Arthur Kronfeld

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Arthur Kronfeld (1932)

Arthur Kronfeld (born January 9, 1886 in Berlin , † October 16, 1941 in Moscow ) was a German-Russian psychiatrist .

Kronfeld was a psychotherapist , psychologist , sexologist and scientific theorist , as well as being politically active. He was philosophically trained and had artistic inclinations, had a double doctorate and most recently worked as a professor at the Charité of the Friedrich Wilhelms University in Berlin and in exile in Moscow at the "Neuropsychiatric Research Institute of the USSR Pyotr B. Gannuschkin", today's "Research Institute for Psychiatry." ". There, when the German troops threatened to march in, he and his wife Lydia committed suicide under unexplained circumstances.


1886–1904: childhood and youth

Arthur Kronfeld was born as the first of four children of the doctorate attorney Salomon, called Sally Kronfeld from Thorn , son of a Jewish cantor , royal judiciary in Berlin since 1884, and his wife Laura, daughter of Cologne's commercial council and city ​​councilor Benjamin Liebmann. The house where he was born was at Zimmerstrasse 100. Little is known about childhood and youth. His sister Minnie, born in 1904, became well known under her later name Minnie Maria Dronke in her exile in New Zealand .

1904–1909: period of study

In 1904 he was Primus of the Sophiengymnasium in Berlin-Mitte . The first known publication appeared in 1906, Goethe and Haeckel, on Haeckel's 70th birthday, with an evolutionary theoretical treatise on sexuality and aesthetic feelings . Early contact with Magnus Hirschfeld came about through this book . During this time, a long friendship with the then law student and later writer Kurt Hiller , the pioneer of literary expressionism, began .

Kronfeld completed his medical studies in Jena , Munich and Berlin. From 1907 A lifelong friendship developed with a native of Berlin philosopher Leonard Nelson with intensive engagement in the county, which is also of Goettingen mathematicians such as Carl Runge , Ernst Zermelo , Felix Klein and Hermann Minkowski , but especially by David Hilbert estimated new Fries' school and the Jakob Friedrich Fries Society that grew out of it - in this, before the First World War, deputy chairman and secretary - with Alexander Rustow , Arnold and Bertha Gysin, Carl Brinkmann , Ernst Blumenthal, Franz Oppenheimer , Gerhard Hessenberg , Hans Mühlestein and Hans Rademacher , Heinrich Goesch , Iris Runge, Karl Kaiser, Kurt Grelling , Ludwig Ruben, Marcel T. Djuvara, Max Born , Michael Kowalewsky, Otto Apelt , Paul Bernays , Richard Courant , Rudolf Otto , Walter Ackermann , Alleweldt, Baade and Walter Dubislav and many others, in the Kronfeld especially to his fellow student two years older and later Nobel Prize winner Otto Meyerhof got to know and appreciate. Later Kronfeld was also a member of the Nelson in 1918 next to the International Socialist Youth League (Youth Library) founded "Society of Friends of Philosophy and Political Academy ", in turn, winner of the 1924 opened country boarding home "Walke Mill" was founded with contacts up to the 1926 " International Socialist Combat League "(ISK) and the wider area of ​​Nelson with Erna Blencke, Georg Schaltbrand , Grete Henry-Hermann , Gustav Heckmann , Heinrich Düker , Julius Kraft , Mary Saran , Max Hodann , Minna Specht , Otto Löwenstein (1889–1965), Willi Eichler u. a.). Kronfeld came to Heidelberg in 1908 , where he completed his studies with the medical state examination in 1909 and, in addition to Otto Warburg, also met Viktor von Weizsäcker , whom he introduced to Meyerhof and probably also to the writings of Sigmund Freud .

1909–1919: start of career

In Heidelberg

Kronfeld completed a specialist training as a medical intern at the Berlin City Hospital Moabit under Georg Klemperer and at the Grand Ducal Psychiatric University Clinic Heidelberg under Franz Nissl . One year and one day after Karl Jaspers , Kronfeld was on December 7, 1909, (one week after his friend Meyerhof, who had submitted the third part of his book Contributions to the Psychological Theory of Mental Disorders as a dissertation , with one from Emil von Dungern at the Cancer Research Institute Heidelberg under Vincenz Czerny on the study developed in 1906 by August von Wassermann and named after him under Franz Nissl) doctorate and employed on June 1, 1910 as an initially regular assistant. After completing his military service in 1911/12, Kronfeld u. a. worked as a volunteer assistant at the Gardekürassieren in Berlin - along with Karl Wilmanns , Hans Walter Gruhle August Homburger, Otto Ranke, Albrecht Wetzel and Martin Pappenheim and Karl Jaspers, where he together with Jaspers, Gruhle and Meyerhof and his friend Otto Warburg below, Participation of the then medical student Wladimir Eliasberg was initially dedicated to the analysis of "Freud's psychological theories and related views". Kronfeld was able to publish their results, which were registered in the USA, as early as the end of 1911 and in 1913 also brought them out in a Russian translation in Moscow. In 1912, Kronfeld was also awarded a Dr. phil. PhD, with an experimental psychological association study started as a student in Berlin with Theodor Draw On the Mechanism of Perception with the philosopher August Messer in Gießen .

During the Heidelberg years Kronfeld published some poems, essays and book reviews in the context of literary early expressionism in Die Aktion von Franz Pfemfert , Der Sturm von Herwarth Walden , Saturn by Hermann Meister and Herbert Grossberger , Der Kondor by Kurt Hiller and Die Argonauten by Ernst Blass . He also became known through Hiller and his New Club in Berlin , or became friends with Georg Heym , Jakob van Hoddis (assessment 1912), Erwin Loewenson (Golo Gangi), David Baumgardt, Friedrich Schulze-Maizier, with Alexandra Ramm-Pfemfert and Else Lasker-Schüler as well as with Max Scheler and Otto Buek , in Heidelberg with Gustav Radbruch , Jacob Picard and Friedrich Burschell as well as with Kurt Wildhagen , the brother of Fritz Wildhagen . In 1911 his review of Friedrich Gundolf's inaugural lecture on Hölderlin appeared in the supplement to the Heidelberger Zeitung Literatur und Wissenschaft . During this time, Kronfeld also made friends with the son of King Chulalongkorn of Thailand, Prince Rangsit von Chainad , who was married to the Heidelberg student Elisabeth Scharnberger in August 1912, and became engaged to Sophie Rittenberg from Warsaw in August 1913.

In the autumn of 1913, Kronfeld moved to Berlin to the municipal insane asylum in Wittenau (Humboldt Clinic, formerly Karl Bonhoeffer Nervenklinik ) under Hugo Liepmann , with the expansion and intensification of his theoretical studies on the psychological foundations of psychological medicine and international publications.

First World War

During the First World War , Kronfeld was a doctor at the front, including in front of Verdun ( Fort Douaumont ), and received several awards. After a head injury in 1917, he was transferred to Freiburg im Breisgau to the military hospital of Army Department B , where he was involved in building a nerve station and in 1918 an aviation investigation commission to carry out flight psychological examinations. It was during this time that I married the stenographer Lydia Quien from Berlin. In the November Revolution Kronfeld played a prominent role in the Freiburg Workers' and Soldiers , founded a union and academics was on 11 November 1918 spiritual leader deputy in Baden National Committee in Karlsruhe in the proclamation of the Republic of Baden .

1919–1933: The successes in Berlin

At the Institute for Sexology

Arthur Kronfeld (1919)

After a short return to Hugo Liepmann, who now worked at the Herzberge Municipal Asylum in Berlin-Lichtenberg (today: Evangelical Hospital Queen Elisabeth Herzberge ), Kronfeld and Friedrich Wertheim and later August Bessunger and Hans Friedenthal co-founded and organized the on 6 July opened the Institute for Sexology of Magnus Hirschfeld, where he worked for seven years. Here worked u. a. also Carl Müller-Braunschweig , Arthur Weil, Bernhard Schapiro (1888–1966), Franz Prange, Ludwig Levy-Lenz , Max Hodann , Ferdinand Freiherr von Reitzenstein , Kurt Hiller. During this time, Kronfeld was committed to the psychological-psychotherapeutic-oriented movement known as the New Direction in all of medicine at the time, with intensive publication, teaching and editing activities . These included the basic scientific theoretical work Das Wesen der Psychiatrischen Wissen in 1920 , the textbook Psychotherapy in 1924 , and from 1922 the series Kleine Schriften zur Geistenforschung , which was briefly continued in 1928 by Carl Schneider , with the authors Theodor Friedrichs, Wilhelm Haas, Walter Lurje, Carl Bruck, Emerich Décsi, Kurt Singer, Gaston Roffenstein (formerly Rosenstein), Sydney Alrutz (* 1868, first representative of a "physiological psychology" in Sweden), Kurt Hillebrandt, Werner Achelis , Alexander Herzberg and Georg Graf von Arco . In addition, Kronfeld became a member of numerous medical associations, from 1923 especially in the Berlin Medical Society for Parapsychic Research , in whose inner circle K. 1930 in the presence of u. a. W. Achelis, Otto Fanta and Albert Einstein " with their wife and another relative " contributed to the testing of the metagraphologist Otto Reimann, while in 1931, alongside the aforementioned Carl Bruck, he was a "scientific adviser" during the testing of the alleged "clairvoyant" Hermann Steinschneider, called Hanussen ” took part. With numerous colleagues such as Alfred Storch , Edith Jacobson (Jacobssohn) , Ernst Kretschmer , Karl Birnbaum , Ludwig Binswanger , Siegfried Bernfeld , Victor Emil Freiherr von Gebsattel , Walter Schindler , and students such as Erich Sternberg , Franz Baumeyer and Karl Balthasar, Kronfeld maintained a personal collaboration .

Scientific recognition

In 1926 he settled in his own practice in the area of ​​the southern Tiergarten and in 1927 he qualified as a professor in psychiatry and neurology with Karl Bonhoeffer with a thesis on the fundamental role of psychology in psychiatry , so that in 1927 Kronfeld became “a mediator of a way of looking at things that doesn't more may be ignored ”( Gustav von Bergmann in his habilitation report) the first lecturer at the Charité due to his psychotherapeutic qualification and thus became in Germany, when he converted to the Protestant faith in 1929 , published his most important textbook on the perspectives of psychiatry in 1930 , Was appointed adjunct professor in 1931 and was able to publish his textbook on character studies in 1932 .

At the same time, under the leadership of Wladimir Eliasberg, he took part in the preparation and implementation of the "General Medical Congresses for Psychotherapy" held annually from 1926 as well as the establishment of the " General Medical Society for Psychotherapy " on December 1, 1927 and its local branch in Berlin. Members were u. a. Alfred Döblin , Johannes Heinrich Schultz , Karen Horney , Erwin W. Straus , Fritz Künkel , Max Levy-Suhl , Max Grünthal and Walter Schindler. From 1928 Kronfeld was also on the board of the AÄGP and on the advisory board of its association magazine and then from 1930 after it was renamed the Zentralblatt für Psychotherapie with Johannes Heinrich Schultz and Rudolf Allers , primarily in its editorial management. In addition to working with the managing director of the Welfare Archives, Siddy Wronsky , he chaired the leading association of the two, Fritz Künkel resp. Manès Sperber led sections of the Berlin branch of the "International Association for Individual Psychology" (IVIP, IAIP) by Alfred Adler and organization of the "V. International Congress for Individual Psychology ”in the Berlin City Hall 1930 and participated in the preparation of the“ International Hygiene Exhibition ”in Dresden 1930/31.


In 1931 Kronfeld ran for the Berlin Medical Association as (since 1926) a member of the Association of Socialist Doctors with Alfred Döblin, Ernst Simmel , Max Hodann , Ernst Haase , Bruno Cohn, Minna Flake , Karl Löwenthal, Günther Wolf, Annemarie Bieber, I. Klauber and I. Wendriner ( also a member of the SPD, according to documents from the Third Reich ). In October he took over the psychotherapeutic treatment of Sina L. Wolkowa , the eldest daughter of Leon Trotsky , who was portrayed in the 1985 film Zina with Ian McKellen as Professor Kronfeld by Domiziana Giordano , directed by Ken McMullen .

In 1932 Kronfeld was an expert witness in the defamation trial of Adolf Hitler against Werner Abel in Munich. He signed the urgent appeal of the " International Socialist Combat League " by L. Nelson to "build a unified workers' front" against "the destruction of all personal and political freedoms" by the National Socialists and gave a keynote address on the importance of Kierkegaard at the " X. International Congress of Psychology “in Copenhagen.

1933–1941: oppression and exile (Switzerland, USSR)

Immediately after the beginning of the systematic elimination of all Jewish voices from public intellectual life in Germany by the National Socialist government from 1933 (cf. “ Seizure of power ” and “ Gleichschaltungduring the National Socialist era ), Kronfeld published the journal Psychotherapeutische Praxis in Vienna in collaboration with Wilhelm Stekel , as an alternative to the Zentralblatt für Psychotherapie, which is controlled by “German psychotherapists” under the patronage of Carl Gustav Jung . He was supported by well-known representatives of psychological medicine from all over Europe - most recently by Oscar Forel , Prangins , Walter Morgenthaler , Bern and John Eugen Staehelin , Basel "for Switzerland ", then "for the Nordic countries" by Poul Bjerre, Stockholm , Sweden , Oluf Brüel, Copenhagen , Denmark and Helgi Tomasson, Reykjavík , Iceland , "for Holland " by L. van der Horst, Amsterdam , "for Romania " by Eugeniu Sperantia, Cluj and "for Russia " by JE Galant, Leningrad and NP Bruchanski, Moscow.

In 1935, however, Kronfeld and his wife decided to emigrate after his license to teach at Berlin University had also been revoked. He was able to move to Switzerland with his entire household, which included an extensive specialist library, where he found a brief job at the then well-known private sanatorium Les Rives de Prangins run by Oscar Forel. In 1936, under the pressure of expulsion from the Swiss authorities, he accepted a call to the Neuropsychiatric Scientific Central Institute for Further Education in Moscow, the establishment of which his former Berlin student Erich Sternberg in Moscow and in Switzerland Sergius Begotzki (Bagocki) as the representative of the USSR had arranged . At the Pjotr ​​B. Gannuschkin Neuropsychiatric Research Institute , Kronfeld became head of the department for experimental therapy , where he introduced the insulin shock therapy learned from Max Müller in Switzerland as an experimental treatment method for schizophrenics.

In 1937 he and his wife received Soviet citizenship , while at the same time the Gestapo in Germany made sure that he was "hostile to the state" as a Jew and had also tried to issue recipes from Switzerland two former Berlin patient "in Germany to increase opium addiction and thereby the German people to harm" the - "in agreement with the Reich medical Association on the one hand, the" approval withdrawn and he was on the other hand denied his medical doctorate from the medical Faculty in Heidelberg. Soon he began to publish again and to give lectures in Russian before he was appointed director of the Department of Experimental Pathology and Therapy of Psychoses in 1939.

After Hitler's attack on the Soviet Union, Kronfeld became politically active for the last time in 1941: in radio broadcasts, at the anti-fascist gathering of two thousand Soviet scientists on October 12, 1941 in Moscow with their worldwide appeal “to scientists and brainworkers around the world” for “ Fight against the Hitler dictatorship, the conspiratorial enemy of all culture and science ”and with a political brochure - possibly originally written for the Central Committee of the CPSU - in which he presented prominent Nazi figures as“ degenerate ”and, with names, also intimate details about Hitler and his Entourage revealed.

Perhaps it was a reaction to the order issued by the People's Commissariat for Health , according to which he should have “made himself available” to the chief physician of the Psychiatric Hospital in Tomsk : on October 16, 1941, in the early stages of the Battle of Moscow , he decided to with his wife to joint suicide by taking a large dose of veronal , the consequences of which could no longer be reversed after discovery by the director of the institute, Andrei Vladimirovich Sneschnewski .

Kronfeld's published estate comprises around 200 specialist papers and well over 500 reviews ; his personal one is probably lost. His extensive private library, which he was able to take with him to Moscow, is said to have been largely lost in the years after the collapse of the Soviet Union when the institute library into which it was integrated moved.

In Russia it is still considered a classic in psychiatry today. After his work Degenerierte an der Macht was reprinted in 1993 and his habilitation thesis The Psychology in Psychiatry - An Introduction to the Psychological Knowledge of Psychiatry and its Position on Clinicopathological Research had been translated in a specialist journal in 2001–2002 , were translated into his On his 120th birthday in 2006, he also reissued the main publications in Russian from the years 1935–1940 in a partly bilingual book edition by the Moscow publishing house Klass.



  • 1906 Sexuality and aesthetic feeling in their genetic connection. A study. Singer, Strasbourg and Leipzig (publisher Josef Singer, Hofbuchhandlung).
  • 1912 On Freud's Psychological Theories and Related Views. Systematics and critical discussion. Engelmann-Verlag , Leipzig (extra print; transl .: Moscow 1913).
  • 1919 With W. Benary , E. Stern and O. Selz : Investigations into the psychological suitability for flight service. Writings on the psychology of proficiency and economic life, Issue 8. Barth, Leipzig 1919.
  • 1920 The essence of psychiatric knowledge - contributions to general psychiatry I. Springer , Berlin ( read online here ; uncorrected scan of the text here ).
  • 1924 Hypnosis and Suggestion. Ullstein , Berlin (series: Paths to Knowledge No. 11; transl .: Leningrad 1925, Moscow 1927; Prague 1931; Tallinn 1991).
  • 1924 Psychotherapy - character theory, psychoanalysis, hypnosis, psychagogics. Springer, Berlin (2nd verb. And extended edition 1925).
  • 1926 Individual psychology as a science. In: Handbuch der Individualpsychologie, Volume 1 , ed. v. Erwin Wexberg, Munich 1926 & Amsterdam 1966, pp. 1–29
  • 1927 Psychology in Psychiatry - An introduction to the psychological modes of knowledge within psychiatry and their position on clinical-pathological research. Springer, Berlin (habilitation thesis; English translation Columbus (Ohio) 1936, Russian Moscow 2001–2002).
  • 1930 Perspectives on Psychiatry. Thieme , Leipzig.
  • 1932 textbook of character studies. Springer, Berlin.
  • 1932 with Siddy Wronsky (with Rolf Reiner): Social therapy and psychotherapy in the methods of care. Heymann , Berlin.
  • 1941 Degenerati u wlasti. [“Degenerate in power”], Moscow, Krasnoyarsk 1941, Magadan 1942, repr. Moscow 1993; m. d. T. Krowawaja schajka degeneratow [The bloody gang of degenerates] also Sverdlovsk 1942.
  • 2006 Stanowlenie Sindromologii i Konzepzii Schizofrenii - Rabotj 1935–1940. Development of the syndromology and conception of schizophrenia - works 1935–1940. Klass, Moscow [Partially bilingual selection of Kronfeld's Russian publications published in the USSR in the specified years].


Journal articles (selection)

In: The Socialist Doctor

  • For psychotherapy by statutory health insurance physicians. A reply. Volume VI (1930), Issue 3, (July), pp. 125-129 digitized
  • Social hardship and social psychotherapy. Volume VII (1931), Issue 12 (December), pp. 332-333 digitized


Lexicon entries
Individual work
  • Norbert Andersch & David Barfi: Cassirer, Goldstein, Kronfeld, Lewin: Buried Approaches to a “New Psychopathology” and their continuation . In: Gundolf Keil and Bernd Holdorff (eds.): Series of publications by the German Society for the History of Neurology . (DGGN) Volume 14, 2008 (PDF; 20 kB): 215–242 ( since 2011 also here (PDF; 240 kB) )
  • Hamid Akbar: Arthur Kronfeld. Lower cap. by: Jacob Friedrich Fries and the anthropological justification of a rational psychiatry. Med. Diss. FU Berlin 1984, pp. 121-128
  • Ingo-Wolf Kittel: Arthur Kronfeld - Senior Physician at the Institute for Sexology in the years 1919–1926. Mitt. MHG 6 (August 1985) pp. 25-41; ern. in: Ralf Dose and Hans-Günter Klein (eds.): Communications from the Magnus Hirschfeld Society. Volume I. Issue 1 (1983) - Issue 9 (1986) . 2., through and exp. Ed. By Bockel Verlag, Hamburg 1992 (series of publications by the Magnus Hirschfeld Society: Volume 7) pp. 215–231
  • Ingo-Wolf Kittel: Arthur Kronfeld (1886–1941). An early science theorist in psychology and psychiatry. (PDF; 141 kB) In: Psychologische Rundschau 1986: 37, 41 (PDF; 22.1 MB)
  • Ingo-Wolf Kittel: Arthur Kronfeld (1996–1941) in memory. A chapter in the forgotten history of psychotherapy. In: Prax Psychother Psychosom 1986: 31, 1-3
  • Ingo-Wolf Kittel: Arthur Kronfeld in memory. The fate and work of a Jewish psychiatrist and psychotherapist in three German empires. (Lecture at the opening of the commemorative exhibition for the 100th birthday in the Bliographia Judaica archive in Frankfurt on January 9, 1986) In: Exil 6,1986 pp. 58–65
  • Ingo-Wolf Kittel (arrangement): Arthur Kronfeld 1886–1941. A pioneer in psychology, sexology, and psychotherapy. Exhibition catalog No. 17 , ed. vd Library of the University of Konstanz, Konstanz 1988 (with the most detailed list of publications to date on pp. 106–128)
  • Ingo-Wolf Kittel: On the historical role of the psychiatrist and psychotherapist Arthur Kronfeld in early sex science. In: Ralf Gindorf and Erwin J. Haeberle (eds.): Sexualities in our society. Contributions to history, theory and empiricism. Series of publications on social science sex research 2. de Gruyter, Berlin 1989, pp. 33–44 ( online here )
  • Nikolai A. Kornetov: Артур Кронфельд К 50-летию со дня смерти [On the fiftieth anniversary of death] In: Zh Nevropatol Psikhiatr Im SS Korsakova 1991: 91, 80–87
  • Wolfgang Kretschmer: On the 100th birthday of Arthur Kronfeld. In: Z f Individualpsychol 1986: 1, 58-60
  • Wolfgang Kretschmer: Arthur Kronfeld - A Forgotten. For his 100th birthday. In: Der Nervenarzt 1987: 58, 737–742 (Revised version of the lecture of April 11, 1986 on the opening of the memorial exhibition for Arthur Kronfeld in the Heidelberg Psychiatric University Hospital as a contribution to the 600th anniversary of Heidelberg University ; not noted in print.)
  • Helmut Kulawik: Arthur Kronfeld in memory. In: Z ärztl Fortb 1991: 85, 949-952
  • Yuri S. Savenko 120-летие Артура Кронфельда (January 9, 1886 - October 16, 1941 ) [On the 120th anniversary of AK] Indep Psychiatr J (Moscow) 2007: I, 7–15 ( ; PDF; 928 kB)
  • Christina Schröder : Arthur Kronfeld (1886-1941) - A psychiatrist in the service of psychotherapy. In: Psychiat Neurol med Psychol Leipzig 1986: 38, 411-418
  • Andreas Seeck: Arthur Kronfeld (psychiatrist, psychologist, scientific theorist) on homosexuality. Mitt MHG No. 20/21, 1994/95, pp. 51-63 (with subsequent “bibliography of reviews on the work of Arthur Kronfeld”, in the wording “ ... his peculiar place in our science ... ” with the collaboration of Ursula Barthel. Pp. 64–95)
  • Ingeborg Storch: Arthur Kronfeld's contribution to the development of scientifically sound psychotherapeutic specialist training for doctors from the twenties of our century. Dipl.Arb., Leipzig 1983

Web links

Commons : Arthur Kronfeld  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Volkmar Sigusch : History of Sexual Science. Campus, Frankfurt 2008, p. 360 and ds. and Günter Grau (Ed.) Personal Lexicon of Sexual Research, ibid. 2009, p. 399 according to Kittel
  2. Birth register StA Berlin II No. 48/86 .
  3. On p. 66 of his textbook on character studies , Kronfeld thanks his “dear friends Rangsit, Prince of Siam” for the “valuable support and suggestions” at the introduction to “the wisdom of the east”.
  4. According to the information to be found from here onwards , it is "with a probability bordering on certainty" the future wife of the Baden-Baden doctor Dr. Waldemar Sack, whose fate Achim Reimer describes on pp. 131–133 of his dissertation City between two democracies: Baden-Baden from 1933–1950 , m-verlag, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-89975-045-4 ; Forum German History 7. - Review here
  5. ^ Holger Münzel: Max von Frey. Life and work with special consideration of his sensory-physiological research. Würzburg 1992 (= Würzburg medical historical research , 53), p. 175 f.
  6. s. Lothar Machtan : Hitler's Secret. The double life of a dictator. Fischer, Frankfurt 2003, p. 405
  7. Spanish version: Problemas actuales de la asistencia social. Sus Fundamentos. La Socialterapia. La Psicoterapia. Subtitle: Fundamentos y condiciones actuales de la asistencia pública en Alemania; los fundamentos de la socialterapia; los fundamentos de la psicoterapia. Attached is a small text by Sofie Götze about social work. Translated by Herta Grimm, Consuelo Bergés. Librería Beltrán, Madrid 1936