Friedrich Dürrenmatt was born in 1921 in Stalden in the Emmental, which was incorporated into the political community of Konolfingen in 1933 . He was the first child of Reinhold (1881–1965) and Hulda Dürrenmatt (1886–1975), née Zimmermann. His father was the reformed pastor of the village, his grandfather Ulrich Dürrenmatt was a politician and poet. In 1924 his sister Verena ("Vroni"; † 2018) was born. In October 1935 the family moved to Bern , where the father became pastor at the deaconess house . The global economic crisis also made itself felt in Switzerland at this time, and the middle class became poorer. Friedrich Dürrenmatt first attended the Freie Gymnasium Bern , later the Humboldtianum, where he passed the Matura in 1941 . He was not a particularly good student (overall grade: “just enough”) and described his school days as the “worst time” of his life. He changed schools because he did not like the way the classes were taught, because he had bad grades and because his behavior was offensive to the teachers. For a short time in 1941 Dürrenmatt was a member of a Fröntler association in order to differentiate himself from his father, as he later admitted.
While still in Konolfingen he began to paint and draw, an inclination that he would feel all his life. He later illustrated some of his own works, wrote sketches and sometimes entire stage sets . His pictures were exhibited in Neuchâtel in 1976 and 1985, and in Zurich in 1978 . He actually wanted to train as a painter, but from 1941 on he studied philosophy , natural sciences and German at the University of Bern , and in between 1942/43 at the University of Zurich . In Bern he lived with his parents in an attic , which he furnished with large murals that were later whitewashed and only discovered, exposed and restored in the early 1990s (see Dürrenmatt attic ). In 1946 he finished his studies without even starting his planned dissertation on Søren Kierkegaard , determined to become a writer.
On October 12, 1946, he married the actress Lotti Geissler (1919–1983). The couple initially lived in Basel , where their son Peter was born in 1947. In 1948 the family moved to the community of Ligerz on Lake Biel , where they initially lived in the Schernelz district and from 1949 in the Festi hamlet. In 1950 the crime novel The Judge and His Executioner was created with open reference to neighboring locations such as Lamboing . In the 1975 film adaptation he appeared as "Friedrich".
Max Frisch had received the manuscript of Dürrenmatt's first play for the stage Es is written from the theater publisher Kurt Reiss and, after reading it, initiated contact with Dürrenmatt with a letter. The to the Münster Rebellion anknüpfende comedy was in April 1947 at the Schauspielhaus Zurich premiere and caused a theater scandal ; after it had not met with the expected approval, the author withdrew it the following year. In 1948 his second play followed, Der Blinde ; even this drama received hardly any attention. In 1949 his third play, the comedy Romulus the Great , was staged instead of the work The Tower of Babel , which was never finished and destroyed by the author .
The first years as a freelance writer were economically difficult for Dürrenmatt and his family of five - daughter Barbara joined them in 1949 and daughter Ruth in 1951. Then the financial situation gradually improved, especially due to radio plays from German broadcasters . In addition, Arche Verlag became his regular publisher at this time . His two thrillers ( The Judge and His Executioner and The Suspicion ) were first published as sequels in the Swiss Observer from 1950 . In 1952 the Dürrenmatts moved into their permanent residence in the newly built house above Neuchâtel.
In 1950, the comedy Die Ehe des Herr Mississippi came into being , with which he had his first major success on the West German theaters in 1952, after it had previously been rejected by the Swiss theaters. He achieved worldwide fame in 1956 with his tragic comedy The Visit of the Old Lady ; the overwhelming success of this work also established its financial independence. The failure with the "musical comedy" Frank the Fifth (1960) was followed in 1962 by the second world success with Die Physiker . The radio play Hercules and the Stables of Augias (1963), which was reworked into a theater play , did not go down well with the audience. With Der Meteor , his most personal play, he was able to celebrate his third and last world success as a playwright in 1966.
He has received many awards for his work, such as the Welti Prize for It is written in 1948 , the Schiller Prize of the City of Mannheim in 1959 , the Great Schiller Prize in 1960 and the Buber Rosenzweig Medal in 1977 . In 1969 he was awarded an honorary doctorate from Temple University in Philadelphia, and he received other honorary doctorates in Jerusalem and Nice. In the 1960s Dürrenmatt was at the height of its public success with its theater works. Dürrenmatt also achieved great fame with his script for the Heinz Rühmann film Es happened in bright daylight (1958), based on which he wrote his novel The Promise . The film is still today one of the greatest German crime films.
From 1967 he also devoted himself to practical theater work, first on the stages in Basel, after a heart attack in October 1969 at Neue Schauspiel AG in Zurich, and finally in Düsseldorf . Two of his world premieres took place there, Portrait of a Planet and Titus Andronicus . He staged several spectacular re-performances of his own plays, for example Der Meteor (1964/65) in Vienna in 1978 .
As a socially critical author, Dürrenmatt commented on international politics in essays, lectures and celebratory speeches, for example with sentences from America (1970), the press text I stand behind Israel (1973) and a lecture on the 100th birthday of Albert Einstein at the ETH Zurich ( 1979). In February 1987 he took part in the peace conference convened by Mikhail Gorbachev in Moscow. In 1990 he gave two speeches to Václav Havel and Mikhail Gorbachev, which appeared under the title Kant's Hope .
Dürrenmatt had made new versions of most of his works for the 29-volume work edition , which was published in 1980 by Arche Verlag as a hardback edition and by Diogenes Verlag as a paperback. During this time he dealt intensively with his own way of working and the characters and places he had created, culminating in the two volumes Labyrinth. Fabrics I – III (1981) and tower construction. Fabrics IV-IX (1990). From typescripts a continuation of the substances was published posthumously in 1992 under the title Thought Fugue .
"But the fabrics are the results of my thinking, the mirrors, in which, depending on their cut, my thinking and thus my life are reflected."
In the 1980s he again received a number of awards, including the Austrian State Prize for European Literature in 1983 and the Georg Büchner Prize in 1986 . In 1985 he received the Bavarian Literature Prize ( Jean-Paul Prize ) in recognition of his entire literary work. In 1986 he received the Premio Mondello of the Fondazione Sicilia for the Italian translation of “Justiz”.
On January 16, 1983, his wife Lotti died. Dürrenmatt married the actress and filmmaker Charlotte Kerr on May 8, 1984 . Together they brought out the film Portrait of a Planet and the play Role Play. Friedrich Dürrenmatt died of heart failure in Neuchâtel on December 14, 1990 at the age of 69 . Charlotte Kerr has processed her memories of the time together in her book The Woman in the Red Coat . Posthumously Dürrenmatt was accepted into the Lord Jim Lodge with the consent of his widow . In September 2000 the Center Dürrenmatt was opened in his house , where exhibitions and events about his work have taken place ever since.
Dürrenmatt's drama theory
Similar to Bertolt Brecht (1898–1956), whose theories on epic theater Dürrenmatt studied and next to whom he is regarded as the “most original theorist”, he wanted to create a distance between the audience and what was happening on stage. The viewer should no longer play the role of a passive consumer. He should be encouraged to think for himself.
In addition, Dürrenmatt preferred the stylistic device of alienation , which questions the generally accepted and reveals the contradictions of social structures. Just as characteristic are tragic-grotesque elements, i.e. a combination of the apparently incompatible. In contrast to Brecht, Dürrenmatt did not present a worldview (in Brecht: Marxism ).
Dürrenmatt thus created his own type of tragic comedy , a hybrid of tragedy and comedy, in his opinion "the only possible dramatic form to express the tragic today". Because , as Dürrenmatt says in his text Theaterprobleme from 1955, tragedy presupposes “guilt, hardship, measure, overview, responsibility” in order to achieve its goal, the purification of the individual. In the confusion of the modern world, so Dürrenmatt, guilt is blurred and pushed away, the modern only comes with the grotesque .
From Marcel Reich-Ranicki three works are highlighted Dürrenmatt's what makes his era for future generations tangible: "His tragic comedy by the venality of the people and by the corrupting effects of wealth" ( The visit of the Old Lady , 1956), "the parable of the threat to mankind from civilization ”( Die Physiker , 1962)“ and finally the parable of the guilt of the individual, which is completely underestimated by German critics ”( Die Panne , 1956).
Note: Many of his novels and stories were also set to music as radio plays . There are different versions of almost all works.
From 1980 to 1986 the dramatic work was published in 17 and the prose work in 12 individual volumes, edited by Daniel Keel in collaboration with the author, both as hardcover by Arche Verlag and as paperback by Diogenes Verlag . Volume 30 with testimonies about Friedrich Dürrenmatt is listed here under literature .
In 1998 Diogenes Verlag published the new paperback edition, expanded to 37 volumes:
- The dramatic work in 18 volumes in a cassette. ISBN 3-257-23040-0 .
- The prose work in 19 volumes in a cassette. ISBN 3-257-23078-8 .
- Register tape. With a chronicle of life and work, an index of works, an overview of the contents and an alphabetical index of works, ISBN 3-257-23079-6 .
- The old. Story, published in 1945 in the daily newspaper Der Bund . In: From the papers of a guard. Early prose. Diogenes, Zurich 1980 (= WA 18).
- The judge and his executioner . Detective novel, published between December 15, 1950 and March 31, 1951 in eight episodes in the Observer . Benziger, Einsiedeln 1952 (filmed in 1975).
- The suspicion . Detective novel, published between September 15, 1951 and February 29, 1952 as a crime novel in the Observer . Benziger, Einsiedeln 1953.
- The town. Prose I – IV. Arche, Zurich 1952 (contains nine stories written between 1942 and 1946, including Der Tunnel . )
- Greek seeks Greek woman . A prose comedy . Arche, Zurich 1955 ( filmed in 1966)
- The glitch . Another possible story. Arche, Zurich 1956.
- The promise . Requiem for the detective novel. Arche, Zurich 1958; Further development on August 2 and 28, 1985 in the Neue Zürcher Zeitung .
- Home in the poster. A book for Swiss children. Diogenes, Zurich 1963.
- Sentences from America. Arche, Zurich 1970.
- The fall . Narrative. Arche, Zurich 1971.
- Connections. An essay on Israel. A concept. Arche, Zurich 1976.
- Friedrich Dürrenmatt reading book. Arche, Zurich 1978.
- Mister X is on vacation . Fragment. Diogenes, Zurich 1978
- Fabrics. Diogenes, Zurich 1981 (therein: lunar eclipse ); New edition revised by the author: Labyrinth. Fabrics I – III , ibid. 1990.
- Minotaur . A ballad. With drawings by the author. Diogenes, Zurich 1985.
- Judiciary . Novel. Diogenes, Zurich 1985 ( filmed in 1993).
- The order or From observing the observer the observer . Novella in 24 sentences. Diogenes, Zurich 1986.
- Tangled valley . Novel. Diogenes, Zurich 1989.
- Tower construction. Substances IV – IX. Diogenes, Zurich 1990.
- 1950: The Trial of the Donkey's Shadow - Production: Radio Bern , first broadcast: April 5, 1951
- 1951: Romulus the Great - Production: Bayerischer Rundfunk , June 29, 1951 - Director: Walter Ohm
- 1952: The trial of the donkey's shadow - Production: Südwestfunk , February 13, 1952 - Director: Karl Peter Biltz
- 1952: Nocturnal conversation with a despised person - Production: Bayerischer Rundfunk, July 28, 1952 - Director: Walter Ohm (premiere of the stage version: Münchner Kammerspiele , July 25, 1952 - Director: Hans Schweikart )
- 1952: Stranitzky and the national hero - production: Nordwestdeutscher Rundfunk , November 6, 1952 - director: Fritz Schröder-Jahn
- 1952: Stranitzky and the national hero - production: Süddeutscher Rundfunk , November 9, 1952 - director: Paul Land
- 1953: Stranitzky and the national hero - Production: Bayerischer Rundfunk, January 12, 1954 - Director: Walter Ohm
- 1954: An angel comes to Babylon - Production: Nordwestdeutscher Rundfunk, June 10, 1954 - Director: Raoul Wolfgang Schnell
- 1954: Hercules and the Augean Stable - Production: Nordwestdeutscher Rundfunk, December 2, 1954 - Director: Gert Westphal World premiere of the stage version: Schauspielhaus Zürich , March 20, 1963
- 1954: Hercules and the Augean Stable - Production: Süddeutscher Rundfunk, December 8, 1954 - Director: Otto Kurth
- 1954: The Wega company - Production: BR, NWDR and SDR, January 18, 1955 - Director: Walter Ohm
- 1955: The Wega company - Production: Nordwestdeutscher Rundfunk, January 20, 1955 - Director: Kurt Reiss
- 1955: The Wega company - Production: Südwestfunk, July 19, 1955 - Director: Ludwig Cremer
- 1956: Die Panne - Production: Bayerischer Rundfunk, Süddeutscher Rundfunk, January 17, 1956 - Director: Walter Ohm
- 1956: Die Panne - Production: Norddeutscher Rundfunk , May 19, 1956 - Director: Gustav Burmester (Award: Radio Play Prize of the War Blind 1957)
- 1956: Hercules and the Augean stable - production: Bayerischer Rundfunk, June 26, 1956 - director: Walter Ohm
- 1956: Romulus the Great - Production: Süddeutscher Rundfunk, June 27, 1956 - Director: Franz Peter Wirth
- 1957: Evening hour in late autumn - Production: Norddeutscher Rundfunk May 7, 1957 - Director: Gustav Burmester
- 1957: Evening hour in late autumn - Production: Süddeutscher Rundfunk and Norddeutscher Rundfunk, May 20, 1957 - Director: Walter Knaus
- 1957: The Old Lady's Visit - Production: Bayerischer Rundfunk, June 4, 1957 - Director: Walter Ohm
- 1958: Nocturnal conversation with a despised person - Production: Sender Freies Berlin , February 26, 1959 - Director: Rolf von Goth
- 1959: Nocturnal conversation with a despised person - Production: Norddeutscher Rundfunk, February 6, 1959 - Director: Fritz Schröder-Jahn
- 1959: Nocturnal conversation with a despised person - Production: Hessischer Rundfunk , January 8, 1960 - Director: Theodor Steiner
- 1960: Nocturnal conversation with a despised person - Production: Süddeutscher Rundfunk, July 20, 1960 - Director: Walter Knaus
- 1960: The double - production: Bayerischer Rundfunk and Norddeutscher Rundfunk, December 21, 1960 - music: Siegfried Franz , director: Gustav Burmester
- 1962: The trial of the donkey's shadow - Production: Süddeutscher Rundfunk, April 1, 1962 - Director: Otto Kurth
- 1962: Die Panne - Director: Hans Knötzsch ( Broadcasting of the GDR )
- 1964: The trial of the donkey's shadow - Production: Bayerischer Rundfunk, Saarländischer Rundfunk , December 8, 1964 - Director: Otto Kurth
- 1967: Romulus the Great - Production: Bayerischer Rundfunk, March 12, 1968 - Director: Paul Pörtner
- 1969: Friedrich Dürrenmatt gives an introduction to his radio play “Die Panne” - Production: Westdeutscher Rundfunk Cologne , October 23, 1969
- 1974: The Mitmacher - Production: Österreichischer Rundfunk , Schweizer Radio DRS and Bayerischer Rundfunk, January 11, 1974 - Director: Hans Hausmann
- 1977: Die Frist - Production: Deutschlandfunk , November 19, 1977 (recording of the world premiere at the Schauspielhaus Zurich in a production by Kazimierz Dejmek )
- 1997: The Retired - Production: Südwestfunk and Mitteldeutscher Rundfunk , December 21, 1997 - Director: Urs Widmer
- 2004: Minotaur. A ballad - Production: Deutschlandradio , September 26, 2004 - Director: Beate Andres (Award: Prix Marulić 2005)
- 1947: It is written . A comedy. - Premiere: April 19th, Schauspielhaus Zürich , director: Kurt Horwitz .
- 1947: The blind man . A drama. - Premiere: January 10th, Stadttheater Basel , director: Ernst Ginsberg .
- 1949: Romulus the Great . A comedy. - Premiere: April 25th, Stadttheater Basel, director: Ernst Ginsberg.
- 1952: The Marriage of Mr. Mississippi - Premiere: March 26th, Münchner Kammerspiele , director: Hans Schweikart .
- 1953: An angel comes to Babylon - premier: December 22nd, Münchner Kammerspiele, director: Hans Schweikart.
- 1956: The visit of the old lady . A tragic comedy - Premiere: January 29th, Schauspielhaus Zürich, director: Oskar Wältin .
- 1956: evening hour in late autumn . Utopian comedy in one act on the phenomenology of the writer - Premiere: November 19, 1959, Berlin Renaissance Theater .
- 1957: The Breakdown - television play. 1979 version as comedy.
- 1958: It happened in broad daylight - treatment for the film, screenplay by director Ladislao Vajda , with Heinz Rühmann , Gert Fröbe , Michel Simon .
- 1959: Frank the Fifth . Opera of a private bank. (2nd version with subtitle: Comedy. 3rd version with subtitle: Comedy from a private bank.) - Premiere: March 19, Zurich Theater. Music: Paul Burkhard . Director: Oskar Wältin.
- 1962: The physicists . A comedy in two acts. - Premiere: February 20, Zurich Schauspielhaus. Director: Kurt Horwitz . Filmed in 1964 by Fritz Umgelter .
- 1963: Hercules and the stable of Augias - Premiere: March 20th, Schauspielhaus Zurich, director: Leonard Steckel .
- 1966: The Meteor . A comedy in two acts. - Premiere: January 20th, Schauspielhaus Zurich. Director: Leopold Lindtberg .
- 1967: The Anabaptists . A comedy in two parts. (Adaptation of the debut drama It is written ) - Premiere : March 16, 1967, Schauspielhaus Zürich. Director: Werner Düggelin .
- 1968: King John based on Shakespeare . Premiere: September 18th, Stadttheater Basel. Director: Werner Düggelin.
- 1969: Play Strindberg . Dance of Death after August Strindberg. - World premiere: February 8, Basel Comedy. Director: F. Dürrenmatt / Erich Holliger .
- 1970: Portrait of a Planet - Premiere: November 10th, Schauspielhaus Düsseldorf, Director: Erwin Axer .
- 1970: Titus Andronicus . A comedy based on Shakespeare - Premiere: December 12th, Schauspielhaus Düsseldorf, director: Karl-Heinz Stroux .
- 1972: The participant . Comedy. - World premiere of the comedy: March 8, 1973, Schauspielhaus Zürich, director: Andrzej Wajda .
- 1975: the deadline . A comedy. New version 1980.
- 1980: The Dawn of Poets . A comedy. - World premiere: April 4, 1987, Theater Masquerade, Bottrop (heavily modified theater version from the evening hour in late autumn ).
- 1983: Achterloo . A comedy. - Premiere: October 6th, Schauspielhaus Zurich, director: Gerd Heinz .
- 1986: role play . Charlotte Kerr : Protocol of a fictional production. [FD:] Associations with a thick felt-tip pen. Intermediate word. Achterloo III.
- 1988: Achterloo IV . Comedy. - Premiere: June 17th, rococo theater of Schwetzingen Palace on the occasion of the Schwetzingen Festival , director: FD, with Helmuth Lohner , Charlotte Kerr.
- Midas or The Black Canvas. Diogenes, Zurich 1991, ISBN 3-257-01885-1 .
- Kant's hope. Two political speeches. Two poems from the estate. With an essay by Walter Jens . Diogenes, Zurich 1991, ISBN 3-257-01890-8 .
- Thought fugue. Essays, stories and fragments from the estate. Diogenes, Zurich 1992, ISBN 3-257-01888-6 .
- The possible is immense. Selected poems. Diogenes, Zurich 1993, ISBN 3-257-01946-7 .
- Sketchbook. Angels, devils and so on. Edited by Charlotte Kerr et al. Ted Scapa . Benteli, Wabern 1994, ISBN 3-7165-0939-6 .
- The retired . Fragment of a detective novel. Diogenes, Zurich 1995, ISBN 3-257-06063-7 .
- Conversations 1961–1990 in four volumes. Edited by Heinz Ludwig Arnold . Diogenes, Zurich 1996, ISBN 3-257-06111-0 .
- Correspondence. (With Max Frisch ). Edited by Peter Rüedi . Diogenes, Zurich 1998, ISBN 3-257-06174-9 .
- The rhinoceros writes to the tigress. Picture stories. Edited by Charlotte Kerr. Erker, St. Gallen 2001, ISBN 3-905546-51-5 .
- The chess player. A fragment. Ill. V. Hannes Binder . Officina Ludi, Großhansdorf 2007, ISBN 978-3-00-022105-7 .
- Elisabeth Brock-Sulzer : Friedrich Dürrenmatt. Stations of his work. Arche, Zurich 1960; Diogenes, Zurich 1986, ISBN 3-257-21388-3 .
- Heinrich Goertz : Friedrich Dürrenmatt. Rowohlt, Reinbek 1987 (12th edition, 2011), ISBN 3-499-50380-8 (Rowohlt's Monographs 380).
- Gunter E. Grimm : Friedrich Dürrenmatt. Tectum, Marburg 2013, ISBN 978-3-8288-3118-6 (Literature Compact Vol. 5).
- Daniel Keel (Ed.): About Friedrich Dürrenmatt. Essays, testimonials and reviews from Gottfried Benn to Saul Bellow . Diogenes, Zurich 1980; 6th adult A. ibid. 1998, ISBN 3-257-20861-8 .
- Gerhard P. Knapp: Friedrich Dürrenmatt. Metzler, Stuttgart 1980; 2. revised A. ibid. 1993, ISBN 3-476-12196-8 (Metzler Collection 196).
- Jan Knopf : Friedrich Dürrenmatt. Beck, Munich 1976; 4. rework. A. ibid. 1988, ISBN 3-406-33158-0 (Beck'sche series 611).
- Thomas Markus Meier: Dürrenmatt and chance . Grünewald, Ostfildern 2012, ISBN 978-3-7867-2929-7 .
- Anna von Planta et al. (Ed.): Dürrenmatt. His life in pictures. Diogenes, Zurich 2011, ISBN 978-3-257-06766-8 . (Pictorial biography, 376 pages)
- Oliver Prange (Ed.): Du 862 - Friedrich Dürrenmatt: Thinker - Painter - World author. Du Kulturmedien, Zurich 2015, ISBN 978-3-905931-58-7 .
- Peter Rüedi : Dürrenmatt or the idea of the whole. Biography. Diogenes, Zurich 2011, ISBN 978-3-257-06797-2 .
- Lutz Tantow: Friedrich Dürrenmatt. Moralist and comedian . Heyne, Munich 1992, ISBN 3-453-05335-4 .
- Ulrich Weber: Friedrich Dürrenmatt. A biography . Diogenes, Zurich 2020, ISBN 978-3-257-07100-9 .
- Ulrich Weber, Andreas Mauz, Martin Stingelin (eds.): Dürrenmatt manual. Life - work - effect . Metzler, Stuttgart 2020, ISBN 978-3-476-02435-0 .
- Friedrich Dürrenmatt - In the labyrinth. Documentary, Switzerland, 2015, 52:30 min., Script and director: Sabine Gisiger , production: Das Kollektiv, SRG SSR , SRF , RTS , RSI , arte , series: Sternstunde Kunst , cinema premiere: January 26, 2015 at the Solothurn Film Festival , First broadcast: February 1, 2015 by SRF, summary by SRF.
- Marcel Reich-Ranicki on Friedrich Dürrenmatt. Conversation, Germany, 2001, 45:12 min., Director: Thomas M. Lindner, moderation: Peter Voss , production: SWR , series: loud difficult patients , summary by ARD .
- Portrait of a Planet - Friedrich Dürrenmatt. Documentary, Federal Republic of Germany, 1984, 241 min., Production: Kerr-Sokal Film, Süddeutscher Rundfunk , first broadcast: December 26, 1984 on SDR , new edition: 2006, 194 min., Script and director: Charlotte Kerr , distribution: Diogenes Verlag , ISBN 3-257-95140-X , table of contents from lehrerbibliothek.de .
- Friedrich Dürrenmatt in the meta catalog of the Swiss university libraries and the Swiss national library Swissbib
- Publications by and about Friedrich Dürrenmatt in the Helveticat catalog of the Swiss National Library
- Literature by and about Friedrich Dürrenmatt in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about Friedrich Dürrenmatt in the German Digital Library
- Friedrich Dürrenmatt's estate in the HelveticArchives archive database of the Swiss National Library
- Annotated link collection of the university library of the FU Berlin ( Memento from October 11, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) (Ulrich Goerdten)
- Archive recordings by and with Friedrich Dürrenmatt in the online archive of the Austrian Media Library (readings, portraits, plays, radio broadcasts)
- Friedrich Dürrenmatt in the Internet Movie Database (English)
- Author page of the Diogenes Verlag
- Katrin Künzi: Dürrenmatt, Friedrich. In: Sikart
- Ulrich Weber: Dürrenmatt, Friedrich. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland .
- Center Dürrenmatt Neuchâtel
- Peter Rüedi: Dürrenmatt or The Hunch of the Whole. Biography. Diogenes, Zurich 2011, ISBN 978-3-257-06797-2 , pp. 117, 119f .: “In the spring of 1937, FD flew out of the 'Frygymer' [...] After he was kicked out of the Free Gymnasium, his worried parents brought him to the Spring 1937 at the 'Humboldtianum' under, a private school [which] replaced fixed classes with so-called 'performance classes' ”.
- Dürrenmatt's flirt with the Nazis. In: 20 minutes . June 15, 2007, accessed January 5, 2021 .
- Rüedi, p. 273.
- Friedrich Dürrenmatt: Albert Einstein: A lecture. 1979, archived from the original on May 13, 2009 ; accessed on January 5, 2021 (reproduced on alex-hartmann.net).
- Article by Christoph Siegrist on Friedrich Dürrenmatt in Killy Literature Lexicon. Digital Library Volume 9, 1999
- Quoted from: Labyrinth. Zurich 1981, p. 11.
- literature prices Freitstaates Bavaria: winner of the Jean-Paul Award. In: km.bayern.de . Archived from the original on October 2, 2014 ; accessed on January 5, 2021 .
- Il Premio Letterario Internazionale Mondello: L'Albo d'Oro dei vincitori. In: premiomondello.it. Retrieved January 5, 2021 (Italian).
- Petri Liukkonen: Friedrich Dürrenmatt (1921–1990). In: Authors' Calendar. 2008, archived from the original on February 23, 2015 ; accessed on January 5, 2021 (English).
- Christoph Siegrist: National literary aspects in Swiss authors . In: Hanser's Social History of German Literature from the 16th Century to the Present , ed. Rolf Grimminger , Munich / Vienna 1986, ISBN 3-423-04352-0 , Vol. 10, p. 665.
- Friedrich Dürrenmatt: Theater Problems. Theatrical writings and speeches. Verlag der Arche, Zurich 1966, pp. 122–23.
- Marcel Reich-Ranicki, Thomas Anz (Ed.): My History of German Literature From the Middle Ages to the Present, Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Munich, 2014, p. 411
- Friedrich Dürrenmatt. Thinker - painter - world author. You , December 2015, accessed December 12, 2015 .
- Jürgen Seul : The universe Dürrenmatt. Gloss & Elend, accessed October 11, 2015 .
- Dürrenmatt - A Love Story (trailer). In: YouTube . Zurich Film Festival , September 14, 2015, accessed on October 11, 2015 .
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Dürrenmatt, Friedrich Reinhold (full name)|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Swiss writer, playwright and painter|
|DATE OF BIRTH||January 5, 1921|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Stalden in the Emmental|
|DATE OF DEATH||December 14, 1990|
|Place of death||Neuchâtel|