Subjectivity ( Latin for submission ) is the property in European philosophy that distinguishes a subject from an object . How this property is to be understood more precisely has been controversial in philosophy and science since the beginning of antiquity.
The core of subjectivity lies in the unique act of self-positing . In this, every subject is a point of absolute autonomy , so it cannot be reduced to a moment (couple of forces) in the network of cause and effect .
In a derived sense, subjectivity also stands for the relationship of a subject to its environment that is not objective . In this sense, subjectivity in the natural sciences is mostly viewed as a source of error and attempts are made to avoid it. In the social sciences and psychology, however , the cognitive value of subjective and subject-oriented qualitative research methods is largely recognized.
In their work The Social Construction of Reality, sociologists Peter L. Berger and Thomas Luckmann assume that social reality is first constructed by individuals through their subjective perception and cannot exist objectively (independently) of subjectivity.
- Lothar Böhnisch : Social pedagogy of the ages. An introduction. Juventa-Verlag, Weinheim and Munich 2005, ISBN 3-7799-1521-9 .
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- Reto Luzius Fetz , Roland Hagenbüchle , Peter Schulz (eds.): History and prehistory of modern subjectivity (= European Cultures 11), Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1998. ISBN 3-11-014938-9 . Review by Michael Dreyer.
- Guido Rappe : body and subject . Projektverlag, Bochum 2012.
- Ulrich Schwabe: Individual and Trans-Individual I. The self-individualization of pure subjectivity and Fichte's theory of science. With a continuous commentary on the science of science nova methodo , Paderborn u. a. 2007.
- Winfried Wehle (Ed.): About the difficulties (s) I have to say. Horizons of literary subject constitution . Frankfurt a. M. 2001.
- Winfried Wehle: When will I be me? An album of literary close-ups from the 20th century . Würzburg 2012. PDF
- Roland Hagenbüchle: "History and Prehistory of Modern Subjectivity" (PDF; 205 kB) (published in: Reto Luzius Fetz, Roland Hagenbüchle, Peter Schulz: History and Prehistory of Modern Subjectivity . Walter de Gruyter, 1998)
- Christian Julmi / Ewald Scherm: Subjectivity as an expression of liveliness (published in: International Journal for Philosophy and Psychosomatics , 3rd year, No. 1, 2012; PDF; 343 kB)
- Slavoj Žižek: The Fall That Makes Us Like God, Part I. In: The Philosophical Salon. September 23, 2019, archived from the original ; accessed on September 25, 2019 : "The innermost core of subjectivity resides in a unique act of what Fichte baptized" self-positing. " Here, each subject is a point of absolute autonomy, which means that it cannot be reduce to a moment in the network of causes and effects. "