the era
Political theses and socialist demands were published in the magazines. In many cases, texts dealt with topics such as peace and brotherhood of the world by numerous authors and journalists who are no longer known today.
Quite a few Expressionists were drawn to socialism as a new ideal. They condemned the rise of nationalism , which they saw as a threat. Some, like Nolde, were members of the NSDAP and Maximilian Rosenberg recommended Expressionism as “German Art”. With the book burning in Germany in 1933 , a handicap and, from 1937, persecution of expressionist artists began. Whether National Socialism brought about or accelerated the end of the era is speculative, since after 1925 only a few significant works were published that were characterized by Expressionism and the social circumstances in which Expressionism was embedded had fundamentally changed.
Important authors of the era
- Ernst Toller (1893–1939)
- Ferdinand Bruckner (1891-1958)
- Franz Theodor Csokor (1885–1969)
- Georg Kaiser (1878–1945)
- Reinhard Goering (1887–1936)
- Walter Hasenclever (1890–1940)
- August Strindberg (1849–1912)
- Eugene O'Neill (1888-1953)
- Hans Kaltneker (1895-1919)
Important expressionist writers of short stories and novels are also listed under poets, such as Gottfried Benn and Georg Heym.
Storytellers and essayists
Representatives of other literary directions
(Those who were initially under the influence of Expressionism, then turned away or cannot be clearly assigned to it)
- Franz Kafka (1883–1924): Conversation with the Prayer (1909).
- Hanns Johst (1890–1978): Der Einsame (1917), later blood and soil literature.
- Hans Fallada (1893-1947): The young Goedeschal (1920); New Objectivity.
- Oskar Maria Graf (1894–1967): We are prisoners. A Confession (1927); Folk literature.
- Arnolt Bronnen (1895–1959): Parricide (1920); Literature of soldier nationalism (1920s, conservative revolution).
- Bertolt Brecht (1898–1956): Baal (1918/1919) and Drumming in the Night (1919); Literature of the Weimar Republic and exile literature.
- Wolfgang Borchert (1921–1947): Outside the door (1946/1947); Clear-cutting literature.
- Friedrich Dürrenmatt (1921–1990): An Angel Comes to Babylon (1953), painting, later theater of the absurd.
- Max Frisch (1911–1991)
Genre specifics of Expressionism
The best way to express the thoughts of the "epoch of expression" was through poetry . In it, the problems could be addressed particularly clearly from the root. Expressiveness should convey the immediate, often accusatory, feelings.
For the expressionist poets, it was not their own situation and personal difficulties, that is, not their own personality, but the relationships between all people that were important. Continuous appeals to humanity, philanthropy (for example in Franz Werfels “Der Weltfreund”) and peace; War, (national) hatred and death were on the other hand, especially for the poets who took part in the war, “horror vision” and point of attack (poems such as “Der Krieg” by Georg Heym , “Grodek” by Georg Trakl , “Der Aufbruch” by Ernst Stadler ).
Characteristics of expressionist poetry are:
- Sequence style : (Also paratactic style or parataxe ) This is understood to be the sequence of short main clauses that are neither syntactically nor logically linked. The semantically disparate serves to express the sensitivity of the speaker, who can no longer combine the partial aspects of reality encountered into an orderly whole, but is at a loss when faced with this reality. For example: “There's a fat man stuck to a window. / A youth wants to visit a soft woman. / A gray clown puts on his boots. / A pram screams and dogs curse. "(Alfred Lichtenstein)
Metaphor among other things
- Ciphers . For example: "Southerners" (Gottfried Benn)
- Connotations . For example: "a soft woman" (Alfred Lichtenstein)
- Neologisms . For example: “shined in the morning” (Ernst Wilhelm Lotz); In particular, original composites are very typical for expressionist literature: "Normaluhr du am Potsdamer Platz, the station entrance planted" (Curt Corrinth)
- Scraps of words. For example: “One look / has / is! / Insane / Icht! "(August Stramm)
- Dynamization of language through a multitude of verbs of movement . For example: "Eyes dive, blaken, sink / whisper splashes / blossoms belong / fragrances splash / showers fall / winds swift bounce swell" (August Stramm)
- Variation in common syntax and grammar . For example: "Did he rush into the twilight" (Gottfried Benn)
- Telegram style (short, ellipses , single words). For example: "- you have to sacrifice some things - but just don't let your head sink - raises your heart, - Sursum corda - the starry sky - the serving member." (Gottfried Benn)
- Language shortage (omission of articles , particles , filler words). Lothar Schreyer demonstrated this in his essay "Expressionist Poetry" (1918) with the formulation "The trees and flowers bloom", which gradually only becomes "tree blooms flower".
- Word accumulation ( accumulatio ). For example: "Confused / Confused / Confused / Always Confused / Through / The Confusion" (August Stramm)
- Irony . For example: "A fat man sticks to a window." (Alfred Lichtenstein)
- Man becomes an object, an object becomes a subject (depersonalization / anthropomorphization). For example: "The olive already happened to him" (Gottfried Benn)
- Depiction of taboo subjects (ugliness, surgery , cancer , execution , insanity ). For example Gottfried Benn's poem “Man and woman go through the cancer barracks”: “Come on, take this blanket up. / Look: this lump of fat and rotten juices. "
- Traditional verse forms such as sonnets , which contrast with the chaos of the content, with the middle caesura and the iambic six- key in the quartets and the corresponding tail rhyme missing in the trios , for example in Georg Heym.
- Dissociation: the dissolution of contexts of consciousness. For example: "I am dusted by crushing" (Gottfried Benn)
- Personification of forces of nature, but also of 'human' forces such as war and the city (for example Georg Heym : "The War" or "The God of the City")
- deformed people. For example: "Roofers fall and fall in two" (Jakob von Hoddis)
- Ecstasy. For example: "The harbor complex glowed big" (Gottfried Benn)
- Pathos. For example: "My only wish is to be related to you, oh human!" (Franz Werfel)
- Nouns. For example "a loosening" or "Was there the attraction there, the woman, the flowing" (Gottfried Benn)
In its drastic depiction of human fates, the expressionist epic tied in with Fyodor Michailowitsch Dostoyevsky's realism and naturalism, in the rebellious gesture of the socio-political dramatists of Wilhelmine Germany, including Frank Wedekind and Oskar Panizza , in the choice of technical narrative means on Heinrich von Kleist's dynamic figuration such as Depersonalization on. The change of perspective from inside and outside is received by Georg Büchner's story Lenz , which was discovered by the previous generation, the naturalists. Heinrich Mann's aestheticism as a negative image and his satirical social criticism as a direct precursor to the actionist attitude of the young generation had an indirect influence . In addition to narrators, poets such as Friedrich Hölderlin , Charles Baudelaire , Stéphane Mallarmé , Arno Holz and the expressionist August Stramm served as stylistic models in prose . Non-German speaking narrators like William Beckford with his exotic novel Vathek and the Norwegian Knut Hamsun , who in Hunger and Mysteries with his powerful impressionistic descriptions of nature, the staging of vitality and horror, the literary figure of the pre-Adamite man and the explosion of a superficial, realistic representation by a Accumulations of facts, which literature renewed at the turn of the century, were received, as was Jean Paul's linguistic artistry . The influence of baroque literature on poetry continues to be discussed in literary studies, but parallels in prose can also be seen in the attitude to life, in the accumulation of images without direct comparison and especially in the linguistic demonstration of frugality and abundance, albeit less under baroque As in the successor to German Romanticism, especially Friedrich Nietzsche and Richard Wagner, as an interplay of tension and dissolution. What is striking is an enumerative style, which on the one hand expresses the totality of the world and its diversity and fragility, on the other hand generates a textual counter-utopia to the ideas of the parents' generation. Similar to the Italian futurists, Carl Einstein developed an associative spelling that deconstructs the syntax on its level of characters and content in his story Bebuquin , published in 1909 . The rejection of psychology as a causal explanation of human motives unites all prose writers. The compactness of the syntax, the dynamization achieved through the omission of words or punctuation marks, the representation of the inadequate expression by expanding the written language, the changing focus such as the avoidance of an assignable figure language, sometimes represent a barrier between the reader of realistic literature and expressionistic prose.
The most important stories, often belonging to the genre of the grotesque, appeared before the First World War, including Alfred Döblin's Murder of a Buttercup (written in 1905, published in 1910), Robert Musils Vereinigungen (1909), Gottfried Benns Gehirne (1916), Gustav Sacks Im Heu ( written in 1915), Franz Werfels The Death of the Petty Bourgeois (1927) and Georg Heyms The Thief (1913). Leonhard Frank's once widely read novel “Die Räuberbande” (1914) is strongly influenced by Expressionism . The expressionist novel The Three Jumps of Wang-lun (1915) by Döblin gained notoriety among writers and readers through the abandonment of the belief in progress, its idealistic thrust and expressionist art of representation. The number of female novelists is low, with one exception being Maria Lazar's debut novel The Poisoning, arguably the most important female contribution to Expressionism. In 1920, Döblin's two-volume Wallenstein was not only one of the most important expressionist short stories, but also an important historical novel in German-language literature. Similar to Döblin's novels, the narrative work of Hans Henny Jahnn is characterized by a drastic depiction of violence and sexuality as a concession to the naturalness of man, even though both represented a humanistic and pacifist attitude. In addition to the epic novel, the most important representatives of which are Döblin and Jahnn, the essayistic novel, also known as the thinking novel (Müller) or the mosaic novel (Döblin), which is determined by intellectual reflections, including Robert Müller's travelogue Tropen wie , established itself as the successor to Carl Einstein Otto Flakes Die Stadt des Hirns (1919) and No and Yes (1921) fall. The narrative means of Expressionism were to remain important beyond the epoch, on the one hand because of literary continuities, so Döblin's Berlin Alexanderplatz appeared like Musil's fragment The Man Without Qualities , which was supposed to transform the thought novel into an epic form, at the time of the Weimar Republic, on the other hand for the purpose of asserting an independent German literature after 1945 as a counter-program to the strong US influence and in respect of its destruction by the National Socialists (asphalt literature) as well as personal-institutional connections (the magazine Das goldene Tor ).
In Drama expressionist writers were able to demonstrate their ideas of change effectively. Therefore, it took on an important role at the time, alongside the dominant poetry. The birth of the new, changed human being was shown and exemplarily demonstrated (e.g. The Change by Ernst Toller). The outer shape often followed the construction principle of the so-called station drama .
The drama is supported by music, dance, pantomime, stage design and lighting effects. The people are not represented as individual beings, but rather typified (“man”, “woman”, “daughter”, ...). The characters are often exaggerated or grotesquely distorted to reveal the soul; often the development of the individual traits is missing. Usually the main character was a young person who fought out conflicts with the forces of fate, with narrow-minded society or with one's own father.
In order to enable the publication of texts by many authors, some of whom were initially unknown, a number of publishing houses were founded. In addition to the publication of anthologies, the publication of series mostly as brochures, some with illustrations, in which first and early works by many of today's important authors such as Gottfried Benn, Franz Kafka or Else Lasker-Schüler were published:
- Alfred Richard Meyer : Lyric Leaflets (1908-1918)
- Kurt Wolff : Judgment Day (1913-1921)
- Franz Pfemert : The Red Rooster (1917–1925)
- Paul Steegemann : Silver Column (1919-1922)
- described e.g. B. von Hermann Bahr (1914): “The machine has stolen his soul. [...] Everything we experience is just this tremendous struggle for people, the struggle of the soul with the machine. […] Never has a time been shaken by such horror, by such horror of death. The world has never been so dumb. […] Now the need is crying out: the human being is crying out for his soul, the whole time there is a single cry of distress. Art also screams into the deep darkness, it screams for help, it screams for the spirit: that is Expressionism. ”Hermann Bahr: Expressionism and Goethe. In: Die neue Rundschau , 25 (1914) # 2, 913–926, here 913. Book edition: Expressionismus, 122–123.
- “Expressionism dies”, first in Zenith, 1 (1921), pp. 6-8, from: Iwan Goll. Caught in a circle. Seals, essays and letters. Klaus Schuhmann (ed.). Leipzig: 1988. pp. 346-348. After: Ivan Goll - Claire Goll. Text and Contexts. Eric Robertson and Robert Vilain (Eds.). Amsterdam: 1997, p. 98.
- Armin Arnold: Prose of Expressionism . Stuttgart 1972, p. 53.
- Hans-Jörg Knobloch: End times visions. Studies of literature since the dawn of modernity . Würzburg 2008, pp. 55-57.
- Carl Einstein and Benn named Vathek as role models like the French symbolists
- The narrator Gustav Sack read alongside Hölderlin's novel the works of Jean Paul and Alfred Döblin - although not a reader of Jean Paul - later recognized a natural relationship between his and Paul's prose. Gustav Sack: Prosa, Briefe, Verse Munich and Vienna 1962, p. 23, Wulf Köpke: The Critical Reception of Alfred Döblin's Major Novels . New York 2003, p. 76.
- Franz Haas: Angry sparkling expressionism. In: nzz.ch. March 6, 2015, accessed October 14, 2018 .
- Walter Muschg: The destruction of German literature and other essays . Edited by Winfried Stephan and Julian Schütt, Zurich 2009, p. 674.
- Josef Smolen: The Red Rooster. A bibliography . Berlin-Charlottenburg, Rotes Antiquariat 2019, p. 5 .
- Marion Janzin; Joachim Güntner: The book of the book. 5000 years of book history . 3. Edition. Schlueter, Hannover, ISBN 978-3-89993-805-0 , pp. 394 .
- Search in the catalog of the Berlin State Library for "Lyrische Flugblätter". Retrieved January 15, 2020 .
- Josef Smolen: The Red Rooster. A bibliography . Berlin-Charlottenburg, Rotes Antiquariat 2019.
- Individual titles in the "Silver Column" series. Retrieved January 15, 2020 .
- Thomas Anz : Literature of Expressionism . Metzler, Stuttgart 2002, ISBN 3-476-10329-3 .
- Hermann Bahr : Expressionism . Delphin, Munich 1916. New edition: VDG Weimar, 2011, here as a free e-book
- Ralf Georg Bogner: Introduction to Expressionist Literature . Knowledge Buchges., [Dept. Verl.], Darmstadt 2005, ISBN 3-534-16901-8 .
- Kasimir Edschmid : Lively Expressionism: Confrontations, Creations, Memories . With 31 poet portraits by artists d. Time. Desch, Munich; Vienna; Basel 1961, DNB 451047230 .
- Ernst Fischer, Wilhelm Haefs (Ed.): Hirnwelten sparkle. Expressionist literature in Vienna . Müller, Salzburg 1988, ISBN 3-7013-0745-8 .
- Heinrich Eduard Jacob (ed.): Verse der Lebenden. German poetry since 1910 . 3. through u. supplementary edition. Propylaen-Verl., Berlin 1932, DNB 57406365X .
- Heinrich Eduard Jacob: Berlin, pre-war poetry and attitude to life. In: " Imprimatur - Yearbook for Book Lovers", Volume III. Society of Bibliophiles, Frankfurt 1961/62, pp. 186-189; in: Paul Raabe (ed.): Expressionism. Records and memories of contemporaries. Freiburg 1965, pp. 15-19.
- Armin A. Wallas: Journals and anthologies of expressionism in Austria . tape 1 u. 2. Saur, Munich 1995, ISBN 3-598-11222-X .
- Nicole Leonhardt: The color metaphor in the lyric poetry of Expressionism . Ubooks, Augsburg 2004, ISBN 3-937536-17-5 .
- Ursula Peters (ed.): Modern times . Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg 2000, ISBN 3-926982-61-6 , p. 11-120 .
- Kurt Pinthus: the twilight of mankind: a document d. Expressionism . With Biogr. U. Bibliogr. new ed. Rowohlt, Hamburg 1959, DNB 453782191 .
- Paul Raabe: The authors and books of literary expressionism. A bibliographic manual . 2., verb. and about Erg. and Nachtr. 1985–1990 exp. Edition. Metzler, Stuttgart 1992, ISBN 3-476-00756-1 .
- Paul Raabe, Heinz Ludwig Greve: Expressionism. Literature and Art. 1910-1923. An exhibition d. German Literature archive in the Schiller National Museum in Marbach a. N. From May 8th to October 31st 1960. [Exhibition catalog] . Schiller National Museum, Marbach a. N. 1960, DNB 453890725 .
- Paul Raabe: The magazines and collections of literary expressionism. Repertory d. Magazines, yearbooks, anthologies, compilations, series of publications, etc. Almanacs 1910-1921 . Metzler, Stuttgart 1964, DNB 453890768 .
- Theodor Sapper: All the bells on earth. Expressionist poetry from the Danube region . Europaverlag, Vienna 1974, ISBN 3-203-50494-4 .
- Silvio Vietta , Hans-Georg Kemper: Expressionism . 5th, verb. Edition. Fink, Munich 1994, ISBN 3-8252-0362-X .
- Silvio Vietta, (Ed.): The poetry of expressionism . 4th, verb. Edition. Niemeyer, Tübingen 1999, ISBN 3-484-19036-1 .
- An overview of Expressionism
- And Berlin steams again and again. Berlin in the poetry of expressionism. An annotated anthology as linked hypertext. Master's thesis submitted by: Tanja Berneburg