Berlin-Tempelhof Airport


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Berlin-Tempelhof Airport
Berlin Airports Logo.svg
Aerial view of the airport area
Characteristics
ICAO code EDDI (since 1995), EDBB (formerly)
IATA code THF (formerly)
Coordinates

52 ° 28 '25 "  N , 13 ° 24' 6"  E Coordinates: 52 ° 28 '25 "  N , 13 ° 24' 6"  E

Height above MSL 48 m (157  ft )
Transport links
Distance from the city center 5 km south of
Berlin ( town hall )
Street B 96 ( Tempelhofer Damm )
train Supply line from the Hermannstraße freight yard (closed)
Local transport Underground : U6

Bus: 104, 184, 140

Basic data
opening October 8, 1923
closure October 30, 2008
operator Tempelhof Projekt GmbH
until closure as an airport:
Berliner Flughafen-Gesellschaft mbH
surface 386 ha
Terminals 1
Passengers 278,555 (last 2008)
Air freight 450 t (last 2008)
Flight
movements
37,435 (most recently 2008)
Capacity
( PAX per year)
approx. 1.5 million passengers / year
Employees 1301
Runways
09R / 27L 1840 m × 43 m asphalt (closed)
09L / 27R 2094 m × 43 m asphalt (closed)



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The Berlin-Tempelhof Airport was next to the Berlin airports Johannisthal and Staaken one of the first airports in Germany and took 1,923 regular services in. Until its closure on October 30, 2008, it was one of three international airports in the greater Berlin area, along with Berlin-Tegel and Berlin-Schönefeld, and was known as the Central Airport . In 2007 around 350,000 passengers were handled there.

Since 2010 the former airport site has been designated by the State of Berlin and its companies with the project name Tempelhofer Freiheit and is open to the public. In the media and in colloquial language, however, the Tempelhofer Feld is mostly spoken of.

Location and transport links

The site of the former Tempelhof Airport is located in the inner city area of ​​Berlin within the S-Bahn ring , four kilometers south of the city ​​center and 51  m above sea level. NHN . The airport building and most of the airfield are located in the Tempelhof district , the airfield extends east into the Neukölln district .

The former Berlin-Tempelhof airport can be reached via junction  20 of the A 100 (city motorway) and the Tempelhofer Damm section of the federal highway 96 . The Mehring- and Columbiadamm as well as the access roads Manfred-von-Richthofen- and Dudenstraße also lead to the airport . These streets end at Airlift Square , where the main entrance to the airport building is located. The former airport is connected to public transport by the U6 line of the Berlin subway with the Platz der Luftbrücke station, through which u. a. the regional train station Friedrichstrasse can be reached; Bus routes  104 and 248 also stop at the former airport site and at the underground station .

history

Emergence

Historic poplar trees on the Tempelhof field, which came from the time of the soldier king.
Here the 3rd Guard Regiment paraded past her
on foot .

The area on which Tempelhof Airport was built - the Tempelhofer Feld  - was formerly a parade ground . The first powered flight on Tempelhofer Feld took place in 1909. On January 28, the Frenchman Armand Zipfel (1883–1954) started his public demonstrations here. At the invitation of the Berliner Lokal-Anzeiger , he flew with his Voisin biplane until mid-February 1909 with great public interest . From September 4 to 20, 1909, Orville Wright also carried out demonstration flights in the field, including setting a world record for altitude of 172 m and making a passenger flight of 1:35 h for the first time. In October Hubert Latham (1883–1912) carried out the first cross-country flight over a town from Tempelhofer Feld via Rixdorf and Britz to the Johannisthal airfield .

After the First World War , in 1919 the municipal councils of Neukölln and Tempelhof, on whose territory the Tempelhof field was located, voted against building the field. It was only after an initiative by the Reich Ministry of Transport in December 1921 that the affected communities and Berlin switched to the construction of an airport, but this was combined with the will to create a public park on the northern edge of Tempelhofer Feld and a sports park on it eastern side. The city ​​council of Greater Berlin made the decision to build the airport on February 21, 1923 based on a submission by the Berlin City Councilor for Transport, Leonhard Adler . At the beginning of March 1923, Junkers Luftverkehrsgesellschaft demonstrated the suitability of the Tempelhofer Feld with special flights from five Junkers F 13 to Leipzig-Mockau Airport . Among the passengers were President Friedrich Ebert and the director of the Reich Air Office , Traugott Bredow . In April 1923, some sightseeing flights were organized from the Tempelhofer Feld for Berlin personalities from politics and business. There was a plane crash over the Hasenheide, in which a Berlin city councilor also died. Regardless of this misfortune, the Berlin city council voted on May 3, 1923 to build the airport.

Provisional

At the expense of Junkers Luftverkehr AG and Deutsche Aero Lloyd , from June 1923 a piece of land was leveled on the northern edge of Tempelhofer Feld and two wooden hangars, each with an area of ​​1000 m², and a station building were built. The plant was later to become the property of the city of Berlin. Flight operations began on October 8, 1923 with a provisional concession from the Reich Ministry of Transport. Several hundred spectators watched the take-off of two flights that day, one to Munich , the other to Gdansk .

Berliner Flughafen-Gesellschaft mbH (BFG), which still exists today, was founded on May 19, 1924; its first supervisory board chairman was Leonhard Adler. The company's task was to "expand and operate the airport on Tempelhofer Feld and other air traffic facilities in Berlin". Partners were initially the Berlin magistrate and from September 27, 1924 the German Reich . In 1925 the Free State of Prussia also took part in the company. Plans to create a location for exhibition facilities on a section of the Tempelhofer Feld were abandoned in the course of 1924 in favor of the Charlottenburg exhibition center .

First construction phase

With the capital now available, the expansion of the airport could begin. An area of ​​around 1.5 million m² was leveled in the center of the Tempelhofer Feld: Elevations of up to four meters and depressions of up to five meters, as well as the slight slope of the area to the south, had to be compensated for. For this purpose, 140,000 m³ of the excavation of the extension of the north-south subway, which is currently under construction (today's U6 line ), was used, which corresponded to almost half of the filler floor required. In addition, the Berlin rubbish was brought onto the airport site for a long time: 18,000 loads of rubbish formed the filling compound for the underground of the site.

Terminal building at the junction between Lilienthalstrasse (from top right) and Flughafenstrasse, 1928
Waiting area of ​​the Deutsche Luft Hansa AG , in the background some traffic planes, April 1930

At the end of 1924, the construction of the large hangar began. The three western halls were built with a floor area of ​​64 m × 25 m and a height of 6 m. However, these dimensions quickly proved to be too small, which is why the three eastern halls were built with a base area of ​​80 m × 30 m and a height of 8 m. In addition to the halls, a headlight tower as well as a radio station and the dispatch building were built. The buildings were located north of the airfield on Flughafenstrasse, which ran as an extension of Paradestrasse in a west-east direction, at the confluence of Lilienthalstrasse.

The first phase of construction was completed in 1927 and could be reached via the then newly opened Flughafen U-Bahn station (today: U-Bahnhof Paradestrasse ). An airport connection via a subway was unique in the world at the time.

The first scheduled air traffic led to Munich with connections to Switzerland or Austria and further to the Balkans , as well as to Königsberg with connection to the route flown from London via Berlin-Staaken to Moscow . From the opening on October 8, 1923 to the end of the year, a total of 100 take-offs and landings with 150 passengers and 1,300 kg of cargo were carried out.

Deutsche Luft Hansa AG , formed on January 6, 1926 from the union of Junkers Luftverkehr AG and Deutscher Aero Lloyd , made Tempelhof their home airport (see also: History of Lufthansa ). From there, on the day operations began, April 6, 1926 - air traffic had still been idle in winter - the first scheduled flight to Dübendorf ( Zurich ) took place.

Second construction phase

In a second construction phase, the terminal building was lengthened and raised, which is now a large building clad with clinker bricks. There was an airport restaurant operated by MITROPA , which could now occupy two further guest rooms, a visitor terrace and an airport hotel. But long before this section was opened in the spring of 1929, the BFG demanded that the airfield be extended to the south, where allotment garden colonies were located. She justified her request with the strong increase in air traffic in Tempelhof on the one hand and the reduction of the taxiing area due to increasing concreting of the parking areas for the aircraft on the other. After the protest of the affected allotment gardeners and the effects of the global economic crisis from 1930, this project was initially not pursued further.

New building

The Zaschka human-powered aircraft of Engelbert Zaschka could reach 1934 in Tempelhof unassisted jumpstart hovers of 20 m length

In the 1930s, the old Tempelhof Airport was at the forefront of European air traffic with its traffic volume, ahead of Paris , Amsterdam and London . The limits of the technical possibilities were soon reached, and in January 1934 - still under the BFG house architect Heinrich Kosina - the first planning work for a new building for a large airport on Tempelhofer Feld began. In July 1935, the architect Ernst Sagebiel received the planning contract for the new building from the Reich Aviation Ministry , which corresponded to the new urban planning ideas and monumental architecture under National Socialism and also had to anticipate the development of aviation for a longer period of time. The airport was planned for up to six million passengers a year. The facility should not only be used for air traffic, it should also be used for events such as the Reichsflugtag and should provide a seat for as many aviation-related agencies and institutions as possible. This new building also met all the requirements of a military airfield at the time.

Columbia concentration camp memorial on Columbiadamm , near the former Tempelhof Airport

The airport building, which was built in 1936, was after its completion in 1941 with a gross floor area of 307,000 m² for two years the largest building in the world before it was replaced by the Pentagon in Arlington . The total length of the arched part of the building (see also architecture below) is around 1.2 km - making it one of the longest buildings in Europe. The airfield was laid out as an oval grass field with a diameter of almost 2 km, so that the relatively light aircraft at that time, including the Ju 52 , could take off and land exactly against the wind. By including the Volkspark, the sports fields and allotment areas around the old airport and adding part of the garrison cemetery , the airport area was expanded to over 4.5 million m². The new airport facility was constructed on this site - around the old airport - without any disruption to flight operations during the construction work. The remains of the old airport were only removed by emergency workers in the 1950s. The underground access shifted with the new building to the Kreuzberg station, which was then renamed the airport (today: Platz der Luftbrücke ).

From the beginning of October 1939 to the beginning of March 1940, the Rangsdorf airfield served as a replacement for civil air traffic in Tempelhof because the Nazi regime feared Allied air raids on the inner-city airfield. Buses transported the passengers between the center of Berlin and Rangsdorf.

Dissolution of the Columbia concentration camp

The early National Socialist Columbia concentration camp , which opened on December 27, 1934, was located directly at the new building and was closed due to the new building. It operated until November 5, 1936 and was demolished in 1938. A memorial designed by Georg Seibert and the Friends' Association for the commemoration of the Nazi crimes on and around the Tempelhofer Flugfeld e. V. with events, guided tours and exhibitions.

Use as an aircraft factory and forced labor

In December 1939, Hermann Göring ordered parts of the production at the Weserflug factory in Lemwerder to be relocated to Tempelhof. The new airport construction site has become one of the largest final assembly plants for bombers in the world. There " Weserflug " produced almost 2000 Ju 87s ( under license ) and around 170 Fw 190s . Production was mainly carried out in hangars 3 to 7, the boarding hall (which was therefore given a wooden outer facade), the 5000 m² reception hall, the cargo hall below and, with the start of Fw 190 production since 1943, also in the railway tunnel. Around half of the 4,150 Weserflug employees in Tempelhof (1944) were forced laborers .

From 1940, Lufthansa also used the new airport building for production purposes. In Hangar 2, their Dural workshop repaired bullet damage to Air Force aircraft, and in Hangar 1 the “Würzburg” radar devices developed by Telefunken were installed. In Tempelhof and later also at other locations, Lufthansa had manufactured an estimated 4,000 of these devices, which were used in air defense, by the end of the war. During this time Lufthansa also employed forced laborers who were housed in barracks on the airfield.

After the annexation of the Czech Republic in March 1939, Czech women and men from the “ Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia ” were obliged to work in the Reich and deployed to the Tempelhof plant on the Weser flight. In the course of the Second World War, people from almost all other occupied countries in Europe joined them.

From 1941 all men were drafted into the armed forces . They were replaced by " Eastern workers " - families who were abducted from Eastern Europe , especially the Soviet Union . The Reich Aviation Ministry (as the owner of the airport) had the first camps built for Reich German workers. These barracks were also used as accommodations for forced laborers and (French) prisoners of war. Weser-Flugzeugbau and Lufthansa had additional warehouses built. The camps and accommodations were on the airfield near Columbiadamm, Tempelhofer Damm and the old airport building. At Columbiadamm there was also a not yet explored “Russian camp”, which was triple fenced and heavily guarded. Construction work continued even after the war began; At the end of the war in 1945 the new airport was not yet fully completed. Air traffic continued to be handled via the old airport facility, which was more and more damaged by Allied air raids during the war . The rest of the civil air traffic was completely stopped shortly before the end of the war - also due to a lack of fuel. The old airport was in the status of a 1939 air base of the Air Force collected and was used for testing and delivery of the machines built at Weserflug. On April 22, 1945, the last Lufthansa aircraft left Tempelhof in the direction of Warnemünde (see also the history of Lufthansa ).

In the course of the Battle of Berlin , the Red Army captured Tempelhof Airport and also freed the remaining forced laborers, who literally had to work here until the last minute.

Use as an air base

From 1935, an air base command of the Luftwaffe was set up for military flight operations . From 1933 to March 1944, the Fuhrer's Fliegerstaffel des Führers (FdF) was the ready-to- fly station of the Reich government at the time. In August 1939, as part of the mobilization, the combat squadron zbV 172 was set up here as a transport squadron with transport machines of the Junkers Ju 52 / 3m type . Many Lufthansa crews served in the squadron with their transport planes that had become free due to the cessation of civilian flight operations. From August 1939, the test center for high-altitude flights was located here before moving to Oranienburg airfield in November 1939 . From 1939 the school of the Reich Weather Service had its domicile in the buildings of the airfield.

End of war

When the front approached at the end of April 1945, the airport was to be defended. The airport commander at the time, Colonel Rudolf Böttger, and some senior Lufthansa employees circumvented this order, however, by having the weapons provided and setting up a field hospital. This did not lead to a defense of the airport, which could have led to its complete destruction. Böttger evaded Adolf Hitler's extermination order to blow up the entire complex by suicide . According to other sources, he was shot by an officer of the Waffen SS for refusing to give orders . In fact, the concrete floor of the main hall was blown up, so that it fell onto the luggage level below and the main hall became unusable. On 28/29 April 1945 Red Army troops occupied the Tempelhof district and the airport.

The new buildings were largely spared from destruction, but there were several fires that also severely damaged the steel structure of the hall buildings. The buildings of the old airport were completely destroyed and the airfield was littered with impacts. The underground bunker with the film archive also burned down completely, and all films were destroyed in the process.

Shortly after the end of the fighting, former Lufthansa and Weserflug employees set up the Hansa workshops , a vehicle repair workshop , in the airport building. With the approval of the Tempelhof district administration, the company collected the wrecked cars standing around in the streets and assembled cars that were still ready to drive from usable parts.

Use by the U.S. Forces

Tempelhof Air Base, 1945
Tempelhof Air Base, 1988

On July 2, 1945, the Red Army left the airfield so that it could be taken over by the Americans (473rd Air Services Group) before their official arrival on July 4. Tempelhof Central Airport (TCA), which received the Allied code designation Airfield R.95 , was established on July 2, 1945, and the clean-up work began the following day. All files, personal papers and almost all construction plans of the still unfinished building were destroyed. Flight operations began in August 1945 to bring passengers to the Potsdam Conference . The US Army Air Forces (USAAF, from 1947 US Air Force ) stationed the 301 Troop Carrier Squadron with Douglas C-47 Skytrain in August 1945 , which was replaced in January 1946 by the 306 Troop Carrier Squadron relocated from Munich.

In 1946, Tempelhof Airport, located in the US sector , became a military base that was mainly used by the USAAF. It was named Tempelhof Air Base . The first task was the repair of Halls 1 and 2, which were urgently needed for the maintenance and storage of the aircraft. In addition, a paved runway had to be created so that heavier aircraft could land. This was done first with the help of perforated plate elements from the pioneer units. On May 18, 1946, the first civil aircraft landed on this runway, a DC-4 operated by American Overseas Airlines , which served the route New York - Frankfurt - Berlin once a week .

At the same time, however, the construction of the paved runway system in the main wind direction east-west was already started. During the airlift, the French military administration also laid the first runway in Tegel in order to relieve the pressure on Tempelhof, which was urgently needed.This was the origin of today 's Tegel Airport .

The US Army stationed in 1951 in Tempelhof an Army aviation unit with an initial three helicopters of the type Hiller H-23A Raven as part of the 6th Infantry Regiment. Over the years it was called the Berlin Brigade BBDE Avn.Det. known. The Hiller H-23A were soon replaced by Bell OH-13 Sioux . This was followed by Sikorsky H-19 Chikasaw (1958-1964), Sikorsky H-34 Choctaw (1962-1964), Bell UH-1B (May 1966-March 1971) and finally from March 1971 until it was dissolved in August 1994 Bell UH-1H .

Fixed-wing aircraft included Cessna O-1 Bird Dog (until 1975), de Havilland Canada U-6 Beaver (until 1979), Cessna O-2A (1975–1979), Pilatus UV-20A Chiricahua (1979–1991), Beechcraft U-8D Seminole , Beechcraft U-21 (until 1986 and 1991-1994), and Beechcraft C-12C (1986-1991).

Airlift

Unloading of the raisin bombers at Tempelhof Airport, 1948

Civil aviation now grew steadily. The BEA had been flying to Gatow Airport since 1946, and on January 5, 1950, Air France began flying to Tempelhof from Berlin. The airport was given a new meaning in 1948: together with the Gatow airfield , and later also Tegel Airport , it served to transport food and goods for Berlin by plane during the blockade of West Berlin . A large part of the cargo consisted of fuel. The vital supply through the Berlin Airlift between various West German cities and Berlin lasted from June 26, 1948 to May 12, 1949. In Tempelhof, the planes took off and landed at 90-second intervals. The American pilot Gail Halvorsen popularized the dropping of candy during the approach to Tempelhof with parachutes made of handkerchiefs from the cockpit windows, which was adopted by other pilots and gave the aircraft the legendary name of raisin bombers . The southern runway was built for the smooth operation of the airlift. This has since interrupted the Oderstrasse in Neukölln.

Berlin Airlift Monument in May 2002

The monument on the square in front of the airport commemorates the historical supply flights and the people who perished in the process. In Berlin vernacular it is known as the hunger rake or hunger claw because of its appearance . Other monuments of the same type are located at Frankfurt Airport and, in a somewhat smaller version, at Celle Army Airfield . On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Airlift, the Bundeswehr celebrated a big tattoo on June 27, 1998 at Tempelhof Airport .

"West Berlin" airport

After the blockade, the West Berlin Senate asked the Americans to release some of the facilities for civil use. On July 1, 1950, the American High Commissioner granted the Senate the right to take over part of Tempelhof Airport for civil use. As a result, a handling system was built in a very small space on the southern part with access from Tempelhofer Damm, which was designed for a capacity of 20,000 passengers per month. The main hall, which later served as a dispatch facility, was still in the shell and badly damaged. On July 9, 1951, the new facility was opened to traffic. This was the first time that the facility, which was started in 1936, took over its official function. The three western allied airlines Pan Am , BEA and Air France now flew to Tempelhof together.

Passenger air traffic now developed faster than expected, as this was the only way to get from West Berlin to West Germany without controls by the GDR . The refugees who could not leave West Berlin by land also played a major role in this . At the end of 1951, 320,000 passengers were carried. In 1954 Tempelhof Airport had more than 650,000 passengers, most of whom were carried by the western allied airlines BEA, later British Airways , Air France (only until 1960) and Pan Am.

Of the three runways that were created during the blockade , the middle one was removed in 1957/1958. The other two were completely redone during the 1950s. During the blockade, perforated sheets were first laid and these were later covered with a layer of asphalt, which first had to be removed. In 1954 the northern runway was built with a length of 2093 m and the southern one with a length of 2116 m.

At the end of the 1950s, the available systems could no longer cope with the number of passengers (in 1960 there were already 1.5 million). Through negotiations in 1959 it was achieved that the US Air Force released further areas previously used by the military for civil use. These were the forecourt (also known as the courtyard ), the office building with the entrance hall (also known as the hall of honor ) and the dispatch building with the large main hall, which were restored or completed by the BFG. The southern part at Tempelhofer Damm was now used for civil aviation, while the northern part at Columbiadamm was still used by the Americans for military purposes. On July 2, 1962, the new handling facilities, which are designed for 200,000 to 250,000 passengers per month, were opened.

Unused upper part of the entrance hall (year 2009)

The buildings were predominantly made of reinforced concrete or brick and the visible surfaces were clad with natural stone slabs. The 90 m wide, 9 m deep and 15 m high entrance hall in front of the main hall was already completed by the end of the war. In order to be able to obtain building material for the visible surfaces of the heavily damaged main hall, the entrance hall was divided by the installation of a concrete false ceiling just below the 21 large hall windows and the room height was significantly reduced. The entrance zone created below the false ceiling appears relatively inconspicuous. The 10 m high remainder of the original entrance hall remaining above the false ceiling is not used - it can be viewed during guided tours. In the main hall, the heavily damaged stucco ceiling, originally hanging at a height of 19 m, has been replaced by a coffered ceiling suspended at a height of 15 m. The ceiling heating is housed in the eleven 5.60 mx 22.50 m cassettes . This ceiling can be walked on so that the heating and lighting can be maintained.

Eight years after the large check-in hall went into operation, the capacity limit was again reached in 1970, although Air France had moved to Tegel Airport when the Caravelle was introduced in 1960 . In 1968, charter and package tours were initially relocated to Tegel. In 1971, the capacity could be increased again through a number of modifications and improvements, but the decision was nevertheless made to discontinue the remaining regular services in Tempelhof and relocate it to Tegel. From 1970 to 1974, the “candy pilot” Gail Halvorsen , who became famous through the Berlin Airlift, was in command of Tempelhof Airport.

In the summer of 1975 Tempelhof was closed to civil air traffic and replaced by the newly built Tegel Airport (on the site of the French military airfield, according to plans by the Hamburg architects Gerkan, Marg and Partner ). The airport owner and operator was now exclusively the US Army Aviation Detachment with the 7350th ABG (Air Base Group) unit. Various types of helicopters and aircraft were operated, most recently six Bell UH-1 H helicopters, one Beechcraft C-12 C and two Pilatus UV-20 A.

On August 30, 1978, a LOT machine was hijacked on its flight from Gdansk to Berlin-Schönefeld and forced to land in Tempelhof. Since the motive was an escape from the GDR, diplomatic upheavals occurred between the two blocs in the middle of the Cold War .

Reopening 1981-2008

North 262 of Tempelhof Airways , Tempelhof Airport, 1988
BAe 146 of Brussels Airlines at night in Berlin-Tempelhof
BAe 146 of Brussels Airlines , Tempelhof Airport, 2004
Saab 340 of the dahair in front of the airport building, 2005

In 1981 Tempelhof was reopened for civil aviation, i.e. for business travel, which has been a focus of the airport since then, and for airlines with smaller flight material. The US regional airline Tempelhof Airways was one of the first airlines to start its shuttle service between Tempelhof and Paderborn with a Nord 262 on behalf of the Nixdorf computer company , whose main operations and offices were in Paderborn and West Berlin . In 1990 more than 400,000 passengers were counted again. Even until a short time after the political turnaround , passengers were initially not processed via the main hall used in the past, but rather via a relatively small area, the later GAT (processing area for general aviation), southwest of the main hall. The main hall itself was reopened somewhat surprisingly on December 16, 1990 by the airport operator due to the rapidly increasing number of passengers. It was not until the beginning of 1992 that the service there was fully adapted to a certain standard: a hall bar was built, the new restaurant opened above the main hall with a view of the apron, new display boards for departures and arrivals were installed, and a new baggage claim belt for domestic flights the main hall went into operation.

The US Air Force handed over the airport completely to BFG when it left Berlin in 1993. Due to the relatively short runway with only 2116 m, the size of the aircraft for scheduled flights was limited to the usual narrow-body aircraft , so that it was used as a civil airport mainly for domestic German and European destinations. The US Air Force was only able to use large transport aircraft such as the Lockheed C-5 Galaxy at the airport under restricted conditions. Twice landed a Boeing 747 of Pan American in Tempelhof. On September 18, 1976 a Boeing 747 SP, coming from Amsterdam, landed on the occasion of the open house and on June 12, 1987 a Boeing 747-121 from / to Frankfurt am Main with 300 journalists on the occasion of the visit of US President Ronald Reagan .

Air Race on Tempelhof Airport, 2006

On May 27, 2006, the airport hosted the Red Bull Air Race . During the 2006 soccer World Cup , the airport experienced another significant increase in air traffic, as it was used for numerous special flights, and numerous private flights for VIP guests and sponsors were handled. Since 2007, the Zeppelin University - supported by the Zeppelin Foundation , among others - has had a location in the airport foyer. On September 8, 2007, on the occasion of the "Reisemarkt" event, a large-capacity Airbus A330 -200 aircraft from LTU landed in Tempelhof, which demonstrated problem-free handling of the short runway as well as several go-around maneuvers with passengers on board due to the high power excess of modern engines and the low load. In 2007 and 2008 there were numerous so-called fly-ins from private planes organized by aviation associations and clubs, which brought up to 180 smaller aircraft to Tempelhof at the same time.

Closure of the airport

Scoreboard at the end of the check-in hall, 2008
Entrance area in front of the check-in hall, 2008
Empty check-in hall of the main building, 2017

In contrast to Tegel Airport, the first zoning plan for reunified Berlin from 1994 already envisaged a rededication of the airport grounds with future use as commercial, residential, park, sports and special areas. In the so-called “consensus decision” in 1996, Federal Transport Minister Matthias Wissmann (CDU), Berlin's Governing Mayor Eberhard Diepgen (CDU) and Brandenburg's Prime Minister Manfred Stolpe (SPD) agreed on the construction of a major Berlin Brandenburg airport , which also resulted in the closure of the Tempelhof and inner-city airports Tegel was agreed. The Berlin Senate issued after a successful planning approval for the airport Berlin Brandenburg in 2003 the ruling that freed the BFG from the obligation to operate the airport. According to the operating company, the flight operations were in deficit at this point in time; the resulting loss for 2003 was given as 15.3 million euros. Some airlines took legal action against this decision. In preliminary legal protection proceedings, the Berlin Higher Administrative Court ruled on September 23, 2004 that the lawsuits have a suspensive effect and that flight operations must be maintained until the main issue has been decided. The court promised a decision in favor of the plaintiffs on the main issue. The Senate then withdrew the decision and prepared a more in-depth decision on the cessation of operations, which was issued in August 2006 and provided for the end of the obligation to operate on October 31, 2007.

The airlines' lawsuit against the new decision was heard on December 19 and 21, 2006 before the OVG in Berlin. A settlement proposed by the OVG to recognize a decision dated October 2008 failed due to the lack of consent from most of the plaintiff airlines. The Berlin Senate took up the settlement of the OVG and again changed the decision to revoke the operating permit for Tempelhof Airport , which now stipulated October 31, 2008 as the date for the closure. The Berlin-Brandenburg Higher Administrative Court and the Federal Administrative Court finally confirmed the Senate's decision.

Initiatives from the population

Supporter of the ICAT referendum 2008 by district

From 1986 residents fought with the Tempelhof Airport Citizens 'Initiative , from which the non- flight Tempelhof Citizens' Initiative (BIFT) with 11 founding members emerged in 2008, for the closure of Tempelhof Airport.

The City-Airport Tempelhof (ICAT) interest group with 1250 members, founded in 1995, opposed the closure of the airport . In 2006 she initiated a referendum . For this purpose, signatures were first collected from the end of November 2006. On May 8, 2007, the Berlin Senate confirmed the collection of almost 30,000 valid signatures. This provided the proof of at least 20,000 supporters required by the Berlin constitution to initiate a referendum. In the period from October 15, 2007 to February 14, 2008, every Berliner who was eligible to vote could support the referendum by signing in one of the Berlin citizens' offices. The referendum was also supported by the action alliance be-4-tempelhof , the SPD voters for Tempelhof Airport and other initiatives. On January 30, 2008, the required quorum of 170,000 signatures was reached. A total of 208,000 declarations of consent were issued.

From March 2008, the alliance of ten parties and organizations for a flight-free Tempelhof u. a. with 40,000 posters across the city (slogan: "No! to flight operations in Tempelhof"). The initiators included the SPD , Die Linke , Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen and the Federation for Environment and Nature Conservation (BUND), and the BIFT, the Verkehrsclub Deutschland (VCD), the Arbeiterwohlfahrt (AWO) and the Naturschutzbund Deutschland (NABU) are also involved. .

The Tempelhof referendum initiated by the ICAT remains a commercial airport! took place on April 27, 2008. It was rejected because, with a turnout of 36.1%, 60.1% of the participants voted in favor, but based on all eligible voters, this only resulted in an approval of 21.7%; a quarter of those entitled to vote would have been necessary. The cost of carrying out the referendum was around 2.5 million euros. The ICAT lodged a constitutional complaint with the Constitutional Court against the result of the referendum . On October 27, 2008, the latter decided that the referendum does not have to be repeated.

Result according to information from the head of the regional voting in Berlin in relative sizes
No. district Participation
(voting area)
Yes
(participant)
Yes
(voting area)
No
(participant)
Invalid
(participant)
1 centerBerlin center 30.9% 58.4% 18.0% 41.4% 0.2%
2 Friedrichshain-KreuzbergBerlin Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg 30.6% 39.2% 12.0% 60.5% 0.3%
3 PankowBerlin Pankow 28.4% 34.0% 09.6% 65.8% 0.2%
4th Charlottenburg-WilmersdorfBerlin Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf 43.2% 71.6% 31.0% 28.2% 0.2%
5 SpandauBerlin Spandau 36.2% 75.8% 27.6% 24.0% 0.2%
6th Steglitz-ZehlendorfBerlin Steglitz-Zehlendorf 50.8% 73.8% 37.5% 26.0% 0.2%
7th Tempelhof-SchönebergBerlin Tempelhof-Schöneberg 47.1% 70.1% 33.0% 29.7% 0.2%
8th NeuköllnBerlin Neukölln 41.7% 74.1% 30.9% 25.7% 0.2%
9 Treptow-KoepenickBerlin Treptow-Koepenick 33.2% 44.3% 14.7% 55.5% 0.2%
10 Marzahn-HellersdorfBerlin Marzahn-Hellersdorf 23.1% 33.4% 07.7% 66.3% 0.3%
11 LichtenbergBerlin Lichtenberg 24.8% 30.4% 07.6% 69.4% 0.2%
12 ReinickendorfBerlin Reinickendorf 43.3% 77.0% 33.3% 22.8% 0.2%
13 Berlin coat of arms Berlin (overall) 36.1% 60.1% 21.7% 39.7% 0.2%
Colors of the district numbers: formerly west , formerly east , west / east fusion district

The Citizens 'Initiative for the Re-Use of Tempelhof Airport (NANU THF) was formed in 2007 for the re-use of Berlin-Tempelhof Airport and the Tempelhof Citizens' Initiative is committed to opening the fenced-in airport for everyone .

The Senate Department for Urban Development had the decision for on 7 June 2007 declassification announced the airport premises as of October 31 of 2008. Two lawsuits have been filed with the Higher Administrative Court against this decision. On December 17, 2008, the ICAT dismissed the action brought by the ICAT as unfounded and declared that of a private individual to be inadmissible. Both plaintiffs had not been violated in their own rights. A revision was not allowed. The procedure had no effect on the cessation of flight operations.

The last flights

Terminal hall with lettering, 2007

The last charter flight and at the same time the last take-off of a jet from Berlin-Tempelhof took place on October 30, 2008 at 10:12 pm with the Boeing 737-700 D-ABAB of Air Berlin under flight number AB1001 with the captains Funke and Altenscheidt in the cockpit. The flight landed in Berlin-Tegel after only 22 minutes at 10:34 p.m., ending the history of jet flying from Tempelhof. Only five minutes later, a Dornier 328 of Cirrus Airlines with the registration D-CIRP took off at 10:17 p.m. as the last scheduled flight in the direction of Mannheim. Cirrus Airlines and some of their pilots had a special bond with Tempelhof Airport, and so the last daylight departure of this airline from Tempelhof said goodbye to the D-COSA aircraft with a lap of honor over the southern part of the city and another low Fly over runway 27L from the airport. The last aircraft to officially take off from Tempelhof were a Douglas DC-3 ( raisin bomber ) and the Junkers Ju 52 / 3m “Berlin-Tempelhof” of the Deutsche Lufthansa Berlin-Stiftung , which took off from both runways at 11:55 pm , waved their wings and turned away to the southeast, towards Schönefeld.

The last official landing of an aircraft in Berlin-Tempelhof was the Piper PA31T1 Cheyenne I with the registration D-ILCE. She landed on an ambulance flight after 10 p.m. on October 30, 2008 and left the airport after a short stay at the GAT area.

Three small aircraft operated under visual flight rules (VFR) had to remain at the airport on October 30, 2008 due to poor weather conditions. They were only able to leave the airport on November 24, 2008 as the very last take-off after an official external take-off permit. These were the Antonow An-2 double-decker D-FBAW of the airline LTS MiniHansa and D-FWJC of the airline Air Tempelhof, which took off on November 24, 2008 at 12:11 and 12:12 in quick succession towards Strausberg and Finow ; followed by the Beechcraft F33A Bonanza D-EDBS, which left Tempelhof Airport at 12:15 in the direction of Schönhagen .

The current last flight movement was at Tempelhof Airport on June 26, 2010. The Socata TB 10 Tobago coming from Tegel Airport with the registration D-EGKJ was on a sightseeing flight over the city. Due to a loss of power in the engine, the pilot decided to make an emergency landing on runway 27L at Tempelhof Airport, which has now been closed, so as not to take any further risk of landing outside in the middle of the city. The restart of the Tempelhof machine would have been possible. However, the Senate did not approve it, and so the aircraft had to be partially dismantled and finally taken off the site on June 30, 2010 on a low-loader .

Change of ownership

As a former Reich property, the airport site originally belonged to the federal government, from 2005 to the Federal Agency for Real Estate Tasks (BImA) and the State of Berlin as co-owner. In 2009, BImA sold its stake to the State of Berlin at a price of 35 million euros. The State of Berlin is thus the sole owner of the listed building complex and the large open spaces.

After reunification, the state of Berlin had asserted claims to former imperial assets, including the then federally owned areas of Tempelhof Airport; the federal government rejected the claims. A norm review application by the state before the Federal Constitutional Court was unsuccessful in 2008. It is not certain whether the requirements for a recidivism claim by Berlin under the Reich Property Law on the federal areas of the airport were met, as the state had missed the relevant deadline. Berlin tried to pursue its claims through administrative legal channels, but was unsuccessful in 2011 in the second instance before the OVG Berlin-Brandenburg and finally in 2013 with the appeal at the Federal Administrative Court .

Reuse, development

Opening of the Tempelhof airfield to the public in May 2010

Various re-use concepts were discussed and partially rejected. There was a plan that the International Garden Exhibition (IGA) should take place on the site in 2017 . In July 2012, the Berlin Senate rejected these plans because the use of the park by the citizens developed better than expected and an increase in the attractiveness of the site no longer seemed necessary for this purpose. In this context, there were protests in advance against the fee-based IGA, which would restrict the use of Tempelhofer Feld for many visitors. For 2020 it was planned to host part of the International Building Exhibition (IBA) on the site.

At the beginning of August 2013, an expert report, which had been kept under lock and key, was announced that put the costs for the necessary renovation of the building at EUR 478 million. 144 million euros are necessary to maintain the substance.

Tempelhofer Freiheit

On March 5, 2008, the Berlin Senate Department for Urban Development presented the urban development project Tempelhofer Freiheit as a subsequent use concept for the airport site . The basis was the planning concept from 1998/1999 from the airport to the airlift park. This includes the establishment of a Tempelhof Forum THF for culture, media and creative industries in the listed former airport building and the paved apron areas to the south. On the edges of the former airfield, new residential complexes are to be built in the city districts of Tempelhof (west to south), Neukölln (east) and the new north-east Columbia district. In between, the 220  hectare undeveloped green area of ​​the former airfield is to be developed as a park landscape with numerous recreational uses. The meadow area, which is largely kept open, will then continue to serve to equalize the temperature of the urban climate.

Tempelhofer Park , which is located on the former airfield, has been open to the public since May 8, 2010 . During the day, the site can be entered through ten entrances located on Tempelhofer Damm, Columbiadamm and Oderstrasse.

A popular initiative turns against the name Tempelhofer Freiheit , as it is playing down the Nazi history of this historical place.

Interim uses

Airport entrance at the Festival of Lights 2011

Since it was closed on October 30, 2008, around 26,000 visitors (as of September 2010) have visited the listed airport building.

Film studio Babelsberg

After the failed referendum to withdraw the Berlin Senate's closure decision, the Babelsberg film studio renewed its offer to invest in several film studios and Europe's largest stock of props and costumes in the Tempelhof airport building.

Fairground

On January 29, 2009, the Berlin Immobilienmanagement GmbH (BIM) responsible for Tempelhof Airport signed a ten-year contract with the Bread & Butter fashion fair . The fashion fair will rent all hangars, the apron and the main hall of the former Tempelhof Airport twice a year for one month each.

Since 2009, the Berlin Vital trade fair , which is part of the supporting program of the annual Berlin Half Marathon in spring and the Berlin Marathon in autumn, has been held twice a year in the building of the former airport. According to the organizer, the fair is the largest German sports and health fair.

The youth fair YOU   and the international fair for environmental technology Clean Tech World   took place for the first time in September 2010 in Tempelhof.

Sports

At the beginning of August 2009, the Berlin Senate, in cooperation with the Berlin Ice Sports Association and the ice hockey team of the ECC Preussen , decided that an ice rink should be installed in the former Hangar 3. This ice rink was built because the club needed a replacement area for its 800 ice athletes due to the closure of the Deutschlandhalle . Initially without grandstands and only planned for training, three small grandstands were built for the 2010/2011 ice hockey season, which can be used by 199 spectators.

Several hangars at the airport were used at the end of September / beginning of October 2009 to host a highly endowed national horse show known as the capital city tournament . The fun sport event Swatch freestyle.berlin also took place in October 2009 . In November 2009 the 17th Kondius Berlin marathon relay competition was held on the site .

On October 4th, 2009 the gymnastics community in Berlin 1848 e. V. (TiB) put the outdoor sports facilities on the site of the former airport in Berlin-Tempelhof back into operation. The TiB took two softball fields, eastern has been for the baseball operations of the Berlin Rangers rebuilt. The facility also has two tennis courts and a sand court for speed badminton , beach volleyball and beach soccer .

The formula e , a series of exclusively electric drive powered race car , was in the 2014/15 season on a temporary track on the former airport apron the 2015 Berlin Eprix out.

The asphalt circuit is particularly popular with runners. The length of the route is 6,218 m and is not very demanding from a running point of view, as the circuit with only 53  meters of altitude has no significant inclines. The starting point is the main entrance on Columbiadamm and you follow the route marked with purple dots in a clockwise direction .

Refugee shelter

In connection with the refugee crisis in Germany in 2015/2016 , the airport hangars were used as emergency shelters for refugees from the end of October 2015 to December 2018. At times, up to 3,000 people were housed there in tents. In December 2017 those accommodated in the emergency accommodation moved to a newly built container village on the edge of the airfield. Until December 2018 there was still a so-called arrival center in the hangars for short-term accommodation of refugees who had just arrived in Berlin.

The building permit for the container village was granted in February 2017, and construction work began that same month. This was done on the basis of a temporary amendment to the Tempelhof law passed by the referendum on Tempelhofer Feld in Berlin in 2014, which actually excludes any development on the former airport site. The so-called Tempohomes , built for around 17 million euros, offered space for 1024 people in 256 self-contained apartments with kitchen and bathroom. They were used from December 2017 to June 2019; then the scheduled dismantling began.

Protests against the development of the Tempelhofer Feld

Citizens' petitions in the district

The action alliance be-4-tempelhof.de initiated a petition for citizens in the Tempelhof-Schöneberg district with the title The Tempelhof Airport monument preserved - protect it as a world cultural heritage. The referendum on June 7, 2009 resulted in a 37.9% turnout and 65.2% approval. Since the required quorum of 15% voting participation was achieved, the successful referendum has the legal force of a resolution of the district assembly.

Squat Tempelhof

Several thousand activists who had come together in the Squat Tempelhof alliance tried to occupy the site on June 20, 2009 in protest against the plans for re-use . In addition to tenant alliances, the Greens also called for this . The demonstrators criticized the fact that the area was not opened to the public and feared, in addition to increasing privatization and commercialization, an accelerated gentrification process . However, the occupation was prevented by the police, who were on duty with around 1,500 officers. 102 demonstrators were arrested.

Popular initiative 100% Tempelhofer Feld

In September 2011, in the Schillerkiez to the east of the park area, a citizens' initiative called 100% Tempelhofer Feld was founded with the successful aim of overturning the Senate's plans for subsequent use by means of a Berlin-wide referendum and preventing development on the site. After the initiative was presented, the open space should not be provided with a new building for the state library, residential and commercial properties or the international garden exhibition and should be left in its natural state for park visitors. The collection of signatures for the referendum against the development of the Tempelhofer Feld ran until January 13, 2014 and brought around 185,000 signatures. The referendum on maintaining the Tempelhofer Feld took place on May 25, 2014: 64% of the votes cast were for the referendum, 36% against. The necessary voting quorum of at least 25% was exceeded by 30%.

Furnishing

The site of the former airport extends over an area of ​​4 million m², of which the apron takes up 486,000 m²; There were 60 aircraft parking positions on this, 40 of which belonged to General Aviation . Seven hangars were available for maintenance, with a gross floor area of ​​52,250 m². 19,200 m² of this are the open handling areas A1 and A2. The airport had two runways , each of which had an asphalt surface . 09R / 27L is 1,840 m long and 42.5 m wide; it was approved for approaches in both directions for the instrument landing system (ILS) in category I as well as for non-precision instrument approaches (NDB / DME). 09L / 27R is 2,094 m long and also 42.5 m wide; it could be used for non-precision instrument approaches (VOR / DME) and under visual flight conditions. Instrument departures were possible in all directions from both runways.

architecture

Airport terminal, September 2008

With the new neoclassical building of Tempelhof Airport from 1934 by the architect Ernst Sagebiel , all the requirements of a modern large airport were organized for the first time in an overall architectural form with separate functional levels for arrival, departure, mail and freight traffic. The functional complexity implemented in the building system (separation of levels as well as numerous secondary functions such as hotels, congress centers, large restaurants, Lufthansa administrations) was unique at the time it was built as an airport and numerous components have become a model for modern airport facilities. The British architect Lord Norman Foster described the airport in 2004 as “the mother of all airports”. He reiterated this metaphor in 2009 and added: "Tempelhof would have to be a matter of national conscience - it is far too important to be sacrificed on the altar of commercial real estate development." Because of its special engineering significance, the building was closed on June 1, 2011 by awarded the title of Historic Landmark of Civil Engineering in Germany by the Federal Chamber of Engineers .

Overall system

Main building complex with apron

The airport is divided into the more than 1200 m long hall with hangar and the reception and administration buildings. The reception building is axially connected to the arch of the hall, encloses a forecourt on three sides and creates a transition to today's airlift square behind it . This place was designed as a round place and should have a diameter of 250 m. The four-storey buildings on the square should encircle the square in a three-quarter circle and house services such as the air mail office and freight yard. The planned development has only been implemented on the east side of the square. Like many other buildings from the time of National Socialism , the outer buildings are clad with natural stone slabs made of shell limestone . The entire facility is under monument protection . Since December 2007 the UNESCO World Heritage Committee has received an application for designation as a World Heritage Site.

Airfield

Imperial eagle at the airport building

A water cascade was to extend from the last free quarter of the round square, which would have opened opposite the reception building, to the nearby Kreuzberg .

However, this water staircase was not realized. The axis of the airport complex running through the main hall is oriented towards the Kreuzberg monument by Karl Friedrich Schinkel . In line with Adolf Hitler's wishes, the airport was to develop its monumental effect east of the planned north-south axis .

The layout of the airfield corresponded to the conditions valid at the time of planning, in that it was designed as a lawn with four concrete start pockets for the operation of small aircraft. This made it possible to take off and land the still relatively light aircraft exactly against the wind. The overall shape as an oval, in addition to the ideal wind direction-neutral shape, also met the requirements as an air stadium for the air shows planned by Hermann Göring .

Hangar and hangar

Gate hall with apron

The passenger hall divides the building into two halves and is 100 m long and 50 m wide. The hangars are immediately adjacent on both sides . This arrangement - integrating all the functions of an airport - which is unusual today because of the associated reduced flexibility, was an essential part of the concept with the aim of demonstrating coherence and size.

A technical masterpiece is the steel roof construction that protrudes over 40 m along the pier. Aircraft up to a height of almost 12 m can roll under the roof of the gate to be handled there. The roof of the airport hangar was originally also intended as a grandstand area for more than 100,000 spectators, such as at flight shows during the Reichsflugtag . Another special feature is that the entire roof system is not only self-supporting in terms of its own weight, but can also easily accommodate snow masses several meters high. The city side of the curved hangar and hall system is structured by the equally spaced stair towers to provide access to the spectator stands planned by Hermann Göring on the roof. The stair towers were designed in such a way that 100,000 spectators could have reached the roof stands in less than 30 minutes, a sophisticated logistical masterpiece for the time. These inaccessible stairwells - left in their raw state since the construction period and never used by the public - determine the dominant appearance of the building; This alone makes the time reference to the architecture of National Socialism clear.

The current operator, Tempelhof Projekt GmbH, offers guided tours in which the otherwise inaccessible areas can be visited. This also includes the ballroom above the check-in hall, which was never completed in its function. During use by the American armed forces, a basketball hall was built here, which is still preserved. In the next room is a bar that was used as an entertainment area with billiard tables and bowling alleys.

Berlin's Governing Mayor Michael Müller declared on November 12, 2015 that due to the persistently high number of refugees, the hangars and the covered main hall for refugee registration and accommodation would be required for the time being and other uses would therefore be excluded.

Underground facilities

Railway tunnel under the airport building

The former Berlin-Tempelhof Airport also has extensive underground facilities that extend down over three floors. When the expansion was discontinued in 1942, these and some above-ground elements were no longer built. For example, production facilities for aircraft (during World War II), film archives, power plants and the later command center of the US Army were housed underground . The size of the “tunnel labyrinth” is legendarily overestimated. The final assembly of fighter planes known from photos did not take place until 1945 at the terminus of the railway tunnel at the main building, in a hall that is open to a deep inner courtyard. During the Second World War, the underground rooms were also indispensably used as an air raid shelter for the population , with remains of “ wall paintings ” based on motifs by Wilhelm Busch have been preserved. They were not removed even during the use of the rooms by the American Air Force until 1993. The walls of the rooms were painted white several times, but the paintings were carefully painted so that the wall paintings were not damaged.

Wilhelm Busch motifs in the underground facilities
Traces of the fire from 1945 in the film bunker under Tempelhof Airport

Another special feature is a road running into the underground level for supplying the airport and delivering goods, as well as a rail tunnel . The tunnel , which was created for the exchange of mail between rail and aircraft, was connected to the railway network of the Deutsche Reichsbahn via a rail connection running to the west and south on the edge of the airport to the Hermannstraße freight station , where the Neukölln-Mittenwalder Railway also begins .

In the southeastern connection to the Columbiadamm 1–9 building section, there is a two-storey bunker, the so-called “film bunker”, at a depth of 5 m. At 12.50 m, its lower floor is the lowest level in the entire airport building. The film bunker was used by Hansa Luftbild and the Luftwaffe to store maps and aerial photographs on celluloid , for which an elaborate ventilation system was installed. It had previously been assumed that the access to the bunker was blown open by Soviet troops in April 1945 and that its contents were completely destroyed by the fire that was triggered, but it has now been proven that the fire, which was over 1200 ° C, could not have been caused by an external explosion . "So there is really only the possibility that the Germans destroyed the contents of the bunker themselves and with full intent in order not to let it fall into the hands of the enemy." The traces of the fire are still visible today; Pipes, pressure relief valves and activated carbon filter cleaning systems for the ventilation are also preserved.

Radar tower

Radar tower

The striking and over 71 m high tower of the RRP-117 radar system east of the airport building was designed and erected in 1982 in such a way that the tower movements caused by the wind hardly affect the quality of the radar image. A filigree design was deliberately chosen, which opposes the monumental architectural style of the airport.

Until the early 1990s, when the airport was still operated by the US Air Force, there were several other navigation systems at the airport. They were dismantled with the withdrawal of the American armed forces, as most of them were purely military facilities. For example, there was a precision approach radar (PAR) south of the southern runway at the height of the runway center, which was used for the southern runway. An airport surveillance radar (ASR) was located on the roof of the building at the level of the GAT . The radar system itself has been dismantled, but the support structure has still been preserved. A radio altimeter on the roof of the building was dismantled as early as October 1984 .

use

Berlin Air Route Traffic Control Center (BARTCC) at Tempelhof Air Base 1986

Flight operations

Recently, only four airlines have flown to Berlin-Tempelhof Airport on a scheduled basis. These included Brussels Airlines , InterSky and Cirrus Airlines . There were also several airlines, such as Windrose Air , based at the airport , which operated general aviation flights with their machines. The so-called 'Executive Aviation' used Tempelhof Airport to a large extent for flights to Berlin, because its location offered a uniquely fast connection to the city center. In addition, Air Service Berlin offered sightseeing flights from Tempelhof with a restored Douglas DC-3 ' raisin bomber ' . The Zeppelin NT generation of airships used the airport as the starting point for their journeys. In addition, there were several helicopter runways in the grass area north of the runways, which were later no longer used.

Air traffic control and flight operations data

Frequencies

Handling of a landed aircraft on the apron, 2005
  • ATIS: 126.025 MHz
  • Tempelhof Tower: 119.575 MHz, main frequency
  • Tempelhof Tower: 118.850 MHz, alternative frequency
  • Tempelhof Tower: 118.100 MHz, historical frequency, was also used during the last weeks of flight operations in 2008
  • Tempelhof Ground: 121.950 MHz

Radio beacon

  • VOR Berlin-Tempelhof, 114.1 MHz, is on the airport grounds between the two runways, identifier: TOF
  • NDB Helmholtz, 347 kHz, used for the approach to runways 09L / R and for take-off from 27L / R, is to the west of the airport, identification: DBR
  • NDB Planter, 327 kHz, used for the approach to runways 27L / R and for departure from 09L / R, is located east of the airport, identification: DIP

Landing aids

  • ILS 09R: 109.7 MHz, 3.00 ° angle, approach course 086 °, CAT I, identification: IDBR
  • ILS 27L: 109.5 MHz, 3.50 ° angle, approach course 266 °, CAT I, identification: IDLB

Important navigation points

  • BERAV: Start of ILS 09R or NDB 09R at 12.4 DME IDBR in 4000 ft
  • LINKU: Beginning of VOR 09L at 10.7 DME TOF in 4000 ft
  • RUDOX: Start of ILS 27L or NDB 27L at 10.6 DME IDLB at 4000 ft
  • REGRA: Beginning of VOR 27R at 9.8 DME TOF at 4000 ft

Backdrops for film and television

A detailed documentary was filmed about the history and architecture of Berlin-Tempelhof Airport for ARD television under the title Mysterious Places 2/7: The Tempelhof Catacombs .

The airport was used as a backdrop in the following films:

The airport was also the backdrop in several episodes of the Sat.1 - Telenovela Butterflies in the Belly , the ARD pre-evening series Berlin, Berlin and the Sat.1 series HeliCops - Mission over Berlin (later the backdrop was recreated in Briest, Brandenburg ).

However, in some films that feature the airport, it's just a studio set or some other airport that serves as a backdrop. Well-known films from this category are, for example, Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade by Steven Spielberg or The Good German - In denüsten von Berlin by Steven Soderbergh , and Atomic Blonde by David Leitch .

Berlin-Tempelhof Airport has also been selected as the filming location for some music videos : In the 1999 video for the song 1, 2, 3 Rhymes Galore (From New York to Germany) by DJ Tomekk, some recordings are made during flight operations in the main hall and in adjoining rooms. In 2011, the main hall of the now disused airport served as the backdrop for the Hollywood Hills music video by the Finnish band Sunrise Avenue .

In episode 8 of the 2nd season of the documentary fiction series Future Without People ( Chaos am Himmel , USA 2010), the airport serves as an example of the decay of airport facilities after a fictional disappearance of mankind.

The airport plays a prominent role in the game TwinKomplex , as the seat of an alleged secret organization.

Others

At the former airport there was a thermal power station and a waterworks to supply the airport. The resources were also sufficient to supply what was then the Tempelhof district , which was particularly important at the time of the Berlin Airlift . During the Cold War, the radar at the northeast end of the main building was important for NATO's military airspace surveillance . The 7000 m² area is still used today by the Bundeswehr .

Traffic figures

Up to 1972 the figures are sums of the airports Berlin-Tempelhof and Berlin-Tegel , 1973 additionally with the airport Berlin-Schönefeld . No figures are available from 1974 to 1991.

Traffic figures (excerpt)
year Passenger
volume
Baggage,
freight and mail
(in t )
Flight
movements
1923 150 0
1928 41,214 1.0 20,799
1933 81,335 2.0 40.202
1938 247.453 7.7 63,571
1943 80,000 3.0 20,000
1948 21,556 3.0 0.2 1,098
1953 833.718 51.4 2.2 42,791
1958 127,235 8.1 2.9 30.163
1963 2,395,640 11.6 6.8 52.106
1968 4,128,743 21.0 8.7 72.903
1973 4,779,411 19.7 11.0 76,753
No figures are available from 1974 to 1991
1993 1,124,822 1541.0 114.0 53,956
1998 932.149 271.0 0 42,018
2003 451.116 396.0 0 28,351
2007 350.172 538.0 0 24,042

Incidents

  • On 14 December 1948, came with a 82 C-Fairchild of the United States Air Force (Code 45-57785 ) mechanical during the Berlin Airlift at Tempelhof Airport for a landing accident due to failure. The crew survived the accident, but the aircraft was irreparably damaged.
  • On January 19, 1953, a Bristol 170 Mk.21 of Silver City Airways (G-AICM) ran out of fuel. Since a landing at the destination airport Tempelhof was not possible due to fog, the crash landing occurred nearby. Both pilots survived the total write-off, which came about due to insufficient fuel reserves.
  • On May 24, 2001, a single-engine Beechcraft B36TC Bonanza touring aircraft approaching Tempelhof crashed after an engine failure . When attempting an outside landing, the aircraft hit the gable wall of a residential building in the Berlin district of Neukölln , after it had previously brushed against a tree. The two aircraft occupants were killed in the crash with subsequent impact fire. According to the Federal Bureau of Aircraft Accident Investigation , the cause of the accident was next to the engine failure, which prevented reaching the runway, in the terrain unsuitable for emergency landings. Contrary to all criticism regarding the inner city location of the airport, this was the only fatal aviation accident since the Berlin Airlift that occurred at Tempelhof Airport.

See also

literature

  • Frank Schmitz: Tempelhof Airport - Berlin's gateway to the world. be.bra Verlag, Berlin 1997, ISBN 3-930863-32-4 .
  • Laurenz Demps , Carl-Ludwig Paeschke: Tempelhof Airport - The story of a legend. Ullstein Verlag, Berlin 1998, ISBN 3-550-06973-1 .
  • Elke Dittrich: Ernst Sagebiel - Life and Work (1892-1970). Lukas Verlag, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-936872-39-2 .
  • Elke Dittrich: Tempelhof Airport in design drawings and models 1935–1944. Lukas Verlag, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-936872-52-1 .
  • Philipp Meuser: From the airfield to the Wiesenmeer - history and future of Tempelhof Airport. Quintessenz Verlag, Berlin 2000, ISBN 3-8148-0085-0 .
  • André Hoffmann: The National Socialist "World Airport" Berlin-Tempelhof - its origin and significance. Master's thesis at Philipps University, Marburg 2002, ISBN 3-640-83767-3 .
  • Helmut Conin: Landed in Berlin - On the history of Berlin airports. Festive edition of the Berlin Airport Company on the occasion of its 50th anniversary, Berlin October 1974.
  • Gabi Dolff-Bonekämper : Berlin-Tempelhof. In: Berlin-Tempelhof, Liverpool-Speke , Paris-Le Bourget . Années 30 Architecture des aéroports, Airport Architecture of the Thierties, airport architecture of the thirties. Éditions du patrimoine, Paris 2000, ISBN 2-85822-328-9 , pp. 32-61.
  • Bob Hawkins (Ed.): Historic airports. Proceedings of the international "L'Europe de l'Air" conferences on Aviation Architecture Liverpool (1999), Berlin (2000), Paris (2001). English Heritage, London 2005, ISBN 1-873592-83-3 .
  • Thomas Blau: The Berlin-Tempelhof Airport (series: Historic landmarks of civil engineering in Germany. Volume 10). Federal Chamber of Engineers, Berlin 2011, ISBN 978-3-941867-08-6 .
  • Arnulf Baring : The airport in Berlin-Tempelhof. In: Places of Freedom and Democracy in Germany. Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung , Sankt Augustin 2010, ISBN 978-3-941904-03-3 , pp. 38–40, kas.de (PDF; 133 kB).
  • Wolfgang Przewieslik, Daniel-Stephan Bohl u. a .: The fall of (of) Tempelhof - How Klaus Wowereit closed Tempelhof Airport and turned it into wasteland. Shaker Media , Berlin 2011, ISBN 978-3-86858-677-0 .
  • Walter Vorjohann (photos), Eva Schestag (text): Flughafen Berlin Tempelhof Airport 2010–2012: Tempelhof . Kleinheinrich, Münster 2012, ISBN 978-3-930754-75-5 .
  • Lutz Freundt: Wall flier. Berlin air corridors at Tempelhof Airport . AeroLit-Verlag und Medienvertrieb, Diepholz 2001, ISBN 3-935525-05-2 .
  • Matthias Heisig: Berlin-Tempelhof Airport. American history | Tempelhof Central Airport. The American Story | Aéroport de Berlin-Tempelhof. L'histoire américaine . Edited for the Allied Museum by Gundula Bavendamm and Florian Weiß, Berlin 2014.
  • A wide field. Tempelhof Airport and its history . A catalog accompanying the exhibition of the same name, curated by Nina Burckhardt and Olga Goleta. Published by the Topography of Terror Foundation, Berlin 2019, ISBN 978-3-941772-42-7 .

Web links

Commons : Flughafen Berlin-Tempelhof  - Album with pictures, videos and audio files
Commons : Flughafen Berlin-Tempelhof  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Berlin distance measuring point: According to Lemma Berlin , the point of the geographic location of Berlin corresponds to the location of the Berlin City Hall (Rotes Rathaus, May 28, 2012).
  2. a b c Berlin Airports - Tempelhof: Traffic Statistics 2008 (pro rata, not annual adjusted) ( Memento from January 10, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
  3. Berliner Flughafen-Gesellschaft: Check in 2006. Figures, data, facts. ( Memento of October 12, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF)
  4. Klaus Kurpjuweit: A full airport to say goodbye . In: Der Tagesspiegel . October 6, 2008.
  5. ^ The Voisin Airplane in Berlin . In: Flight . tape  6 . Flight, London 1909, p. 78 ( flightglobal.com (PDF) [accessed March 12, 2015]).
  6. Matthias Heisig: The fight for the field. The creation of Tempelhof Airport, Volkspark Tempelhof and Sports Park Neukölln . In: Werner Breunig, Uwe Schaper (Hrsg.): Berlin in past and present . Yearbook of the State Archives, Berlin 2014, p. 86.
  7. Matthias Heisig: The fight for the field ... , Berlin 2014, p. 90.
  8. Matthias Heisig: The fight for the field ... , Berlin 2014, p. 91.
  9. ^ Laurenz Demps , Carl-Ludwig Paeschke: Tempelhof Airport. The story of a legend . Ullstein, Berlin 1998, ISBN 3-550-06973-1 , pp. 29 .
  10. City map from 1932 at alt-berlin.info, accessed on December 11, 2018.
  11. ^ Laurenz Demps, Carl-Ludwig Paeschke: Tempelhof Airport. The Story of a Legend , p. 27.
  12. And in the afternoon in the airport . In: Vossische Zeitung , February 3, 1928; accessed on May 8, 2019.
  13. Frank Schmitz: "... a certain sight of the imperial capital". The old main building of Berlin-Tempelhof Airport (1926–1929) , in: Berlin in Past and Present , Yearbook of the State Archives, Berlin 2002, p. 103.
  14. Matthias Heisig: The fight for the field ... , Berlin 2014, pp. 96-101.
  15. ^ Elke Dittrich: Ernst Sagebiel. Life and Work 1892–1970 , Berlin 2005, p. 156.
  16. ^ Elke Dittrich: Ernst Sagebiel. Life and Work 1892–1970 , Berlin 2005, p. 157.
  17. Berliner Geschichtswerkstatt e. V. (Ed.): No place of freedom. The Tempelhofer Feld 1933–1945. Berlin 2012.
  18. a b Official internet portal of the State of Berlin about Tempelhof Airport. Retrieved May 10, 2019 .
  19. ^ Dieter Steyer: From Rangsdorf to Wolfsschanze. In: tagesspiegel.de . 20th July 2014.
  20. ^ Association for the commemoration of Nazi crimes around and on the Tempelhofer Flugfeld e. V .: website .
  21. ^ F.-Herbert Wenz: Tempelhof Airport. Chronicle of the Berlin plant of "Weser" Flugzeugbau GmbH Bremen Stedinger, Lemwerder 2000, p. 28 ISBN 978-3-927697-24-9 .
  22. ^ F.-Herbert Wenz: Tempelhof Airport , p. 120.
  23. ^ F.-Herbert Wenz: Tempelhof Airport , p. 103.
  24. ^ F.-Herbert Wenz: Tempelhof Airport , p. 114.
  25. ^ Matthias Heisig: The use of foreign forced laborers for Weser Flugzeugbau GmbH at Tempelhof Airport 1940–1945 , in: Zwangsarbeit in Berlin 1938–1945 , ed. from the working group Berlin regional museums, Metropol Verlag, Berlin 2003, p. 171 ISBN 3-936411-11-5 .
  26. ^ Lutz Budraß: Lufthansa and its foreign workers in the Second World War , ed. from Deutsche Lufthansa AG, Frankfurt am Main 2001, p. 38 f.
  27. ^ Lutz Budraß: Lufthansa and its foreign workers in the Second World War , ed. from Deutsche Lufthansa AG, Frankfurt am Main 2001, p. 40.
  28. Cord Pagenstecher, Bernhard Bremberger, Gisela Wenzel: Forced Labor in Berlin . Metropol, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-938690-74-1 .
  29. See the overview by Matthias Heisig: The Weser Flugzeugbau GmbH at Tempelhof Airport , in: Berliner Geschichtswerkstatt e. V. (Ed.): No place of freedom. The Tempelhofer Feld 1933–1945 Berlin 2012, pp. 50–54 ISBN 978-3-925702-20-4 .
  30. Matthias Heisig: Weser Flugzeugbau GmbH at Tempelhof Airport , in: Berliner Geschichtswerkstatt e. V. (Ed.): No place of freedom. The Tempelhofer Feld 1933–1945 Berlin 2012, p. 57 f. ISBN 978-3-925702-20-4 .
  31. Henry L. deZeng IV: Air Force Airfields 1935-45 Germany (1937 Borders) , pp 59-60, accessed on 3 July of 2019.
  32. ^ Biography Leonhard Adler ( Memento from July 15, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
  33. F.-Herbert Wenz: Tempelhof Airport , p. 150 f.
  34. ^ Military Airfields Directory: Berlin-Tempelhof Airport .
  35. Newspaper: Tempelhof increases the most at the World Cup. Retrieved March 29, 2020 .
  36. Tempelhof becomes the VIP airport for the World Cup. Retrieved March 29, 2020 .
  37. Jump over there: AOPA THF Fly-In , 2007.
  38. ^ Urban development Berlin: Land use plan from 1994 (PDF) digital reproduction from 2002.
  39. Berlin Airports - Tempelhof consensus resolution , Der Tagesspiegel of June 18, 2007.
  40. Berlin Higher Administrative Court (OVG) makes decision on Tempelhof (THF) . Press release from Berlin Airports from September 24, 2004 ( Memento from February 4, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
  41. ^ Berlin: Wowereit regrets OVG decision. Press release from the Senate Chancellery on September 24, 2004.
  42. Comparison to Tempelhof Airport failed . Press release of the OVG of January 10, 2007 ( Memento of October 24, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
  43. Another negotiation date at Tempelhof Airport. Press release of the OVG of January 12, 2007. ( Memento of August 16, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
  44. Press release No. 74/2007. Green light for the closure of Berlin-Tempelhof Airport. Federal Administrative Court , December 4, 2007, archived from the original on July 23, 2012 ; accessed on May 10, 2019 (decision of November 29, 2007).
  45. ^ Anna Lehmann: residents' initiative against Tempelhof airport: the activists of the very first flight lesson . In: Die Tageszeitung , Berlin, January 31, 2008, accessed on April 5, 2019.
  46. More democracy: Referendum Report 2006 (PDF).
  47. Senate establishes the admissibility of the referendum “Tempelhof remains a commercial airport!” And takes a position. Press release of the State of Berlin from May 8, 2007.
  48. Popular initiative 2007 - By January 30, 2008, 174,269 declarations of consent had been reported from the interpretive bodies. Press release from the head of the regional voting dated January 31, 2008.
  49. Final result: 204,907 declarations of consent reported. (PDF), press release from the head of the state voting on February 14, 2008.
  50. a b BerlVerfGH , decision of October 27, 2008, Az. 86/08, full text .
  51. Alliance for a flight-free Tempelhof “I don't pay for a VIP airport!” In: Der Tagesspiegel , March 7, 2008, accessed on April 5, 2019.
  52. Voting result of the referendum (PDF) on the website of the State Returning Officer for Berlin.
  53. ↑ Show of strength in the referendum. In: Der Tagesspiegel, January 31, 2008.
  54. ICAT is aiming for a new referendum on Tempelhof. In: Berliner Morgenpost , June 10, 2008.
  55. Final voting result of April 27, 2008 , according to the Berlin State Returning Officer (PDF; 397 kB).
  56. ^ Citizens' initiative for the reuse of Tempelhof Airport. (Website).
  57. Tempelhof for everyone. (Website).
  58. ^ OVG Berlin: press release of December 17, 2008.
  59. End of the legend. In: Der Tagesspiegel, October 31, 2008.
  60. Departure into the history books. In: Der Tagesspiegel, November 25, 2008.
  61. The last planes left Tempelhof. In: Berliner Morgenpost , November 24, 2008.
  62. Tempelhof machine has left the airfield. In: Berliner Morgenpost , July 1, 2010.
  63. Former Tempelhof Airport: Federal Government and State of Berlin agree on purchase price. ( Memento from February 20, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) On: berlin-magazin.info , June 9, 2009, accessed on December 15, 2011.
  64. BVerfG: Berlin is not entitled to a new regulation of the transfer of real estate back to former Reich property , press release 15/2008.
  65. Berlin slept through the deadline for legal action - Reich property remains with the federal government on Wikinews .
  66. ↑ The State of Berlin is not entitled to the transfer back of “relapse assets” under the Reich Property Law , accessed on December 21, 2011.
  67. BVerwG: Berlin is subject to the "relapse property" in the dispute over land . Press release No. 64/2013 of September 11, 2013, accessed on April 5, 2019.
  68. Press releases / State of Berlin. Retrieved May 10, 2019 .
  69. Müller examines a new focus for the IGA. Press release by the Senate Department for Urban Development and the Environment, July 3, 2012; Retrieved July 4, 2012.
  70. IBA Berlin 2020 / State of Berlin. Retrieved May 10, 2019 .
  71. ^ Mathias Brüggmann: The morbid charm of the Tempelhof building ruin . In: Handelsblatt . No. 147 , August 2, 2013, ISSN  0017-7296 , p. 9 .
  72. Press release "Tempelhofer Freiheit". of the Senate Department for Urban Development, March 5, 2008.
  73. ^ Senate Department for Urban Development: Tempelhofer Freiheit. Introduction. ( Memento from March 25, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
  74. Tempelhof Airport reopened as a park. In: Focus Online , May 8, 2010.
  75. Tempelhofer Declaration 2014. accessed on April 12, 2017.
  76. Guided tours in Tempelhof Airport for the Open Monument Day 2010. Berliner Immobilienmanagement GmbH, September 3, 2010, archived from the original on August 22, 2011 ; Retrieved October 17, 2011 .
  77. Sabine Schicketanz : Babelsberg wants to land in Tempelhof. ( Memento from January 13, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) In: Potsdamer Latest News . January 13, 2009.
  78. YOU youth fair for the first time on Tempelhof airport grounds. In: Der Tagesspiegel . September 22, 2010, accessed September 30, 2010 .
  79. Laura Höflinger: Hydrogen March! Clean Tech World. In: Der Tagesspiegel . September 16, 2010, accessed November 27, 2010 .
  80. Capital tournament Berlin-Tempelhof 2009 in the tournament calendar on fn-neon.de ( Memento from July 31, 2012 in the web archive archive.today )
  81. Berlin marathon relay. (Website).
  82. ^ Formula E in Tempelhof 2014/2015. Motorsport magazine.
  83. Jogging on the Tempelhofer Feld. Jogging portal.
  84. a b Refugees in Berlin: Emergency accommodation at Tempelhof Airport closed. www.tagesspiegel.de, December 13, 2017, accessed on September 26, 2019 .
  85. Robert Kiesel: Arrival center for refugees in Berlin: Hangars in Tempelhof are to be emptied before Christmas. www.tagesspiegel.de, December 20, 2018, accessed on September 26, 2019 .
  86. ↑ Building permit Tempelhof Tempelhofer Feld. Retrieved June 16, 2017 .
  87. Work on the “Tempohomes” begins on the former airport apron. In: Berlin Week. February 8, 2017. Retrieved June 16, 2017 .
  88. Ulrich Paul: Tempelhofer Feld in Berlin: Container village should stay longer than promised. In: Berliner Zeitung. March 7, 2017. Retrieved June 16, 2017 .
  89. Isabell Jürgens: Refugee accommodation on Tempelhofer Feld is cleared. www.morgenpost.de, May 25, 2019, accessed on September 26, 2019 .
  90. ^ Information on the referendum in Tempelhof-Schöneberg on June 7, 2009 ( Memento from October 25, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
  91. Svenja Bergt: How to Occupy an Airport . In: The daily newspaper from June 20, 2009.
  92. Greens support peaceful occupation of Tempelhof. In: Der Tagesspiegel . June 15, 2009.
  93. "Squat Tempelhof" expects 10,000 squatters. In: Der Tagesspiegel , June 19, 2009.
  94. Jump up ↑ Airport occupation fails - riots. ( Memento from July 24, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) In: Süddeutsche Zeitung , June 21, 2009.
  95. Tanja Buntrock: Tempelhof occupation: police get help. Seven hundred from the federal territory are supposed to support Berlin officials at the fence. The left-wing alliance "Squat Tempelhof" had called for the mass occupation of the airport as part of the "Action Weeks". In: Der Tagesspiegel . June 20, 2009, accessed December 19, 2010 .
  96. Referendum against Tempelhof development. In: taz, October 19, 2011, accessed December 2, 2011
  97. Melanie Reinsch: 52,300 signatures are still missing. In: Berliner Zeitung January 2, 2014.
  98. Referendum: Berliners vote against building on Tempelhof. In: Spiegel Online May 25, 2014.
  99. Berlin airports: airport facilities. ( Memento of December 6, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) As of August 24, 2008.
  100. Norman Foster : Tempelhof: The most beautiful airport in the world. In: Welt Online . August 22, 2009.
  101. ^ Laurenz Demps, Carl-Ludwig Paeschke: Tempelhof Airport. The story of a legend , p. 67 f.
  102. Elke Dittrich: The Tempelhof Airport - The film bunker and the history of the Hansa Luftbild in Tempelhof , ed. by Tempelhof Projekt GmbH, Berlin 2013, p. 87 ISBN 978-3-9816412-0-2 .
  103. Elke Dittrich: The Tempelhof Airport - The film bunker and the history of Hansa Luftbild in Tempelhof , p. 93 f.
  104. Elke Dittrich: The Tempelhof Airport - The film bunker and the history of Hansa Luftbild in Tempelhof , p. 94.
  105. ^ Christiane Peitz: No movement. Berlin Towers (8). In: Der Tagesspiegel. August 23, 2014. Retrieved August 23, 2014 .
  106. ^ Adolf Behrens: Radar tower at Berlin-Tempelhof Airport. ( Memento of March 5, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) On his website.
  107. Andreas Conrad: Hollywood in the hangar . In: Der Tagesspiegel, March 23, 2008.
  108. Filming at Tempelhof Airport. In: Die Welt , online edition, May 27, 2014.
  109. Andreas Conrad: Love, Lies and "Bugi Wugi" . In: Der Tagesspiegel , January 5, 2007.
  110. Association of German Airports: Statistics IVF 2008 ( Memento from December 22, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
  111. Source BFG
  112. ^ Aviation Safety Network : Fairchild Accident Report C-82 45-57785. ( English ), accessed on August 5, 2019.
  113. Maurice J. Wickstead: Airlines of the British Isles since 1919 . Air-Britain (Historians) Ltd., Staplefield, W Sussex 2014, ISBN 978-0-85130-456-4 , p. 377.
  114. ^ Aviation Safety Network: Accident Report Bristol 170 G-AICM. (English), accessed on August 5, 2019.
  115. Investigation report 3X080-0 / 01 . ( Memento of February 5, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF) Federal Aircraft Accident Investigation Agency, May 2002.
This version was added to the list of articles worth reading on September 16, 2008 .