The Köllnische Heide is a historical field name . In today's usage it is the namesake for
- a remnant piece in the form of a city forest between the Berlin districts Niederschöneweide (Oberspree locality) and Adlershof ; outdated also written Cöllnische Heide ,
- a residential area in the southeast of the Neukölln district , with the Köllnische Heide train station .
The Kölln Heath takes its name from the historical city of Kölln , part of the twin cities of Berlin / Kölln on the Spree in the Middle Ages . With regard to Berlin, Kölln was to the south and on the left side of the Spree. The name Mirica is also recorded in old documents . At that time, Kölln had little construction and firewood. Therefore, Margrave Otto III. of Brandenburg the forest strip along the Spree of the citizenry. With the unification of Kölln and Berlin, the Köllnische Heide came into the possession of the city in 1709. Nevertheless, settlements that developed in this direction were often named "Kölln" or "Neukölln", and in 1912 the town of Rixdorf , south of Berlin, adopted the name "Neukölln" itself. As a field name, the name referred to the extensive forest and meadow areas on the left side of the Spree between Kölln and the southeastern Köpenick . The first suburb of Köpenick to emerge on the left side of the Spree was then also named as Kölln suburb .
The extent of the historic Köllnische Heide, a forest owned by the city of Berlin, cannot be precisely delimited, as the name alternately referred to the extensive forest and meadow areas on the left side of the Spree. These were built over more and more with advancing industrialization, and in 1920 these suburbs of Berlin were incorporated into Greater Berlin . The field name Köllnische Heide now only refers to a remnant of the old heathland north of Adlershof and south of the Oberspree locality (this is located on the Spree). Since this urban forest is only a few kilometers away from Köpenick, it roughly denotes the southern end of the historic Köllnische Heide, and the Köllnische Heide urban district on the Ringbahn roughly the northern end.
The urbanization of the Köllnische Heide was driven in particular by the construction of the Görlitzer Bahn , which drove straight through the middle of the Köllnische heath landscape. The other settlements of Berlin formed on the left and right of this route. The colonies on the wet meadows of the "Schönen Weyde" (today: Niederschöneweide ) are among the oldest. Other parts of the Köllnische Heide were deliberately cleared, including the area of today's Baumschulenweg district from 1823 to 1840. The magistrate of Berlin hoped that this would generate income of up to 100,000 thalers and led to the expansion of the road network in Alt-Treptow . The development continued and reached today's Adlershof in 1879 , which had the character of wet meadows until the settlement. A little off the railway line, some parcels remained in place for a long time; the Johannisthal airfield, for example, was not established until 1909.
The Königsheide forms one of the remaining forest areas that are assigned to the Johannisthal district and are located between Johannisthal and Baumschulenweg. The settlement area of the Neukölln High-Deck-Siedlung , which was built in the 1970s and 1980s and is to the east of the Kölln Heide train station , was formerly part of the westernmost foothills of the Heide.
- Association for the promotion of the local history museum Treptow (ed.): Alt-Treptow in Berlin . Mercedes Druck, Berlin 2004, p. 124 .