Johannes Heinrich Schultz
Johannes Heinrich Schultz (born June 20, 1884 in Göttingen ; † September 19, 1970 in West Berlin ), usually called J. H. Schultz for short (and often pronounced I. H. Schultz ), was a German psychiatrist and school-independent psychotherapist who worked during the Nazi regime. From 1940 for the "extermination" of disabled people ( euthanasia ). Schultz became world famous for the development of autogenic training .
The son of a theologian studied medicine in Lausanne , Göttingen (where he met Karl Jaspers ) and Breslau . In 1907 he received his doctorate in Göttingen. 1908, after its approval , he was first there in the clinic of the University Hospital operates from 1911 in the Department of Dermatology in Breslau , the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut, Frankfurt am Main, in the mental hospital Chemnitz and finally to the Psychiatric University Clinic in Jena under Otto Binswanger , with whom he completed his habilitation in 1915 . A first attempt in 1912 failed due to protests by Jewish patients because of his anti-Semitic statements - but this claim cannot be further verified at present; Schultz himself depicts it in his autobiography as an intrigue.
During the First World War he worked in Marienburg / West Prussia , Rudczanny and Allenstein (contact Karl Abraham here) and from 1916 to 1918 headed the “Imperial Military Convalescent Home Malonne” near Namur in Belgium ; In 1919 he became an associate professor for psychiatry and neurology in Jena, from 1920 chief physician and scientific director of the Lahmann sanatorium on the Weißen Hirsch near Dresden. In 1924 he settled in Berlin as a neurologist .
In 1925/26 he was a member of the founding committee for the first General Medical Congress for Psychotherapy , member of the board of the General Medical Society for Psychotherapy founded on December 1, 1927 , from 1928 advisory board of their association journal and from 1930 with Arthur Kronfeld (and Rudolf Allers in Vienna for the Speech part) Editor of the association organ now called Zentralblatt für Psychotherapie , 1933 board member of the German General Medical Society for Psychotherapy under Matthias Heinrich Göring , the cousin of the Reichsmarschall. From 1936 to 1945 he was deputy director of the German Institute for Psychological Research and Psychotherapy , headed the local polyclinic and was responsible for the training of psychotherapeutic doctors. Among the donors of the German Institute for Psychological Research and Psychotherapy were the Reich Air Force, the German Labor Front (DAF) and, from 1943, the Reich Research Council. Schultz was involved in many of these areas of work, as indicated in his numerous publications from this period.
Schultz was not allowed to be a member of the NSDAP , as his first marriage was to a Jew, but he joined the NSKK in 1933 , which was absorbed into the SA in 1935 . He was a candidate for the National Socialist Medical Association .
In 1940 Schultz propagated the "extermination" of disabled people (" euthanasia "). He also passed “death sentences” against hysterics through his diagnoses . He also advocated allowing divorce from "such a beast".
As part of his work at the Göring Institute, Schultz was directly involved in the persecution of homosexual men (see also Homosexuality during the National Socialist era ). Schultz was of the opinion that there is hereditary and curable homosexuality . At the institute, attempts were made to “cure” homosexuals on the one hand, and on the other, Schultz headed a commission that forced “suspects” to have sexual intercourse with prostitutes in order to “determine” whether they were homosexual. "Guilty" were transferred to concentration camps.
After 1945 he continued to meet with Werner Heyde , a leading expert in the T4 campaign who lived in hiding. Schultz worked as a neurologist in Berlin. In 1956 he was editor of the journal Psychotherapie and honorary member of the DGPT . In 1959 he founded the German Society for Medical Hypnosis and Autogenic Training .
areas of expertise
Since at least 1909 Schultz dealt with psychoanalysis .
He became known through the development of autogenic training , which he first publicly presented in 1926 as "autogenic organ exercises" on the basis of hypnosis research and extensive individual studies, including in self-experiments, and which he called "autogenic training" in 1928. It is an autosuggestive exercise program to deeply relax and achieve more serenity.
- New ways and goals of psychotherapy. In: Ther. Monthly books. 29, 1915, pp. 443-450 (habilitation lecture)
- 1919: The treatment of mental illnesses (psychotherapy). A floor plan for specialist and general practice. 7th edition. Fischer, Jena 1919. (Thieme, Stuttgart 1958)
- Psychoanalysis and its criticism. In: C. Adam (Ed.): Psychology and its significance for medical practice. Eight lectures. Fischer, Jena 1921.
- The fateful hour of psychotherapy. In: Albert Moll (Ed.): Dep. Territory. Psychother. med. Psychol. 1, 1925.
- The Unification Efforts in Psychotherapy. In: Wladimir Eliasberg (Ed.): Report on the 1st General Congress for Psychotherapy in Baden-Baden. 17th-19th April 1926. Carl Marhold Verlagbuchhandlung, Halle 1927, pp. 241-252.
- Autogenic training (concentrative self-relaxation). Attempt of a clinical-practical presentation. Thieme, Leipzig 1932. (numerous ed.)
- Hypnosis technique. Practical guide to hypnotizing doctors. Fischer, Jena 1935.
- Exercise book for autogenic training (concentrative self-relaxation). Thieme, Leipzig 1935. (numerous ed.)
- Neurosis Lifeblood Medical duty. Clinical lectures on psychotherapy for doctors and students. Thieme, Leipzig 1936.
- Gender - love - marriage. The basic facts of love and sex life in their meaning for individual and popular existence. 1940. (7th edition Reinhardt, Munich, 1967)
- Mental health maintenance with special consideration of the war conditions . ES Mittler & Sohn, Berlin 1941.
- Bionome psychotherapy. A fundamental attempt. Thieme, Stuttgart 1951.
- Organ disorders and perversions in love life. Significance, origin, treatment, prevention. Reinhardt, Munich 1952.
- Psychotherapy. Life and work of great doctors. Hippocrates, Stuttgart 1952.
- Basic questions of the theory of neuroses. Structure and meaning picture. Propaedeutics of a medical psychology. Thieme, Stuttgart 1955.
- The life picture book of a neurologist - decades of gratitude. Thieme, Stuttgart 1964. (2nd edition. 1971)
In the GDR , Schultze's writings Gender, Love, Marriage (Reinhardt, Munich 1940) and The Mental Health Preservation were placed on the list of literature to be segregated with special consideration of the war conditions (Mittler, Berlin 1942) .
- Jürgen Brunner, Florian Steger: Johannes Heinrich Schultz (1884–1970) founder of autogenic training. A biographical attempt at reconstruction in the field of tension between science and politics. In: BIOS. Vol. 19 (2006), Issue 1, pp. 16-25 ( online ).
- Jürgen Brunner, Matthias Schrempf, Florian Steger: Johannes Heinrich Schultz and National Socialism. In: J Psychiatry Relat Sci. Volume 45, No. 4, 2008, pp. 257-262.
- Björn Husmann: Light and shadow in the work of Johannes Heinrich Schultz. Overview and complete bibliography. A contribution to the history of psychotherapy in German-speaking countries. In: Relaxation Process. Journal of the German Society for Relaxation Processes. No. 32, 2015, pp. 8–99.
- Björn Husmann: "The last and the first days ..." Light and dark sides of the professional vita of Johannes Heinrich Schultz before and after 1945. In: Hypnose - magazine for hypnosis and hypnotherapy. Vol. 11 (2016), No. 1/2, pp. 27-70.
- Björn Husmann: The development of autogenic training in the context of contemporary history and the professional career of Prof. Dr. Johannes Heinrich Schultz 1902–32. When psychotherapy learned to walk or: "Concentrative self-relaxation" is not witch-skill but switch-skill. In: Relaxation Process. No. 34, 2017, pp. 24–118.
- Björn Husmann: The professional biography of Prof. Dr. Johannes Heinrich Schultz 1905-1970 in a historical context. The light and dark sides of psychotherapeutic professionalization and development of autogenic training through the lens of German history. In: Relaxation Process. No. 35, 2018, pp. E88 – e125.
- Udo Busso Künzel: "I am very calm". Psychoanalysis and politics in the publications of the founder of autogenic training, Johannes Heinrich Schultz. Univ., Dissertation. Frankfurt am Main 1998.
- Christian Meurer: wonder weapon joke cannon. Heroism from Hess to Hendrix . Oktober-Verlag, Münster 2006, ISBN 3-938568-01-1 (contains a biographical essay on Schultz).
- Eberhard Schaetzing : JHS: The mentor of German psychotherapy and creator of the "autogenic training". In: Hans Schwerte , Wilhelm Spengler (ed.): Researchers and scientists in Europe today. 2. Doctors, biologists, anthropologists (= designers of our time. Volume 4). Stalling, Oldenburg 1955, pp. 118–126 (the editors were SS cadres).
- Eberhard J. Wormer : In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 23, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-428-11204-3 , pp. 700 f. ( ).
- Literature by and about Johannes Heinrich Schultz in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about Johannes Heinrich Schultz in the German Digital Library
- Critical article by Maja Langsdorff from the Stuttgarter Zeitung
- History of psychotherapy regulations and laws in Germany
- AÄZP General Medical Journal for Psychotherapy and Psychological Hygiene
- Günter Grau: Lexicon on the persecution of homosexuals 1933-1945: Institutions - Competencies - Fields of activity . Lit-Verlag, Münster / Berlin 2010, p. 267.
- Dagmar Herzog: Sex After Fascism. Memory and Morality in Twentieth-Century Germany . Princeton University Press, 2005, ISBN 0-691-11702-0 , p. 35; Geoffrey Cocks: Psychotherapy in the Third Reich. The Goering Institute . Transaction, 1997, ISBN 1-56000-904-7 , p. 235.
- Ernst Klee: The dictionary of persons on the Third Reich. Who was what before and after 1945? Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2007, p. 566.
- James E. Goggin, Eileen Brockman Goggin: Death of a "Jewish Science". Psychoanalysis in the Third Reich . Purdue University Press, 2001, ISBN 1-55753-193-5 , p. 120; Florence Tamagne: A history of homosexuality in Europe . Algora, 2006, ISBN 0-87586-356-6 , p. 385.
- Angelika Hager, Sebastian Hofer: Sex under the swastika. The National Socialists' understanding of pleasure in science. In: Profile . 22, 2008.
- Hans-Jürgen Mende : Lexicon of Berlin burial places . Pharus-Plan, Berlin 2018, ISBN 978-3-86514-206-1 . P. 495.
- Ministry of National Education of the German Democratic Republic, list of the literature to be sorted out
|SURNAME||Schultz, Johannes Heinrich|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||German neurologist|
|DATE OF BIRTH||June 20, 1884|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Goettingen|
|DATE OF DEATH||19th September 1970|
|Place of death||Berlin|