Neukölln district

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Neukölln coat of arms
Coat of arms of Berlin
8th district of Berlin
Bezirk Mitte Bezirk Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg Bezirk Pankow Bezirk Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf Bezirk Spandau Bezirk Steglitz-Zehlendorf Bezirk Tempelhof-Schöneberg Bezirk Neukölln Bezirk Treptow-Köpenick Bezirk Marzahn-Hellersdorf Bezirk Lichtenberg Bezirk Reinickendorf BrandenburgDistricts of the Neukölln district
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Coordinates 52 ° 29 ′ 0 ″  N , 13 ° 27 ′ 0 ″  E Coordinates: 52 ° 29 ′ 0 ″  N , 13 ° 27 ′ 0 ″  E.
surface 44.93 km²
Residents 329,917 (Dec. 31, 2019)
Population density 7343 inhabitants / km²
Proportion of foreigners 25.9% (Dec. 31, 2019)
Unemployment rate 11.6% (Nov. 30, 2019)
Post Code 12043, 12045, 12047, 12049, 12051, 12053, 12055, 12057, 12059, 12347, 12349, 12351, 12353, 12355, 12357, 12359

Administration address
Karl-Marx-Strasse 83
12043 Berlin
Website www.neukö
Average age 41.3 years (Dec. 31, 2016)
District key 08
Structure of the district

5 districts

District Mayor Martin Hikel (SPD)
Deputy District Mayor Falko Liecke ( CDU )
Allocation of seats ( district assembly )
SPD CDU Green AfD left FDP
19th 10 9 8th 7th 2
Allocation of seats in the BVV

Neukölln is the eighth administrative district of Berlin and has 329,917 inhabitants (as of December 31, 2019), who come from 160 nations. The district is one of the densely populated inner city areas in Germany.

The Neukölln district was created in 1920 through incorporation as part of the Greater Berlin Act and named after the then city of Neukölln, today's district of Berlin-Neukölln. Between 1945 and 1990 the district was part of West Berlin and was in the American sector .

With the Estrel , one of the largest hotel complexes in Europe is located in Neukölln. The company Biotronik was founded in the district and is one of the largest manufacturers of medical technology products in the Berlin / Brandenburg metropolitan region .

The north of the district in particular has been known for its student-dominated scene life and its international hipster culture since around 2010.


Neukölln is located in the southern area of ​​the federal capital Berlin between the districts of Tempelhof-Schöneberg in the west and Treptow-Köpenick in the east and Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg in the north. Neukölln borders the state of Brandenburg in the south .

Settlement structure

The district shows different structural structures, in the north highly dense inner-city areas, in the south more suburban loosened up, sometimes even seeming rural: The district Neukölln (also Nord-Neukölln or Neukölln 44 - named after the former zip code 1000 Berlin 44 -) is in the north of the district (between the Ringbahn and Hermannplatz ) predominantly characterized by the old buildings from the Wilhelminian era , which consist of typical Berlin tenements with green backyards. South of the Ringbahn , single-family house areas , suburban housing developments and large estates with many high-rise buildings dominate the face of the district.

The old village centers of Rixdorf with the Bohemian Village, Britz with the manor and castle and Buckow with the oldest stone church in Berlin have been embedded in these inconsistent structures .

House in the Horseshoe Estate

The best-known example of socially motivated housing development / reform housing in Neukölln in the 1920s and 1930s can be found in Britz. The large Fritz-Reuter-Stadt estate was shaped by the architects Bruno Taut and Martin Wagner on the one hand and by Paul Engelmann and Emil Fangmeyer in the other part of the estate. The two parts each consist of around 1000 apartments. In the peripheral development and in the horseshoe, these are multi-family houses, otherwise single-family houses with kitchen gardens. Part of the large estate, the horseshoe settlement in the narrower sense, has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2008 .

In addition, there is a well-known example of a large post-war settlement in the south : Gropiusstadt . Along with the Märkisches Viertel , it is one of the two largest large estates in the former West Berlin. Initially called Großsiedlung Berlin-Buckow-Rudow , it was given the name of the Bauhaus founder Walter Gropius in 1972 . In 1976 the Gropiusstadt was completed and in 2002 it was separated as a separate district. Deviating from the high-rise concept of “urbanity through density” and “ car-friendly city ” as in Gropiusstadt, the high-deck housing estate for around 6,000 residents was built in the 1970s and 1980s . The urban planning concept of a functional separation of pedestrians and car traffic with elevated, greened paths (the eponymous “high decks”), which was originally assessed as innovative, quickly proved to be a failure.


Housing complex on Bohemian Street
Neukölln district of Gropiusstadt
Districts and
December 31, 2019
per square kilometer
0801 Neukölln 11.71 166.157 14,189
Berlin Neukölln Britz Buckow Buckow Gropiusstadt Rudow BrandenburgDistricts of the Neukölln district
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0802 Britz 12.40 42,796 3,451
Berlin Neukölln Britz Buckow Buckow Gropiusstadt Rudow BrandenburgDistricts of the Neukölln district
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0803 Buckow 6.35 40,703 6,410
Berlin Neukölln Britz Buckow Buckow Gropiusstadt Rudow BrandenburgDistricts of the Neukölln district
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0804 Rudow 11.81 42,631 3,610
Berlin Neukölln Britz Buckow Buckow Gropiusstadt Rudow BrandenburgDistricts of the Neukölln district
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0805 Gropiusstadt 2.67 37,630 14.094
Berlin Neukölln Britz Buckow Buckow Gropiusstadt Rudow BrandenburgDistricts of the Neukölln district
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Tobogganing in the Hasenheide

See the list of natural monuments in the Neukölln district


There are 715 streets and squares on 632  hectares of traffic area.

Like the entire north of Neukölln , Sonnenallee and its immediate surroundings are also characterized by immigration, both from people from abroad and from the rest of Germany, who move to this area because of the comparatively low rents.

An Arab infrastructure has developed there over the past few decades, consisting of restaurants, cafes and retail stores for daily needs. The side streets in particular are affected by gentrification due to the influx of students, creative people and young families .

The Schillerpromenade forms the center of the so-called Schillerkiez. The quarter was created around 1900 as a “residential quarter for higher earners”. After Neukölln - like most West Berlin districts near the inner-city wall strip - had lost a lot of its popularity, the better-off population also moved in the Schillerkiez. This process was intensified by the increasing aircraft noise from the adjacent Tempelhof Airport .

Since the airport was closed, the Schillerkiez has been enjoying increasing popularity again. This led to an increase in rents and, as a result, to gentrification here as well.

Squares and neighborhoods

A specialty in the north of Neukölln is Richardplatz with the surrounding Alt Rixdorf district between Sonnenallee and Karl-Marx-Straße. The square is the nucleus of the former village from which Neukölln once emerged. The surrounding streets thus represent the old town of the district. During the Second World War, the district remained unscathed and was then largely ignored by the town planners, so that the village character was retained. The annual Christmas market on the square is particularly popular . Other noteworthy places are:

Schillerpromenade at the corner of Selchower Strasse


Rural development (1300-1920)

Neukölln was called Richardsdorp when it was first mentioned in a document in 1360 , later Ricksdorf (Rieksdorf) and finally Rixdorf . The center was on Richardplatz . The village initially belonged to the Order of St. John , who took over the place from the Knights Templar who were based in Tempelhof . For this reason, the coat of arms of the district bears the Johanniterkreuz .

The Magdalenenkirche was inaugurated in Rixdorf in 1879.

In 1737, Friedrich Wilhelm I allowed the settlement of Bohemian exiles in Rieksdorf, who were expelled because of their Protestant belief . These supporters of the Moravian Brethren built their own church and settled in a separate area away from the village green , along today's Richardstrasse , which in 1797 received its own administration as Böhmisch-Rixdorf .

When the two independent communities were reunified in 1874, Rixdorf had 8,000 inhabitants. From 1899, Rixdorf, until then part of the Teltow district as the largest village in Prussia , formed its own urban district, the population of which grew from 80,000 at first to over 237,000 in 1910. The place was renamed from Rixdorf to Neukölln in 1912. The reason for the renaming by the authorities was the negative overall impression of the place at the time : Rixdorf was considered a stronghold of "bad morals".

The village of Britz was first mentioned in a document in 1305. At the end of the 19th century, urbanization spread from the northern neighboring town of Rixdorf to Britz, which increased the population to more than 13,000 by 1920.

Buckow , south of Britz, was founded as Angerdorf in 1230 and had a tram connection via Britz and Neukölln to Berlin since 1913 .

The street village of Rudow was first mentioned in 1373 and largely retained its village character until 1920.

Neukölln as a Berlin district (since 1920)

On October 1, 1920, the city of Neukölln was incorporated into Greater Berlin . Together with the communities of Britz, Buckow and Rudow, Neukölln was named after the 14th administrative district. At the end of the 20th century, the events surrounding the renaming of Rixdorf have been forgotten. Instead, there are individual efforts to rename the district of Neukölln in Rixdorf, on the one hand to separate it from the larger Neukölln district, on the other hand because of the greater conciseness of the old historical name.

From 1945 to 1990 the Neukölln district was part of the American sector of Berlin. In 1987, the district was awarded the European Prize for its outstanding efforts to European integration idea excellent. On September 23, 2008 the district received the title Place of Diversity awarded by the federal government .


On December 31, 2019, the Neukölln district had 329,917 inhabitants on an area of ​​44.9 square kilometers. As a result, the population density on the reporting date was 7,343 inhabitants per square kilometer. On December 31, 2016, the proportion of foreigners was 24.4%, while the proportion of the population with a migration background was 43.9% (only the Mitte district had a higher proportion of residents with a migration background at 50.8%).

In November 2019 the unemployment rate in Neuköln was 11.6% and was thus the highest value of all Berlin districts (the Berlin average was 7.6 percent). As of December 31, 2016, the median age of the population was 41.3 years.

Population development from 1920 to 2017
Population on December 31, 2011 and June 30, 2017
category 2001 2011 2017
German and foreign residents 303.881 313.245 328,659
Average age 40.5 41.2 41.3
German citizens (total) 235.863 245.136 247.277
German citizens without a migration background 187.376 183.021
German citizens with a migration background 057,760 064,256
Foreign nationals 065,451 068.109 081,382
Foreigners and Germans with a migration background 125,869 145,638
Germans (nationals) in total 245.136 247.277
Proportion of Germans without a migration background 059.8% 055.7%
Proportion of Germans with a migration background 018.4% 019.6%
Share of residents with foreign citizenship 021.7% 024.8%
Total number of Germans with a migration background (in the district) 057,760 064,256
- * from the EU 011,179 012,063
- * from the former Yugoslavia 003,571 004,005
- * from the former Soviet Union 003,271 003,350
- * from Islamic countries 025,273 028,838
- * from Vietnam 000 557 000 514
- from the USA 000 358 000 584
Foreign residents (in the district) 068.109 081,382
- from the EU 020,317 029,804
- from the former Yugoslavia 009,316 008,671
- from the former Soviet Union 002,062 002,317
- from Islamic countries 031,308 033,944
- from Vietnam 000 369 000 377
-- from the USA 000 933 001,610


Population pyramid of the Neukölln district 2010

Parts of Neukölln have been designated by the Berlin Senate since 1999 as areas with special development needs. Of the 17 areas of this type in all of Berlin in 2001, a total of nine were in Neukölln: Reuterplatz , Rollbergsiedlung , High-Deck-Siedlung , Schillerpromenade , Richardplatz Süd, Gropiusstadt / Lipschitzallee, Flughafenstrasse, Dammwegiedlung / Weiße Siedlung and Körnerpark. A quarter management system was set up here for the integrative development of the living environment. In 2016, around 6.11 million euros were spent on managing the districts.

The increased crime rate in these areas is striking. The judge Kirsten Heisig drew attention to the problems in Neukölln in her book The End of Patience: Consistent Against Young Violent Offenders in 2010. The integration officer of the House of Representatives added that the neighborhoods are not only hot spots because of a high proportion of migrants , but also because of major social problems. These could be precisely identified: high unemployment, poor education, an above-average number of young people who dropped out of school.

The successful integration instrument, district mothers in Neukölln , has existed since 2004 and is now also being used in the Brunnenviertel in the Wedding district ( Mitte district ). The project is supported by the cooperation agreement with the Neukölln District Office, the Neukölln JobCenter and the Diakonisches Werk Neukölln-Oberspree e. V. Berlin received the Metropolis Award 2008 for this.

On the other hand, a process of gentrification (district upgrading) began in the north of Neukölln around 2007 . The district, also known as Kreuzkölln , has been an attractive residential area since 2012, offering a variety of studios and gastronomic offers. In the meantime, an area has developed from a social hotspot that has a higher mix of residents from different social classes. The moving part of the population consists primarily of artists , students, the young bourgeoisie and hipsters.


The school entrance examinations carried out in the district in 2010 led to the following results: Every sixth child in Neukölln is overweight , every fifth child has carious teeth and grows up in a household that smokes . Two thirds of them are noticeable in their development. A quarter of the girls and boys only incompletely attended the ongoing preventive care examinations when they started school. In 2010, Neukölln was the Berlin district with the greatest number of language problems and the least knowledge of German .

In 2010, the district launched a municipal integrated strategy for health promotion, the Neukölln Prevention Chain. By networking the existing institutions and offers from youth welfare, education and health, gaps in the health development of children are to be closed. The situation has been improving since the 2016 health report.

Neukölln has the highest infant mortality rate of all Berlin districts. Out of 1000 newborns (from mothers registered in Neukölln), an average of 5.3 do not survive the first year of life; in the whole of Berlin this value is 3.1. Neukölln's health councilor Falko Liecke ( CDU ) cites poverty, poor education and an unhealthy lifestyle during pregnancy as reasons for the phenomenon. Rainer Rossi, chief physician of the pediatric intensive care unit at Vivantes Klinikum Neukölln , cites social and cultural differences as the reason. Accordingly, offers for prevention and care are often not taken advantage of. Problems during pregnancy were therefore noticed too late.



Business centers

The Estrel is Germany's top-selling hotel


The Hotel Estrel on Sonnenallee is Germany's largest and best-selling hotel with 1,125 rooms and a turnover of 70.6 million euros in 2016 .

The Biotronik SE & Co. KG has its headquarters in Berlin-Neukölln and is a manufacturer of medical devices. The company has research facilities in Europe, North America and Singapore and generates annual sales of over 500 million euros (as of 2013).


Private transport

The A 100 and A 113 motorways run through the Neukölln district. The A 100 is currently being extended in the direction of Treptow-Köpenick (as of 2017). The extension to the Neukölln area will take place in the 16th construction phase, which runs along the Ringbahn between the Neukölln and Am Treptower Park junctions .

The planned Y-route rapid cycle connection is to run through the district.


The S41, S42, S45, S46 and S47 S-Bahn lines and the U7 and U8 underground lines run through the Neukölln district .

Waterways for shipping

Air traffic

To the south of Neukölln, in the neighboring Brandenburg municipality of Schönefeld , is Schönefeld Airport (SXF) and Berlin Brandenburg Airport, which is currently under construction (as of 2020). Only about two kilometers as the crow flies separate the district of Rudow from the SXF terminal.


District Mayor

The Neukölln district is represented on the state level in the council of mayors .

District councilors and departments

District Councilor Political party Department
Martin Hikel , district mayor SPD Finance and economy
Falko Liecke , Deputy District Mayor CDU Youth and health
Jochen Biedermann Alliance 90 / The Greens Urban development, social and citizen services
Karin Korte SPD Education, school, culture and sport
Bernward Eberenz CDU (formerly AfD) environment and nature
Election to the district assembly in 2016
Turnout: 57.7%
Gains and losses
compared to 2011
 % p

District Assembly

Share of votes of the parties in percent: 1921–1933

1921 27.9 23.8 13.8 12.1 9.5 4.5 2.7
1925 41.0 25.7 13.0 3.9 6.0 2.4
1929 35.1 31.7 11.5 4.4 4.5 2.7 04.0
1933 26.6 26.2 08.2 1.2 3.4 33.4
11933 DStP


year SPD SEW , PDS , Left 1 CDU FDP 2 Alliance 90 / The Greens 3
1946 56.4 18.2 17.6 07.9
1948 71.0 16.3 12.7
1950 53.4 22.1 18.4
1954 54.8 03.7 24.2 09.5
1958 60.8 02.7 30.1 02.9
1963 69.0 01.9 23.5 05.6
1967 64.4 02.6 26.8 04.9
1971 57.9 02.4 32.8 06.3
1975 47.7 01.9 39.6 06.0
1979 48.0 01.2 41.1 06.3 03.2
1981 41.8 45.9 04.2 06.8
1985 36.2 48.3 03.6 09.2
1989 39.3 35.7 02.2 10.4
1992 32.6 01.1 34.1 04.7 11.7
1995 27.3 02.0 45.0 01.8 14.1
1999 26.4 04.6 51.4 01.5 09.2
2001 35.5 05.9 36.1 08.2 08.7
2006 34.6 05.4 29.2 06.5 10.6
2011 42.8 04.8 20.4 01.2 13.5
11946–1958: SED , 1963–1979: SEW, 1992–2001: PDS, then: Die Linke
2until 1948: LDP
3until 1989: AL

coat of arms

Coat of arms of borough Neukoelln.svg

The current coat of arms goes back to the royal decree of the municipality of May 29, 1903. It was awarded on April 12, 1956 by the Berlin Senate .

Blazon : a half-split and divided shield, in the first, black field a silver communion chalice , in the second, silver field a golden-armored red eagle covered with golden clover stems on the wings and in the third, red field a silver eight-pointed cross. A red three-tower wall crown rests on the shield , the central tower of which is covered with a small Berlin coat of arms .

Justification of the coat of arms: The coat of arms of the Neukölln district was adopted from the city of Neukölln, which gave the district its name . The Johanniterkreuz refers to the establishment by the Order of St. John , the Brandenburg red eagle refers to the founding lords of the Mark Brandenburg , and the Hussite goblet symbolizes the Bohemian colonists. The crown of the wall was added to the coat of arms on January 1, 2001 as part of the district reform as a connecting element of all Berlin districts .

Town twinning

The Neukölln district maintains the following city ​​partnerships :

International Anderlecht , Belgium , since June 17, 1955 Boulogne-Billancourt near Paris , France , since June 17, 1955 Zaanstad near Amsterdam , Netherlands , since June 17, 1955 Hammersmith and Fulham ( London ), Great Britain , since June 17, 1955 Bat Jam , Israel , since September 21, 1978 Marino , Italy , since October 4, 1980 Ústí nad Orlicí , Czech Republic , since November 6, 1989 and November 24, 1989 Pushkin near Saint Petersburg , Russia , since June 3, 1991 Prague 5 , Czech Republic , since September 8, 2005 Izmir - Çiğli , Turkey , since October 29, 2005
United KingdomUnited Kingdom
Czech RepublicCzech Republic 
Czech RepublicCzech Republic 


Red Cross Emergency medical center 310 of the Bundeswehr , Berlin medical center , since July 6, 2001


Directorate 5 of the Berlin State Police is responsible for the Neukölln and Friedrichshain-Kreuzberg districts. The director of Directorate 5 is Michael Krömer (as of 2017).


Albert Schweitzer Grammar School




  • District central library Helene-Nathan-Bibliothek


Neukölln May Days, 2012


  • Neukölln May Days
  • Eurofurence, costume festival


Cinemas and theaters

See also: List of cinemas in Berlin's Neukölln district

Sons and daughters of the district

(sorted chronologically)

Neukölln in art


The 48 Hours Neukölln Festival is a cross-disciplinary art festival for Berlin's independent art scene. All artistic genres from performance, painting, photography, sculpture to installations, intervention, dance, theater and music are represented at the festival.



Director and actor of the drama series 4 blocks
  • Berlin-Neukölln , TV film, 2002. Director: Bernhard Sallmann
  • Knallhart , feature film, 2006. Director: Detlev Buck
  • Straight , feature film, 2007. Directed by Nicolas Flessa
  • Neukölln Unlimited , documentary, 2010. Directors: Agostino Imondi, Dietmar Ratsch
  • Corner Weserstraße , series, 2014. Director: Johannes Hertwig, Hayung von Oepen
  • You have to live your changes , documentary, 2015. Director: Benjamin Riehm, 89 min.
  • 4 Blocks , Series, 2017. Director: Marvin Kren
  • Survival in Neukölln , documentary, 2017, director: Rosa von Praunheim


The Stadtbad Neukölln is known nationwide for its neoclassical design. The sauna area of ​​the pool includes a Finnish sauna , a herbal sauna , a marble steam bath, a caldarium and a sanarium .

The TuS Neukölln 1865 was founded in 1865 and is one of the oldest sports clubs in Berlin.

The dance formation Dance Deluxe (TSV Rudow 1888 Berlin e.V.) is multiple German, European and world champion in Cheer Dance.

The SG Neukölln Berlin is one of the largest and most successful German swimming clubs. Olympic champion Britta Steffen was trained there.

The boxing department of the Neukölln Sportfreunde is one of the most successful in Germany. The honorary member of Sportfreunde is the 1996 European welterweight champion Oktay Urkal .

Tasmania Berlin , a predecessor of today's Tasmania Berlin , is the only football club from Neukölln that has managed to play in the Bundesliga . Even today, Tasmania Berlin is the figurehead of Neukölln football. Since the promotion in the 2018/2019 season, the club has played in the fifth-class Oberliga Nordost . The TSV Rudow which for years in the sechstklassigen Berlin-league play is the second force in the district.

The gymnastics community in Berlin TiB for short is the oldest still existing sports club in Berlin. In terms of membership, the association is the ninth largest of around 2500 associations in Berlin.

See also


Web links

Commons : Neukölln (district of Berlin)  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Neukölln  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Statistical report - residents in the state of Berlin on December 31, 2019 (PDF; 3.1 MB). Office for Statistics Berlin-Brandenburg . Retrieved May 30, 2020.
  2. November: Unemployment in Berlin at its lowest point . In: Berliner Zeitung , accessed on January 31, 2020.
  3. a b c Statistical report - residents in the state of Berlin on December 31, 2016 . Office for Statistics Berlin-Brandenburg .
  4. Numbering according to the district key
  5. ^ Neukölln in numbers , In: Berliner Morgenpost . January 28, 2015, accessed January 15, 2020.
  6. ^ 10 of the coolest neighborhoods in Europe. In: The Guardian , accessed February 9, 2020.
  7. Residents in the State of Berlin on December 31, 2019, data from the Berlin-Brandenburg Statistics Office , accessed on August 27, 2020 ( PDF file ) ( help on this ).
  8. ^ Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung GmbH: Sonnenallee: The Arab street. In: FAZ.NET. August 13, 2016. Retrieved August 14, 2016 .
  9. For a successful start to your studies. In: Online subject selection assistant (OSA). November 24, 2013, accessed August 14, 2016 .
  10. Updated population figures from December 31, 2019 by the Berlin-Brandenburg Statistics Office , accessed on June 10, 2020 ( [1] ) ( help on this ).
  11. November: Unemployment in Berlin at its lowest point . In: Berliner Zeitung , accessed on January 11, 2020.
  12. Statistical report AI 5 - hj 2/11 - residents in the state of Berlin on December 31, 2011
  13. Statistical report AI 5 - hj 1/17 inhabitants in the state of Berlin on June 30, 2017
  14. ^ The " Socially Integrative City" program - District Management 1999-2008 ,, accessed on January 24, 2020.
  15. These problem areas in Berlin are receiving millions in funding , Berliner Morgenpost, accessed on January 24, 2020.
  16. Fear is a bad advisor . In: Der Spiegel . No. 29 , 2010 ( online ).
  17. Herder, Freiburg 2010, ISBN 978-3-451-30204-6 .
  18. District mother by profession . In: Berliner Zeitung , March 13, 2009.
  19. Press release of the Senate Department for Integration, Labor and Social Affairs, Neukölln from January 15, 2009, accessed on July 28, 2009.
  20. Berlin received the Metropolis Award 2008 , press box from September 4, 2008, accessed on July 28, 2009.
  21. Upgrading the problem area - Berlin-Neukölln in transition. In: n-tv .de, September 15, 2008.
  22. Andrej Holm : “Endstation Neukölln” or “new trendy neighborhood”? In: Berliner Mietergemeinschaft (Ed.): Mieterecho , No. 324, October 2007, accessed on June 26, 2016.
  23. Welcome to Prenzlkölln. In: The daily newspaper. October 20, 2010, accessed October 27, 2010 .
  24. Uta Keseling: This is how a day goes on the planet Sonnenallee . In: Berliner Morgenpost , August 8, 2010.
  25. The Invisible Wall . In: Spiegel Online , August 21, 2011.
  26. ^ Description of the Neukölln prevention chain on the official website
  27. a b Julius Betschka, Martin Nejezchleba: Myth of relatives marriage: The dead babies of Neukölln . October 7, 2018 ( [accessed October 16, 2018]).
  28. Why so many babies die in Neukölln. May 4, 2018, accessed October 16, 2018 .
  29. Guests and investors fly to German hotels . In: FAZ , May 20, 2016, p. 22.
  30. ^ Berliner Zeitung - Estrel Hotel in the Guinness Book. Retrieved July 2, 2016 .
  31. Annual financial statements as of December 31, 2013
  32. ^ Federal government pays for the A 100. In: Berliner Zeitung . November 28, 2012.
  33. ^ Council of Mayors - accessed on May 18, 2019
  34. a b The State Returning Officer for Berlin , accessed on September 20, 2016
  35. ↑ National emblem of Berlin - district coat of arms
  36. ^ Town twinning with the district ., accessed on May 1, 2016.
  37. Directorate 5 - Head of Director
  38. The Furries conquer Neukölln , In: Berliner Morgenpost . August 21, 2015, accessed January 15, 2020.
  39. Chronicle and history of Neukölln: In Rixdorf is' Musike , District Office Neukölln, accessed on January 18, 2020.
  40. Berlin-Neukölln. Internet Movie Database , accessed April 4, 2016 .
  41. Neukölln gets its own soap opera . In: Berliner Zeitung , June 24, 2014