Psychiatrist (from the Greek ψυχή psychē "soul, life" and ἰατρός iatros "doctor") has been a doctor in Germany since 1994 with further training in psychiatric and psychotherapeutic specialist training . As such, he is engaged in the medical diagnosis , treatment and research of mental disorders .
Psychiatrists and psychotherapists treat mental disorders . Among laypeople, the professional titles psychotherapist, psychologist and psychiatrist are often incorrectly equated and used synonymously . However, these occupational groups differ significantly in terms of training and occupational profile.
Difference between psychiatrist, psychotherapist and psychologist in Germany
- Psychiatrists are specialists in psychiatry and psychotherapy . Psychotherapy has been a compulsory part of specialist training for psychiatrists in Germany since 1994. The specialist in psychiatry and psychotherapy must be distinguished from the other two psychotherapeutic specialists (the specialist in psychosomatic medicine and psychotherapy and the specialist in child and adolescent psychiatry and psychotherapy ). In Germany, the fee for psychiatric treatment - unlike psychotherapy - is not based on the time spent talking, but on the number of patients per hour.
- Psychotherapists are mostly psychologists or doctors who are licensed to practice medicine (approbation) and are allowed to practice psychotherapy within the meaning of the Psychotherapists Act . This includes diagnosis, prognosis, indication and treatment of psychological complaints with disease value using scientifically recognized methods of psychotherapy.
- Psychologists are people who have successfully completed a degree in psychology with a diploma or master’s degree. The professional titles psychologist, graduate psychologist and various “hyphenated psychologists” (e.g. social psychologist) have been protected in Germany since 1985. Psychologists with an academic degree must complete their studies as a psychotherapist and acquire a license to practice medicine if they are medical psychotherapy in accordance with Want to exercise the Psychotherapists Act. However, you can also work in numerous other professional fields (such as in business, in human resources , in research, as a traffic psychologist or in advice centers ).
Earlier or expiring job titles
A historical term for the profession was psychiatrist , in Germany the term neurologist was later created . The specialist in neurology and psychiatry was initially abolished in 1988. When the new advanced training regulations for doctors came into force in 1989, the following transitional provisions applied: Anyone who used the designation “psychiatrist” or “doctor for psychiatry” or “doctor for neurology and psychiatry” could keep them. Upon request, he was given the right to use the specialist title “Specialist for psychiatry and psychotherapy” if he was allowed to use the additional title “Psychotherapy”, which required further training. In 1992 the specialist in neurology and psychiatry was reintroduced.
Anyone with the specialist title for “child and adolescent psychiatry” and the additional title “psychotherapy” received the right to use the specialist title “child and adolescent psychiatry and psychotherapy” upon request. Anyone who had the sub-specialization designation child neurology and psychiatry in connection with the specialist designation neurology and psychiatry or the specialist designation paediatrics and also the designation specialist for psychotherapy was given the right to use the designation "specialist for child and adolescent psychiatry and psychotherapy" upon application .
Anyone who had the additional designation “psychoanalysis” or “psychotherapy” when the continuing education regulations came into force could retain them. Upon application, he was given the right to use the designation “Specialist in Psychotherapeutic Medicine” if, after acquiring the additional qualification, he had mainly performed psychotherapy for a period of at least five years.
Forensic psychiatry is a branch of psychiatry like forensic medicine , which deals with the border area between psychiatry and law. This includes legal questions such as assessing the criminal responsibility of criminals, but also expert opinions with regard to placement in closed institutions or the care of (presumably) mentally ill people.
(Sorted by year of birth)
- Philippe Pinel (1745–1826), “lunatic liberator”, co-founder of scientific psychiatry
- Johann Christian Reil (1759–1813), founder of general and integrative psychiatry and psychotherapy
- Jean-Étienne Esquirol (1772–1840), pupil of Pinels, founder of monomania
- Ernst Gottlob Pienitz (1777-1853), psychiatrist reformer
- Peter Willers Jessen (1793–1875), in Schleswig, director of the first psychiatric hospital in German-speaking countries, non-compulsory treatment
- Heinrich Hoffmann (1809-1894), author of Struwwelpeter
- Wilhelm Griesinger (1817–1868), Burghölzli in Zurich
- Karl Ludwig Kahlbaum (1828–1899), new structure of the clinical pictures
- Richard von Krafft-Ebing (1840–1902), sadism and masochism
- Paul Flechsig (1847–1929 Leipzig)
- Auguste Forel (1848–1931), Burghölzli
- Paul Näcke (1851–1913, narcissism , homosexuality not a disease)
- Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926)
- Otto Binswanger (1852–1929), Jena
- Eugen Bleuler (1857–1939), Burghölzli
- Julius Wagner-Jauregg (1857–1940)
- Alois Alzheimer (1864-1915), Alzheimer's disease
- Alfred Hoche (1865–1943)
- Karl Bonhoeffer (1868–1948)
- Hans Berger (1873–1941), Jena; Electroencephalography
- Karl Wilmanns (1873–1945)
- Carl Gustav Jung (1875–1961), Burghölzli
- Oswald Bumke (1877–1950), successor to Alzheimer's in Breslau, Kraepelin in Munich and Flechsig in Leipzig; Brother of Erwin Bumke
- Edmund Forster (1878-1933)
- Karl Jaspers (1883–1969)
- Johannes Heinrich Schultz (1884–1970)
- Hans Prinzhorn (1886–1933)
- Arthur Kronfeld (1886–1941)
- Kurt Schneider (1887–1967)
- Théophile Alajouanine (1890–1980)
- Walter Ritter von Baeyer (1904–1987)
- Viktor Frankl (1905–1997)
- Eric Berne (1910-1970)
- Heinz Kohut (1913–1981)
- Detlev Ploog (1920-2005)
- Thomas Szasz (1920–2012), radical critic of forced psychiatric interventions
- Erwin Ringel (1921–1994)
- Leo Navratil (1921–2006), Art by Patients in Closed Psychiatric Clinics
- Franco Basaglia (1924–1980), Venice, operated the closure of the insane asylums in Italy
- Hanns Hippius (* 1925)
- Frantz Fanon (1925–1961)
- Elisabeth Kübler-Ross (1926-2004)
- Ronald D. Laing (1927-1989)
- Otto F. Kernberg (* 1928)
- Alexander Friedmann (1948-2008)
Psychiatrists who became known in another context
- Radovan Karadžić (* 1945; was sentenced to 40 years in prison for genocide by the UN war crimes tribunal in The Hague)
- John Karl Friedrich Rittmeister (1898–1943), executed in the Berlin-Plötzensee prison , as the only German psychiatrist and therapist because of his active resistance against the National Socialists
- Hoimar von Ditfurth (1921–1989), professor of psychiatry and television journalist ( cross-sections with the physicist Volker Arzt), author of numerous popular science bestsellers (in the beginning there was hydrogen, among other things)
- Johannes Pantel: Neurology, Psychiatry and Internal Medicine. Course and dynamics of a historical dispute. In: Würzburger medical history reports , Volume 11, 1993, pp. 77-99.
- Theodor Kirchhoff (ed.): German insane doctors. Individual images of their life and work. Edited with the support of the German Research Institute for Psychiatry in Munich and numerous employees. 2 volumes. Berlin 1921-1924.
- Kurt Kolle (Ed.): Great neurologists. 3 volumes. Stuttgart: Thieme 1956–1963; 2nd edition there 1970.
- Karl Seidel , HAF Schulze, Gerhard Göllnitz , Hans Szewczyk (eds.): Neurology and psychiatry including child neuropsychiatry and judicial psychiatry. Student textbook. Berlin 1977; 4th edition, ibid. 1988.
- See also Kirsten von Sydow: The image of psychologists, psychotherapists and psychiatrists in public. A systematic research overview. In: Psychotherapist. Volume 52, 2007, pp. 322-333.
- Christian Heinrich: Profession special: Psychiatry: Attention in chord . In: Die Zeit (Ed.): Die Zeit Online . No. June 24 , 2014 ( zeit.de [accessed June 10, 2018]).
- Guideline of the Federal Joint Committee on the Implementation of Psychotherapy (Psychotherapy Guideline). Retrieved March 31, 2014.
- Psychotherapists Act of the Federal Republic of Germany Accessed on March 31, 2014.
- BDP - FAQ: Title recognition and professional practice in Germany. December 30, 2008, accessed June 17, 2019 .
- Professional Association of German Psychologists eV: History and milestones of the BDP. Retrieved June 7, 2019 .
- Career opportunity check psychologist. Education and Knowledge, Nuremberg 1999, ISBN 3-8214-8244-3 .
- Further training regulations from ( Memento of the original of October 10, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. here the Berlin Medical Association.