Jean Paul

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Jean Paul Friedrich Richter, painting by Heinrich Pfenninger, 1798, Gleimhaus Halberstadt
Signature Jean Paul.JPG
Jean Paul, portrayed by Vogel von Vogelstein 1822

Jean Paul (French [ ʒɑ̃ ] and German [ paʊl ]), also Jean Paul Friedrich Richter , actually Johann Paul Friedrich Richter (born March 21, 1763 in Wunsiedel ; † November 14, 1825 in Bayreuth ), was a German writer . In terms of literary history, his work stands between the classic and romantic eras . The name change he chose goes back to Jean Paul's great admiration for Jean-Jacques Rousseau .


Childhood and youth

Jean Paul's birthplace in Wunsiedel (light-colored building in the background, today Jean-Paul-Platz 5)

Johann Paul Friedrich Richter, who later called himself Jean Paul, was born in Wunsiedel as the son of the teacher and organist Johann Christian Christoph Richter and his wife, the clothmaker's daughter Sophia Rosina, née Kuhn . In 1765 his father became pastor in Joditz im Hofer Land (since 1978 part of the Köditz community ), in 1776 he got a better job in Schwarzenbach an der Saale . The atmosphere of the Protestant country parsonage shaped Jean Paul's childhood. He was made familiar with the ideas of the Enlightenment less through his conservative father than through a revered teacher and the pastor of the neighboring town of Rehau , Erhard Friedrich Vogel . Apart from the political and literary centers of his time, Jean Paul trained himself as an autodidact and at the age of fifteen he had extensive knowledge of books that he gathered in excerpts . In 1779 Jean Paul moved to the high school in Hof , where he met Johann Bernhard Hermann , who became a close friend and a role model for many of his fictional characters, such as the personal giver in Siebenkäs . A few months later, his father died, which plunged the family into serious financial hardship.

Jean Paul writes in his garden arbor (drawing by Ernst Förster )

Academic years

In May 1781, Jean Paul enrolled at the University of Leipzig , but pursued his theology studies only very listlessly. Instead, he began to see himself as a writer: after his first literary experiments, he mainly wrote satires in the style of Jonathan Swift and Christian Ludwig Liscow , which were printed in a collected form in 1783 as Greenlandic Trials . After this first publication, however, there were no further successes. In 1784 Jean Paul had to flee from his creditors and returned to his mother's house at Hof as a “failed existence”. How he felt there can be read in his later novel Siebenkäs . In addition to the oppressive poverty of those years, Jean Paul was also burdened by the death of a friend in 1786 and the suicide of his brother Heinrich in 1789. It was only when Jean Paul found a livelihood as a private tutor for the Oerthel family in Töpen from 1787 that his plight gradually eased .

Beginning fame

In 1798 Jean Paul stayed in the Gleimhaus in Halberstadt
The Jean-Paul-Platz in the Luisenburg rock labyrinth

The series of his literary successes began in 1793 with the novel The Invisible Lodge . Jean Paul had sent the manuscript to the writer Karl Philipp Moritz , and Moritz was enthusiastic: “Oh no, that's still about Goethe, that's something completely new!” He is supposed to have said, and through his mediation the book quickly found one Publishing house in Berlin. In The Invisible Lodge , Jean Paul, who had previously written his work under the pseudonym JPF Hasus, used the name Jean Paul for the first time out of admiration for Jean-Jacques Rousseau . But The Invisible Lodge remained a fragment, because Jean Paul devoted himself to a new novel, Hesperus or 45 Hundposttage , which appeared in 1795. The book, which became the greatest literary success since Goethe's The Sorrows of Young Werther , suddenly made Jean Paul famous. Johann Gottfried von Herder , Christoph Martin Wieland and Johann Wilhelm Ludwig Gleim were enthusiastic about the Hesperus - Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Friedrich Schiller , however, did not like the novel.


Jean Paul's place of work in Coburg 1803–1804

At the invitation of his admirer Charlotte von Kalb , Jean Paul visited Weimar in 1796 . He was respectfully received in the literary center of his time, but the relationship with classics like Goethe and Schiller remained rather cool and distant. Two years later Jean Paul moved to Weimar; in the meantime he had a considerable number of literary works to show: Siebenkäs (1796/97), The Life of Quintus Fixlein (1796), The Jubelsenior (1797), The Campan Valley (1797). In Weimar in particular, the erotic entanglements that accompanied Jean Paul throughout his life increased: he became engaged to Karoline von Feuchtersleben, which caused some difficulties due to the difference in class - and when these were finally resolved, Jean Paul broke up again. With Charlotte von Kalb, too, he had to constantly work out new strategies to avoid marriage. But even Jean Paul, who was shy of marriage, “could not escape his fate”: In the spring of 1800, on a trip to Berlin , he met Karoline Mayer, whom he married a year later.

The trip to Berlin represented the high point of his literary fame: The Prussian Queen Luise , who had met him at her sister Charlotte's “Little Musenhof” in Hildburghausen , showed herself to be an enthusiastic reader of his works. This made Jean Paul move to Berlin in October 1800, where he made friends with the brothers August Wilhelm and Friedrich Schlegel as well as with Johann Ludwig Tieck , Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher and Johann Gottlieb Fichte .

House in Bayreuth 1808–1811 (Friedrichstrasse 10)

The late years

Residence and death house in Bayreuth (Friedrichstraße 5)
Jean Paul (1810), painting by Friedrich Meier
Board at the house at Friedrichstrasse 5
The tomb of Jean Paul and his son in the Bayreuth city ​​cemetery: The memorial stone is a boulder overgrown with ivy .

But from the peak of success things gradually went downhill: Jean Paul's next novels Titan (1800–1803) and Flegeljahre (1804/1805) no longer generated the previous enthusiasm among readers, although they are now considered his most important works.

In 1804 he moved to Bayreuth with his wife and two children , after living in Meiningen from 1801 to 1803 and then in Coburg . In Bayreuth he led a withdrawn life from then on, interrupted only by a few trips, for example to Bamberg , where he visited ETA Hoffmann , and to Heidelberg , where in 1817, after an extensive punch feast , he was awarded an honorary doctorate on Hegel's suggestion . His political statements (for example in Cottas Morgenblatt ) met with a lively response, especially from patriotic students. Jean Paul became a leading figure in the German fraternities. During visits to Heidelberg (1817) and Stuttgart (1819) he was even raised to the title of “Germans' favorite poet”. From 1793 until his death, his closest friends and confidants in Bayreuth included the wealthy Jewish businessman Emanuel Samuel , who became an advisor in all family and financial matters and a regular correspondent, as well as the factory owner and private scholar Georg Christian Otto , with whom Jean Paul had been since School days and who stood by his side as a proofreader and well-meaning literary critic.

Jean Paul's works from these years, such as Levana or Erziehlehre (1807) or Dr. Katzenberger's bathing trip (1809) no longer received the attention that Hesperus had received. In 1813 Jean Paul began his last great novel, The Comet , but the death of his son Max in 1821 was a stroke of fate that the author could not get over: The comet was abandoned and remained a fragment. The last years of his life were marked by illnesses: in 1823 Jean Paul fell ill with cataracts and gradually went blind. In 1825 dropsy of the breasts was added, of which he died on November 14th. He is buried in the city cemetery in Bayreuth.

In 1820 the Bavarian Academy of Sciences had appointed him a foreign member.

Rollwenzelei with preserved poets'
room in Bayreuth


The Rollwenzelei , a former inn in Bayreuth on the road to Weiden near the Hermitage , was one of his favorite places, where he also wrote poetry. The former poets' room was completely renovated in 2009/2010. It is a small museum with original inventory.

Literary meaning

Thoughts before breakfast and before the night piece in Löbigau , 1819

Jean Paul occupies a special position in German literature and has always divided the reading public. With some he earned the highest admiration, with others shaking their heads and disinterest. He took the flowing formlessness of the romantic novel to extremes; August Wilhelm Schlegel called his novels "self-talk", in which he let the reader participate (to the extent that an exaggeration of what Laurence Sterne had started in the Tristram Shandy ). Jean Paul was constantly playing with a variety of funny and bizarre ideas; his works are characterized by wild imagery and rambling, sometimes labyrinthine actions. In them Jean Paul mixed reflections with poetological and philosophical comments; In addition to witty irony, there are suddenly bitter satire and mild humor, alongside sober realism there are transfiguring, often ironically broken idylls, social criticism and political statements are also included.

Female readers especially appreciated his novels. This was mainly due to the empathy with which Jean Paul was able to design the female characters in his works: never before had female characters been depicted with such psychological depth in German literature. However, nowhere else can you find such amusing misogyne taunts as with Jean Paul. Jean Paul's character must have been as varied and confusing as many of his novels: He was probably very sociable and witty, at the same time extremely sentimental, with an almost childlike disposition and quickly moved to tears. His works show again and again how much he was interested not only in literature, but also in astronomy and other sciences.

Jean Paul Memorial in Bayreuth

With such a capricious author, it is hardly surprising that his relationship to the Weimar classics Goethe and Schiller was always ambiguous (Schiller said that Jean Paul was "as strange to him as someone who fell out of the moon"). Herder and Wieland, however, appreciated and supported him. Although he always kept his distance from the classics who wanted to make art absolute and in his theoretical approach - for example in his preschool of aesthetics  - clear influences of romanticism can be seen, he is ultimately not to be counted among the romantics. Here too he kept a critical distance; for despite all the subjectivism he did not absolutize the author's ego: Jean Paul possessed a sense of humor, which had become rare between classical seriousness and romantic irony . He also dealt with the nature of humor in detail - perhaps as the first.

Both the Enlightenment and metaphysics had failed for him, nevertheless they had their place in his worldview. In this way he arrived at a worldview without illusions, combined with humorous resignation. It is fitting that Jean Paul was one of the first advocates of Arthur Schopenhauer's philosophy . He did not try to indoctrinate, but to portray human happiness.

In his writings, Jean Paul not only mentions the literary motif of the " doppelganger " by name and thus shapes it, but also shapes it in countless variations (cf., among others, Siebenkäs and Leibgeber; Schoppe, Liane and Idoine; Roquairol and Albano ). This is how he defines in his Siebenkäs : "Doppelganger (that's the name of people who see themselves)."


Monument in Meiningen, where Jean Paul lived from 1801 to 1803
Jean-Paul monument in Wunsiedel


Jean Paul's work reflects the entire ideological spectrum of his time. Although E. T. A. Hoffmann's work in its grotesque comedy or in the adoption of the motif of the doppelganger was close to that of Jean Paul - he did not have a successor in the real sense. However, the early Adalbert Stifter was under his influence and in Wilhelm Raabe's work numerous borrowings from Jean Paul can be found. At best, authors of the 20th century such as Georg Heym , Hermann Burger , Albert Vigoleis Thelen and Arno Schmidt can also be regarded as heirs to Jean Paul's prose due to their artistry and digression . Jean Paul enjoyed high esteem again and again in these later generations of poets. From Arno Schmidt comes the quote that Jean Paul was "one of our greats (...), one of the twenty for whom I would fight with the whole world".

Literary reception

In his story Tina or about immortality , Arno Schmidt thematizes and parodies Jean Paul's (see “Selina or about immortality”) idea of ​​an Elysium and in this context draws on the arguments of individual characters in the novel.

In the 21st century, Walter Kappacher refers to Jean Paul's Das Kampaner Tal and the unfinished sequel Selina in his novel Selina or The Other Life through the title variation and the preceding motto "An eternal being watching a being pondering about its destruction." or about immortality . The protagonists Stefan and Heinrich Seiffert discuss Jean Paul's thoughts on how to live after earthly death.

Musical reception

19th century

Music hall of the Jean-Paul-Gymnasium in Hof, which Jean Paul attended from 1779–1781.
  • Aloys Schmitt : Large tone painting for the piano forte for four hands , Leipzig 1824.
  • Thank God Wiedebein : To Wina. In: Songs with accompaniment of the Piano-Forte, Braunschweig 1827.
  • Theodor Bradsky: To Lina. In: Three songs for a voice with accompaniment of the pianoforte, Op. 51, Berlin and Posen 1879
  • Heinrich Werner : Wet Eye [1828], in: Forgotten songs, ed. by Friedrich Mecke, Duderstadt 1913.
  • Franz Otto: To Julie. In: Serious and cheerful like life. Six chants for four male voices, Op. 2, Dresden 1830.
  • Wilhelm Taubert : To Wina. In: Six German songs with accompaniment of the pianoforte, Berlin 1832.
  • Robert Schumann : Papillons pour le pianoforte seul , Op. 2 [1832], in: Complete Piano Works, Volume 1, ed. and commented by Ernst Herttrich, Munich 2010.
  • Julius Riehle: To Wina. In: Six songs for a bass or baritone part with piano accompaniment, Leipzig 1832.
  • Leopold Lenz: To Wina. In: Nine Chants for a Voice with Accompaniment of the Pianoforte, Op. 16, Munich 1835.
  • Heinrich Dorn : To Wina. In: Four songs for a bass or baritone part with accompaniment of the pianoforte, Op. 16, Leipzig 1836.
  • Johann Friedrich Kittl : If I would be a star [1838], in Amphion, a collection of the most popular chants with accompaniment of the pianoforte, no. 5, Prague 1840.
  • Ders .: serenade. In: Six songs for a voice with accompaniment of the pianoforte, Op. 4, Vienna 1839.
  • Robert Schumann: flower piece. Op. 19, Vienna 1939.
  • Carl Grünbaum: Lied [The starry sky draws on a beautiful night], together with Ludwig Ritter von Rittersberg: It must be a rider !, o. A. approx. 1840.
  • Ernst Pauer : Serenade. In: Gesänge for four male voices, Op. 23, Mainz, Antwerp and Brussels 1847.
  • Ernst Friedrich Kauffmann : Serenade after Jean Paul for a baritone or alto part with piano forte accompaniment , Mainz 1848.
  • Carl Reinecke : Oh, if I were a star from Jean Paul’s flail years. In: Six songs and chants for a voice with accompaniment of the pianoforte, Op. 18, Leipzig 1850.
  • Stephen Heller : Pieces of Flowers, Fruit and Thorns [Nuits blanches], Op. 82, Berlin 1850.
  • Marta von Sabinin: Oh, if I were a star. In: Eight Songs, Op. 1, Leipzig 1855.
  • Albert Jungmann: Wet eyes, poor heart. In: Two chants from Jean Paul's Flegeljahren for a voice with piano, Op. 19, Berlin 1856.
  • Albert Jungmann: I would be a star. In: Two chants from Jean Paul's Flegeljahren for a voice with piano, Op. 19, Berlin 1856.
  • Carl Gustav Ebell: I would be a star. In: Six songs for a voice with accompaniment of the pianoforte, Op. 1, Prague oA
  • Adolf Emil Büchner : Oh, if I were a star. In: Four songs for one voice with accompaniment of the pianoforte, Op. 20, 1858.
  • Albert Segisser: I would be a star. In: Two songs for bass or baritone with accompaniment of the pianoforte, Frankfurt am Main 1865.
  • Theodor Twietmeyer: I would be a star. In: Four songs with accompaniment of the pianoforte, Op. 3, Leipzig 1866.
  • Ernst Methfessel : To Wina . Poem by JPFr. Richter for a voice with accompaniment of the pianoforte, Op. 14, Leipzig and Winterthur 1866.
  • Theodor Lausmann: I would be a star. In: Five songs for a soprano or tenor part with accompaniment of the pianoforte, Op. 6, Cologne 1869.
  • Robert Pflughaupt: I would be a star . Paraphrase after a song by Th. Lausmann for pianoforte, Leipzig 1872.
  • Eduard von Seldeneck: If I were a star . Song for a voice with accompaniment of the pianoforte, Leipzig 1874.
  • Theodor Bradsky : To Lina. In: Three songs for a voice with accompaniment of the pianoforte, Op. 51, Berlin and Posen 1879.
  • Gustav Mahler : Symphony No. 1 in D major (Titan) [1889], Vienna 1899.
  • Alexandra Josiphowna : Titan . Symphonic fragment after Jean Paul Friedrich Richter, score, St. Petersburg 1890.
  • Friedrich Knolle: If I were a star. In: Two songs for one voice with piano accompaniment, Braunschweig 1897.

20th century

  • Ferdinand Heinrich Thieriot : Life and death of the cheerful schoolmaster Wuz . Idylle for orchestra, Op. 72, score, Leipzig 1900.
  • Hugo Leichtentritt : Zephyr's grave inscription , in: Lieder und Gesänge, Op. 2, Berlin 1910.
  • Henri Sauguet : Polymetres . Six Lieder sur des Poèmes de Jean-Paul [1936], Paris 1991.
  • Eduard Künnecke : Flail years . Three orchestral pieces based on the novel of the same name by Jean Paul, Op. 7, Berlin-Dahlem 1937.
  • Karl Kraft: Five little chants on verses by Jean Paul for voice and piano. Augsburg around 1960.
  • Georg Schmidt-Arzberg: Orpheus. Setting of a Polymeter by Jean Paul, 1968.
  • Ders .: Jean Paul's polymeter "Spring Dream". Setting, 1974.
  • Cornelius Schwehr: Quintus I. for guitar, oboe, trumpet, viola and snare drum, Wiesbaden 1981.
  • Walter Zimmermann : Glockenspiel for a drummer . Text: Jean Paul [1983], in: Sternwanderung, 1982–1984.
  • Cornelius Schwehr: Quintus II. For violin, manuscript 1984/85.
  • Wolfgang Rihm : Other shadows . Musical scene for high soprano, mezzo-soprano, baritone, speaker, mixed choir and orchestra. Text based on Jean Paul's “Speech of the dead Christ from the world that there is no God” from the novel Siebenkäs, 1985.
  • Günter Bialas : Lamento di Orlando . German texts from “Siebenkäs” by Jean Paul (baritone); Latin-Italian mixed text of the Renaissance (choir ad lib.) for baritone solo, mixed choir-SATB, orchestra, 1985.
  • Oskar Sala : Speech of the dead Christ from the world structure that there is no God. In: My Fascinating Instrument, 1990.
  • Markus Schmitt: Siebenkäs music in five scenes for violin, violoncello and piano. 1992.
  • Iván Eröd : Flower Piece for solo viola , Op. 62, Vienna u. a. 1995.
  • Ders .: flower piece. In: 3 piano pieces, Op. 66, Vienna u. a. 1997.
  • Andreas Mand : Siebenkäs songs (based on Jean Paul) , demo version, 2 MC, 1998
  • Thomas Beimel : Idylls , musical scenes based on Jean Paul, chamber opera, 1998/99.
  • Franz Möckl: Prosarium after Jean Paul for soprano, horn in F, violoncello and piano. Cologne 1999.

21st century

  • Johannes Schöllhorn: red and blue. for 6 percussionists, texts from: Francis Ponge “La Mounine” and Jean Paul “On the natural magic of the imagination”, score / material, 2002.
  • Megalith: Speech of the Dead Christ. In: Soldiers of the Spirit / Spirit Soldiers, 2003.
  • Christoph Weinhart: Albano's dream : for eight flutes, Cologne 2006.
  • Thomas Beimel: thing / dong. for choir, 2007.
  • Georg Friedrich Haas : Flower piece based on texts from the Siebenkäs by Jean Paul , for 32-part choir, bass tuba and string quintet, Vienna a. a. 2009.
  • Anno Schreier: “He is not” for mezzo-soprano, choir and small orchestra, based on a text by Jean Paul, 2009/10.
  • Thomas Beimel: the child with the crutch. for choir and horn, 2010.
  • Clemens von Reusner: de monstris epistola, electroacoustic composition, 2012.
  • Ludger Stühlmeyer : To the angel of the last hour , for alto solo, violin and organ, Hof 2013.


Jean Paul Museum in Bayreuth
  • The Jean Paul Museum in Bayreuth is located in the Chamberlain House at Wahnfriedstrasse 1.
  • The Great Literature Prize of the Free State of Bavaria was named the Jean Paul Prize in his honor .
  • His bust was displayed in the Hall of Fame in Munich.
  • There is also a bust in the Walhalla in Donaustauf.
  • The Hof high school that Jean Paul attended still exists. Since 1946 it has been called the Jean-Paul-Gymnasium. In December 2013 a bronze bust of Jean Paul created by the Thurnau sculptor Claus Tittmann was placed there.
  • Schools as well as streets and squares are named after Jean Paul in many cities and towns.
  • The Jean-Paul-Weg is a hiking trail in the administrative district of Upper Franconia.
  • The asteroid (14365) Jeanpaul was named after him.
  • Since March 2013 airship Giannozzo starts in the garden next to the Jean-Paul-Museum. The ten-meter-high sculpture by the Berlin artist group Inges Idee was sponsored by the Sculpture Mile Bayreuth e. V. donated.
  • On the occasion of his 250th birthday, the advertising pillar exhibition Jean Pauls Orte was opened at 25 places where Jean Paul worked in five federal states and the Czech Republic .
  • In 1822, the Webelsche Buchhandlung in Zeitz dedicated the encyclopaedic dictionary or alphabetical explanation of all words from foreign languages ​​that are accepted in German, including all art expressions common in the sciences, the arts and craftsmen, together with complete geography and other references to the " Legation Councilor Jean Paul Richter in Baireuth [...] out of pure deep admiration. "


Titanium. 1


  • Jean Paul. A book of hours for his admirers. Anthology. German seal series, volume 1. Ed. And included. by Stefan George and Karl Wolfskehl . Reprint of the Berlin 1900 edition. With an afterword by Ute Oelmann. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1989, ISBN 3-608-95660-3 .
  • Ulrich Holbein and Ralf Simon (eds.): Universe in the Krähwinkel. A Jean Paul Reader. Lilienfeld Verlag, Düsseldorf 2013, ISBN 978-3-940357-31-1

Total expenditure


  • Thomas Wirtz and Kurt Wölfel (eds.): Jean Paul: Ideas-Gewimmel. Texts and notes from the unpublished estate . Eichborn Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1996, Die Other Bibliothek series , ISBN 3-8218-4453-1 .
  • Mirko Gemmel (ed.): Jean Paul: travel diaries and letters. When traveling, it is easier to believe Sunday than Saturday. Ripperger & Kremers Verlag, Berlin 2013, ISBN 978-3-943999-20-4 .
  • The handwritten estate of Jean Paul and the Jean Paul holdings of the Berlin State Library - Prussian Cultural Heritage , Part 2: Fascicles XVI to XXVI, edited by Markus Bernauer, edited by Lothar Busch, Ralf Goebel, Michael Rölcke and Angela Steinsiek. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 2011, ISBN 978-3-447-06525-2 .

Audio books

  • Jean Paul: Katzenberger's bathing trip . Radio processing: Friedemann Schreiter. Director: Klaus Zippel . Contributors: Rüdiger Evers , Hans-Joachim Hegewald, Wolfgang Jacob. Broadcasting of the GDR, Berlin 1980.
  • Jean Paul: Liberty Booklet . Reading with Peter Matić . Director: Klaus Zippel. Production: Mitteldeutscher Rundfunk, 2007, 1 CD, 75 min, Der Audio Verlag 2007.
  • Jean Paul: Life of the cheerful schoolmaster Maria Wutz in Auenthal. Speaker: Norbert Beilharz. Cassette 1148 Erich Schumm GmbH, 7157 Murrhardt / Württ. Schumm speaking books. Text basis: Reclam Universal Library No. 119
  • Jean Paul: The life of the happy schoolmaster Maria Wutz . Speaker: Markus Hoffmann. Argon GmbH, 2006, ISBN 3-86610-006-X .
  • Jean Paul: Dreams, Travel, Humoresques . The audio book about the Jean-Paul-Weg in Upper Franconia. Audiotransit, 2011.




  • Karl-Heinz Best : Jean Paul (1763-1825). In: Glottometrics 12, 2006, pp. 75-77. The article deals with topics by Jean Paul that are still relevant to quantitative linguistics . (Reprinted in: Karl-Heinz Best (Hrsg.): Studies on the history of quantitative linguistics. Volume 1. RAM-Verlag, Lüdenscheid 2015, pp. 74-77. ISBN 978-3-942303-30-9 .)
  • Ludwig Börne : Speech on Jean Paul. In: Ders .: Complete Writings, Volume 1. Verlag Melzer, Dreieich 1977 (5 vols.)
  • Adalbert Elschenbroich:  Jean Paul. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 10, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1974, ISBN 3-428-00191-5 , pp. 372-382 ( digitized version ).
  • Kurt Gerhard Fischer : Jean Paul as a teacher . Epilogue to: Jean Paul: Levana or Erziehlehre Schöningh, Paderborn 1963 (pp. 299–330) Ed. KG Fischer (Series: Schöninghs Collection of Pedagogical Writings . Sources for the History of Pedagogy)
  • Dietmar Herrmann: Jean-Paul memorial stone in book form (Luisenburg near Wunsiedel). In: The Seven Star. Volume 76 (2007), Issue 5, p. 260.
  • Franz Muncker:  Judge, Johann Paul Friedrich . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 28, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1889, pp. 467-485.
  • Dieter Richter : Remembered child. Jean Paul's fragment of a "self-description" and the joy-memory of childhood. In: Dieter Richter: The strange child. On the emergence of childhood images of the bourgeois age, Frankfurt (S. Fischer) 1987, pp. 311–330. ISBN 3-10-065502-8 .
  • Norbert W. Schlinkert : Jean Paul's self-search and the transformation of the ego. Jean Paul and the poetization of philosophy. Still Jean Paul or: The Spirit of Time in the Reality of the Novel. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Jean Paul Friedrich Richter: The character of the self. In: ders .: The self-illuminating consciousness as poetic self. From Adam Bernd to Karl Philipp Moritz , from Jean Paul to Sören Kierkegaard . A hermeneutical-phenomenological investigation. Wehrhahn Verlag, Hannover 2011, ISBN 978-3-86525-152-7 , pp. 174–247.
  • Dietmar Herrmann: Forays into the memorials of Jean Paul; in: Siebenstern 2013, Issue 1, pp. 6–11

Web links

Wikisource: Jean Paul  - Sources and full texts
Commons : Jean Paul  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Ernst Förster (ed.): Memories from the life of Jean Paul Friedrich Richter, to celebrate his centenary birthday, 1st volume, 1st section: Jeans Paul's correspondence with his friend Emanuel Osmund, Munich 1863
  2. Dr. hc Johann Paul Friedrich (= Jean Paul) Richter , members of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences
  4. Christoph Beck (Ed.): Jean Paul in music. 19th century settings. With a foreword by Julia Cloot, Berlin 2012.
  5. Siebenkäs-Lieder on Helvetic Archives , (online catalog of the archive holdings of the Swiss National Library ), accessed on August 18, 2016.
  6. ^ Franz Möckl
  7. ^ Clemens von Reusner: de monstris epistola. Retrieved March 6, 2017 .
  8. ^ Archived copy ( memento of April 9, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Website of the Jean-Paul-Gymnasium
  9. Jean Paul 2013
  10. See Berend / Krogoll; Wirtz: Review: In: JJPG 28 (1993), pp. 169-173. Manfred Koch : Artistic admiration: For the new edition of the Jean Paul anthology by George and Wolfskehl.
  11. Von Levana published two different editions at the same time in 1963, which differ as follows: the one mentioned in Schöningh contains, in addition to the Fischer essay: text explanations, p. 293 ff .; Comments on the Fischer essay 327 ff .; Comments on the reproduction of the text p. 331; Bibliography (15 titles) until 1947, p. 332 ff .; Timeline (with Syopsis) p. 338ff; Name index p. 342 ff. Subject index p. 346 ff. - The simultaneous edition by Klinkhardt, Ed. Theo Dietrich, with 263 pages contains: Annotations from Ed. 248 ff .; Afterword of ed. 255 ff .; Bibliography, this is more detailed, especially on Paul's pedagogy (56 titles) and dates to 1963, pp. 258–263.