University of Wroclaw

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Uniwersytet Wrocławski
Universitas Wratislaviensis
Silesian Friedrich Wilhelms University
Universitas Leopoldina
founding October 21, 1702 as
Universitas Leopoldina
August 3, 1811 as the
Silesian Friedrich-Wilhelms University
June 9, 1946 as
Uniwersytet Wrocławski
Sponsorship state
place Wroclaw , Poland
Rector Adam Jezierski
Students 34,621 (Nov. 30, 2010)
Employee 3,480
including professors 426
University main building Wroclaw

The University of Wroclaw ( Polish Uniwersytet Wrocławski ; Latin Universitas Wratislaviensis ) is a university in Wroclaw founded in 1702 as a Jesuit college . The German university was dissolved in 1945 and a Polish university was founded in its place in 1946.


Foundation as Leopoldina

With its cathedral school, Wroclaw was an important school town as early as the Middle Ages . At the request of the Wroclaw City Council, the Bohemian ruler, King Vladislav II, confirmed the establishment of a university in Wroclaw on July 20, 1505, which, however, could not be established due to numerous wars and sharp resistance from the University of Krakow .

The previous institutions, which had existed since 1638, were transferred to a Jesuit school and finally, in 1702, at the instigation of the Jesuits and with the support of the Silesian senior official Johannes Adrian von Plencken, founded by Emperor Leopold I as a Jesuit academy, each with a faculty for philosophy and Catholic theology . This was named Leopoldina after its founder . Teaching began on November 15, 1702. Johannes Adrian von Plencken was also the academy's chancellor. The Aula Leopoldina was built between 1728 and 1732 and has been almost completely preserved to this day. This is regularly used officially for university public events.

When, after the First Silesian War, Breslau and almost all of Silesia fell to Prussia in 1742 , the academy lost its counter-Reformation character, but remained as a denominational college for the training of the Catholic clergy in Prussia.

Silesian Friedrich Wilhelms University

Logo of the Royal University of Wroclaw on a seal stamp

On August 3, 1811, the Leopoldina and the Brandenburg University of Frankfurt were united by royal cabinet orders in the course of the reorganization of the Prussian state after the Peace of Tilsit and as the Silesian Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität zu Breslau with five faculties (Catholic theology, Protestant theology, law , Medicine and philosophy) newly founded. It was the first German university with a Catholic and a Protestant faculty.

Associated with the university were three theological seminars, a philological and a seminar for German philology, also for Romance and English philology, a historical, a mathematical-physical, a legal and a political seminar. From 1842 the university also had a chair for Slavic Studies. The university had twelve different scientific institutes, six clinical institutions and three art collections. Since 1881 the university has also had an agricultural institute (formerly in Proskau ) with ten teachers and 44 students, which included an animal chemistry, a veterinary and a technological institute. In the 20th century the University Institute for Music Education and Church Music was added. a. served to train music teachers at higher education institutions. In 1884 the number of students was 1,481 and the number of lecturers 131.

The University Library Wroclaw comprised about 400,000 plants in 1885, including about 2,400 volumes incunabula (to 1500), approximately 250 volumes Aldinen and 2,840 volumes of manuscripts . It arose from the collections of the abolished monasteries and monasteries and the earlier Frankfurt and Breslau university libraries; It also includes the Bibliotheca Habichtiana, rich in oriental printed and handwritten works, and the Academic Reading Institute.

Aula Leopoldina of the University of Wroclaw

Also to be mentioned are the historical observatory Mathematical Tower , southern side tower around 1730, the Oratorium Marianum (opened in 1733, concert hall since 1815), the botanical garden (five  hectares in size) with the botanical museum and the zoological garden created by a stock corporation in 1862, the natural history and the zoological museum, the chemical and physical collections, the chemical laboratory, the plant physiological and mineralogical institute, the anatomical institute, the clinical institutions, the picture gallery (mostly from the churches, monasteries etc.), the museum of Silesian antiquities and that State Archives for Silesia.

At the Silesian Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität there was a lively relationship .

Dissolution and re-establishment as a Polish university

Podium of the Aula Leopoldina

After the time of National Socialism and the conquest of Wroclaw by the Red Army , the Silesian Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität zu Breslau was dissolved. When the city was handed over to Poland on August 24, 1945, the German university and the Technical University of Wroclaw (1910–1945) were converted into universities of the Polish state. With a lecture by Professor Ludwik Hirszfeld , teaching was resumed on November 15 of the same year; on June 9, 1946, the Polish university was officially opened. Since 1952 the college has been named after the then President and First Secretary of the Polish United Workers' Party (PZPR) Bolesław Bierut (until 1989).

The tradition of the old Silesian Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität has been cultivated by the University of Cologne since 1951, in accordance with the Senate resolution . A partnership has been agreed with the new Polish University of Wroclaw since 2003.

A partnership with the Ruhr University Bochum has existed since 1988 .

The university celebrated its 300th anniversary in 2001, expressly following on from the tradition of the Austrian “Leopoldina”.

38,607 students were enrolled at the university in the academic year 2000/2001.

Today's faculties

Corps Borussia Breslau (now part of Cologne and Aachen) - 189th Foundation Festival 2008, celebrated in Breslau
  • Philological Faculty
  • Faculty of History and Education
  • Faculty of Law, Economics and Economics
  • Faculty of Physics and Astronomy
  • Faculty of Biotechnology
  • Faculty of Biology
  • Faculty of Geography, Geology and Environmental Education
  • Faculty of Social Sciences
  • Faculty of Chemistry
  • Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science

International cooperation

In 2001, with the aim of international understanding and knowledge transfer, the German-Polish Society of the University of Wrocław (Breslau) e. V. founded. This society includes all universities in the city of Wroclaw: University, Pontifical Theological Faculty, Medical Academy, Technical University, universities of economics, agriculture, sports, music and the arts. The founding members were high-ranking officials of what is now the University of Wrocław and German professors who were born in Wrocław. That was a good 120, and more than 3/4 of them are members today. The company's activity mainly extends to contacts, exchanges and grants. The founder and president is Norbert Heisig , University of Hamburg.

In 2002 the “Willy Brandt Center for German and European Studies” was founded jointly by the University of Breslau and the DAAD .

Awarded in 2011 as part of the event Between Tradition and Partnership , at which the canon lawyer Franz August Gescher (1884–1960), a research pioneer of the Cologne church's constitutional history, was awarded as a “bridge builder between the University of Cologne and the Silesian Friedrich-Wilhelms- University ”was presented, the university rectors Marek Bojarski and Jan Harasimowicz awarded anniversary medals from the University of Breslau to the Cardinal and Archbishop of Cologne Joachim Meisner and to Cologne university members such as Reimund Haas .

See also

List of the rectors of the Silesian Friedrich Wilhelms University in Breslau

University professors and alumni

in alphabetical order


  • Joseph Reinkens : The University of Breslau before the unification of the Frankfurt Viadrina with the Leopoldina . Wroclaw 1861.
  • Georg Kaufmann (Hrsg.): Festschrift to celebrate the centenary of the University of Breslau . 2 volumes. Wroclaw 1911.
  • Josef Joachim Menzel (Hrsg.): Yearbook of the Silesian Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität zu Breslau . Jan Thorbecke Verlag, Stuttgart (published annually).
  • Friedrich Andreae sw.A. Griesebach: The University of Breslau . Berlin, 1928. In: Yearbook of the Silesian Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität zu Breslau . 1955.
  • Erich Kleineidam: The Catholic theological faculty of the University of Breslau 1811-1945 . Cologne 1961, ISBN 3-87909-028-9 .
  • Carsten Rabe: Alma Mater Leopoldina. College and University of the Jesuits in Breslau 1638-1811, Cologne; Weimar; Vienna 1999. ( New research on Silesian history ; 7)
  • Ludwig Petry : Spiritual Life of the East in the Mirror of Wroclaw University History. In: W. Hubatsch : German universities and colleges in the east. Cologne-Opladen 1964, pp. 87–112.
  • T. Kulak, M. Pater u. W. Wrzesiński: Historia Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego 1702–2002 . Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego, 2002 (History of the University of Wrocław 1702–2002; Uniwersytet Wrocławski-Verlag).
  • Adam Chmielewski: Jubileusz trzechsetlecia Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego 1702–2002. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego (300th anniversary of the University of Wrocław 1702–2002).
  • Norbert Conrads (Ed.): Source book for the history of the University of Breslau 1702-1811. Böhlau, Cologne 2003. ISBN 3-412-09802-7 .
  • Marian Danowski : Philosophical Faculty Königsberg, Breslau, Strasbourg: Inaugurar - Dissertations from 1885–1889 . Literature Agency Danowski, Zurich 2007, DNB 985593490 .
  • Rainer Bendel : Wroclaw Catholic Theological Faculty. In: Dominik Burkard, Wolfgang Weiß (Ed.): Catholic theology in National Socialism. Volume 1/2: Institutions and Structures. Würzburg 2011, pp. 9-23.

Web links

Commons : University of Wroclaw  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. a b c, Dane statystyczne Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego wg stanu na 31.12.2010 r .: PDF file.
  2. Kazimierz Bobowski: Origin and development of different Silesian schools in the Middle Ages. In: Würzburg medical history reports. Volume 23, 2004, pp. 471-485.
  3. ^ Dietrich Meyer : On the history of the Protestant theological faculty of the University of Breslau 1811–1945. In: Yearbook for Silesian Church History. New episode. Volume 68, 1989, pp. 149-174; Friedrich Arnold: The Protestant theological faculty. In: Georg Kaufmann (Hrsg.): Festschrift to celebrate the centenary of the University of Breslau. Part 2, Breslau 1911.
  4. Albrecht Scholz, Thomas Barth, Anna-Sophia Pappai and Axel Wacker: The fate of the teaching staff of the Medical Faculty in Breslau after the expulsion in 1945/46. In: Würzburg medical history reports. Volume 24, 2005, pp. 497-533.
  5. Hans Thiemer 2005, The big book of styles: Baroque - Rococo - Spätbarock. P. 213
  6. Heinz Gelhoit, The corporations in Breslau 1811-1938 , Hilden, 2009, 311 pages.
  7. Reimund Haas: "Gescherianum" - Rheinische church legal history of the Middle Ages in Cologne and Wroclaw. In: Specialized prose research - Crossing borders. Volume 8/9, 2012/2013 (2014), pp. 311-325, here: pp. 312 f.
  8. Arthur Müller: Good night, little boy! . E. Bloch, 1865 ( limited preview in Google book search).
  9. Arthur Müller: A Haberfeldtreib . Dempwolff, 1866 ( limited preview in Google book search).