Paul Ehrlich

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Paul Ehrlich (1915)

Paul Ehrlich (born March 14, 1854 in Strehlen , Breslau administrative district , Silesia province ; died August 20, 1915 in Bad Homburg vor der Höhe ) was a German physician and researcher.

Through his staining methods, he differentiated between different types of blood cells, which enabled the diagnosis of numerous blood diseases . With his development of a drug treatment for syphilis , he founded modern chemotherapy . He was also instrumental in the development of the healing serum against diphtheria , which is usually attributed to Emil von Behring alone. As director of the Institute for Experimental Therapy , he worked out the methods for the standardization (“measurement of values” or value determination) of sera .

In 1908 he and Ilja Metschnikow received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for their contributions to immunology developed in the field of serum research .



St. Maria Magdalenen in Breslau , on the left the high school (painting by A. Woelfl, 1867)

Paul Ehrlich was born as the second child to Jewish parents. His father Ismar Ehrlich was married to Rosa, née Weigert, and was a liqueur manufacturer and royal lottery taker in Strehlen, a town of around 5000 inhabitants in the province of Lower Silesia . His grandfather Heymann Ehrlich had already been a distiller and tenant there and had achieved some wealth. Ismar Ehrlich was head of the Jewish community. Paul Ehrlich later did not convert to Protestantism - which many Jewish colleagues felt compelled to do for career reasons - but rather carelessly upheld Jewish customs and regulations . Paul Ehrlich was related to the Breslau pathologist Carl Weigert through his mother Rosa .

School and study

After attending primary school in Strehlen, Paul Ehrlich went to the traditional Maria Magdalenen grammar school in Breslau from 1864 to 1872 , where he also met Albert Neisser . Various stories from his childhood and adolescence remain speculative. In retrospect, Ehrlich “always felt the school to be an oppressive burden”. He did not do military service.

Ehrlich studied medicine in Breslau and Strasbourg from 1872 with a short stay in Freiburg and received his doctorate in Leipzig in 1878 , where his doctoral supervisor Julius Cohnheim had moved.


After graduation, he worked as an assistant and senior physician under Theodor Frerichs - the founder of experimental clinical medicine - at the Charité in Berlin. The focus of his scientific work during this time was on histology , hematology and color chemistry . In 1882 he was given the title of "Professor".

On August 14, 1883 Ehrlich married Hedwig Pinkus (1864–1948), the daughter of a Silesian textile manufacturer, in the synagogue of Neustadt in Upper Silesia . He treated his wife as an equal partner to a degree that was unusual for the time. (Later he also campaigned for a wage increase for female employees in his institute, who he felt was too low paid compared to their male colleagues.) In 1884, the daughter Stefanie was born, in 1886 the second daughter Marianne. The dowry from the marriage relieved Ehrlich of all financial difficulties, so that he could also bridge periods of unemployment. All witnesses describe Ehrlich as modest in his personal life, and cigars were his only major weakness.

Ehrlich got into a professional crisis because he didn't get along with Frerichs' successor, Carl Gerhardt , and he also contracted pulmonary tuberculosis, which he cured in Egypt. In 1889 he was finally without any prospect of a job and therefore set up a private practice and a small laboratory in Berlin. In 1890 he was appointed adjunct professor at the Friedrich Wilhelms University . In 1891 Robert Koch brought him to his Institute for Infectious Diseases , where he worked particularly on immunological issues. For the new field of work, the Institute for Serum Research and Serum Testing was founded in Steglitz near Berlin in 1896, and Ehrlich became its director. In the same year Ehrlich was also appointed " Secret Medical Council ".


Paul Ehrlich

In 1899 his institute was relocated to Frankfurt am Main and renamed the (Royal) Institute for Experimental Therapy . Max Neisser became an important employee there . In 1904 Ehrlich received a full honorary professorship in Göttingen . That same year he was elected to the United States' National Academy of Sciences . In 1906, a generous donation from Franziska Speyer enabled the construction of the Georg-Speyer-Haus in Frankfurt, whose director Ehrlich became at the same time. In 1907 he received the seldom awarded title of "Secret Chief Medical Officer" and entered into a cooperation with Farbwerke Hoechst, in which it was contractually regulated that all discoveries by the state institute should be left to the Farbwerke, which paid 30 percent of all profits to the institute's researchers to have. In 1908 his immunological work was awarded the Nobel Prize. In the Georg-Speyer-Haus he developed with Hata Sahachirō in 1909 the drug "(Ehrlich-Hata) 606" (which was officially referred to as " Salvarsan " from November 1910 ) against syphilis and thus the first chemotherapeutic drug. In 1910 Ehrlich became a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences . In the same year he also became an external member of the Royal Society . Since 1905 he was an honorary member of the Royal Society of Edinburgh .

From 1911 until his death Ehrlich was a member of the Senate of the newly founded Kaiser Wilhelm Society . In 1911 he was awarded the Liebig Memorial Medal by the Association of German Chemists . Ehrlich, who had always found lectures to be a chore, was appointed full professor of pharmacology at the newly founded Frankfurt University in 1914 . However, he successfully prevented the Georg-Speyer-Haus from being incorporated into the university.

With the exception of the Pasteur Institute, Ehrlich always worked well with foreign colleagues. Among the foreign visiting scholars who had worked with him were the future Nobel Prize winners Henry H. Dale and Paul Karrer . During the First World War, Ehrlich signed the propaganda appeal “ To the cultural world! “Which caused horror in the international scientific world.

Paul Ehrlich rejected the elevation to the nobility because he did not want to leave Judaism.

Ehrlich suffered a heart attack on August 17, 1915, and died on August 20. Kaiser Wilhelm II wrote in his condolence telegram: “I lament the death of this highly deserved researcher for medical science and the suffering of humanity, whose life's work will secure him immortal fame and thanks among the world and posterity.” Paul Ehrlich was buried in the Jewish cemetery on Rat-Beil-Strasse in Frankfurt (Block 114 N).


Staining methods for hematology

Ehrlich's cousin Carl Weigert was the first to stain bacteria with dyes in the early 1870s and introduced aniline dyes into histology and bacterial diagnostics. During his studies in Strasbourg under the anatomist Heinrich Wilhelm Waldeyer , Ehrlich continued to deal with dyes and the dyeing of tissues for microscopic examination. For the eighth semester Ehrlich went to Freiburg im Breisgau, where he mainly worked with the dye dahlia . His first publication dates from this time. In 1878 Ehrlich's doctoral supervisor Julius Cohnheim was appointed to Leipzig. Ehrlich followed him and in the same year submitted his dissertation entitled Contributions to the theory and practice of histological staining .

Mast cells in cell culture

One of the outstanding results of this doctoral thesis was the discovery of a new type of cell. Ehrlich discovered a grain in the protoplasm of supposed plasma cells that could be represented with the help of basic dyes. He thought it had to be a state of good nutrition and called the cells " mast cells ". The chemical focus was unusual for a medical doctoral thesis: Ehrlich presented the entire spectrum of the dyeing techniques of the time and the chemistry of the dyes used.

During his time at the Charité, Ehrlich developed the differentiation of white blood cells on the basis of their different granules . The prerequisite was the technique of dry preparations, which he had also developed. A drop of blood was placed between two glass plates and heated over the Bunsen burner for a long time. The blood cells were fixed in this way, but remained stainable. Honestly used basic and acidic dyes, but also created new "neutral" dyes. For the first time he demarcated the lymphocytes within the leukocytes . Due to their granulation, he was able to differentiate between ungranulated lymphocytes, mono- and polynuclear leukocytes, eosinophilic granulocytes and mast cells. For the differential diagnosis of blood diseases he introduced the counting of the different blood cells.

Ehrlich has also been working with red blood cells since 1880 . He demonstrated nucleated red blood cells , especially in anemia , which he divided into normoblasts , megaloblasts, microblasts and poikiloblasts. He had found the progenitor cells of the erythrocytes. Ehrlich thus created the basis for the analysis of anemia , after he had laid the basis for the systematics of leukemia by examining the white blood cells .

His duties at the Charité included examining blood and urine samples from patients. In 1881 Ehrlich published the diazo reaction, a new test reaction for the urine with which different types of typhoid fever could be distinguished from simple diarrheal diseases. The intensity of the color reaction allowed a prognosis about the expected course of the disease. The color solution used is still known today as Ehrlich's reagent .

Ehrlich's achievement, but also the problem with his further career, was that he had opened up a new area between chemistry, biology and medicine. Much of his work was received with incomprehension by medical professionals because the chemical requirements went far beyond their horizon. There was also no suitable chair in sight for Ehrlich.

Serum research

Friendship with Robert Koch

Robert Koch

After the fourth semester Ehrlich returned to Breslau, where the pathologist Julius Friedrich Cohnheim gave him the opportunity to conduct more extensive experiments. Cohnheim also introduced him to Robert Koch , who was then a district doctor in Wollstein , Province of Posen . In his spare time, Koch had explained the life cycle of the anthrax pathogen. He turned to Ferdinand Cohn , who was quickly convinced of Koch's work and made him known to his colleagues in Breslau. From April 30th to May 2nd, 1876, Koch presented his experiments in Breslau, which Paul Ehrlich experienced in the final phase as a student.

Ehrlich was present on March 24, 1882, when Robert Koch, who had been at the Imperial Health Department in Berlin since 1880 , gave his lecture on tuberculosis in which he reported how he had identified the tuberculosis pathogen . Ehrlich later described this lecture as his "greatest scientific experience". The day after Koch's lecture, he had already improved his dyeing method, which Koch recognized without reservation. At least since then, the two men had been friends.

In 1890 Ehrlich took over the tuberculosis ward at the Moabit City Hospital on behalf of Koch . Among other things, Koch's alleged tuberculosis therapeutic, tuberculin, was researched here, which Ehrlich also had himself injected. In the following " tuberculin scandal " Ehrlich tried to support Koch and emphasized above all the value of tuberculin as a diagnostic tool. In 1891 Robert Koch brought Ehrlich to the newly founded Institute for Infectious Diseases . Although he could not offer him any remuneration, he did have full access to laboratory staff, patients, chemicals and laboratory animals, for which Ehrlich was always grateful.

First work on immunity

Ehrlich had started his first immunization experiments in his private laboratory . He let mice get used to the poisons ricin and abrin . After feeding small but increasing doses of ricin, he found that the mice had become "ricin-proof". Ehrlich interpreted this as immunization and observed that it only started erratically after a few days, but was still present after several months. Mice immune to ricin remained just as sensitive to abrin as untreated animals.

This was followed by studies on the “inheritance” of acquired immunity: It was known that after a smallpox or syphilis disease, specific immunity was occasionally transferred from parents to offspring. Ehrlich ruled out inheritance in the genetic sense because the offspring of a male mouse immunized against abrin and an untreated female mouse were not immune to abrin. Ehrlich concluded from this that the fetus was supplied with antibodies via the mother's bloodstream . This was also supported by the fact that this “hereditary immunity” subsided after a few months. In another experiment, he exchanged the offspring of treated and untreated female mice. The mice suckled by the treated mice became resistant to poison, with which Ehrlich had proven that antibodies are also transmitted with breast milk .

Work with Behring on a diphtheria healing serum

Emil Behring tried to develop immune sera for the treatment of diphtheria and tetanus at the Institute for Infectious Diseases until 1893, but the results only varied greatly. Koch then suggested that Behring and Ehrlich should cooperate with each other. The cooperation was successful insofar as Ehrlich quickly succeeded, through his experience with mice, in increasing the level of immunization of the experimental animals in Höchst. Clinical trials with the diphtheria healing serum were successful at the beginning of 1894, and in August the Hoechst paint factory brought "Behring's diphtheria remedies represented by Behring-Ehrlich" onto the market. Behring and Ehrlich had originally agreed to share the profit (after deducting the share of Farbwerke Hoechst). The contracts were changed several times, and finally Ehrlich was pushed to accept a profit share of only eight percent. Ehrlich agreed after much hesitation, but felt that his share of the profits had been lost. Since that time the relationship between Behring and Ehrlich was disturbed, which later escalated with the question of determining the value of tetanus serum. Ehrlich recognized that the principle of serum therapy had been developed by Behring and Kitasato . In his opinion, however, he was the first to develop a serum that could also be used on humans. He saw his part in the development of the diphtheria healing serum as insufficiently appreciated. For his part, Behring intrigued against Ehrlich in the Prussian Ministry of Culture . Ehrlich refused to work with Behring from 1900 onwards.

The determination of the value of Sera

Since the healing serum was a completely new type of drug , the quality of which could vary greatly, a system of state serum control was installed. From April 1, 1895, only state-approved serum could be sold in the German Reich. The control station for diphtheria serum was temporarily housed at the Institute for Infectious Diseases . From this, on the initiative of Friedrich Althoff, the Institute for Serum Research and Serum Testing was created in 1896 , whose director Paul Ehrlich became (in this context he had to dissolve all contracts with the Hoechst paintworks). In this position and as an honorary professor at Berlin University, he earned 6,000 marks a year, roughly the salary of a university professor. In addition to an examination department, the institute also contained a research department.

In order to determine the value of diphtheria healing serum, diphtheria poison of constant strength was necessary. Ehrlich discovered, however, that the poison used was not, as originally assumed, indefinitely. He drew two consequences from this: As a standard, he did not use the poison, but a serum powder developed by Behring that was only dissolved in liquid shortly before use. In relation to this standard serum, the strength of the poison was first determined. This test poison could then serve as a reference when testing other sera. For the test itself, poison and serum had previously been mixed in such a way that their effects had just canceled each other out when injected into a guinea pig. The interpretation of whether symptoms of the disease were absent, however, left a lot of leeway. Ehrlich then set an outcome of the experiment as a goal that had to be clearly defined: the death of the experimental animal. The mixture should be made so that the test animal died after four days. If it died earlier, the serum was too weak and was rejected. Ehrlich claimed to have made the value determination of serum as reliable as a chemical titration . Here the tendency, peculiar to him, to mathematize the life sciences is particularly evident.

The mayor of Frankfurt, Franz Adickes , tried to get scientific institutions to settle in Frankfurt in order to prepare for the establishment of a university . In 1899 the institute moved to Frankfurt, where it was inaugurated as the “Royal Prussian Institute for Experimental Therapy”. The German test method was adopted by state serum institutes around the world, which also obtained the standard serum from Frankfurt. After the diphtheria healing serum, a tetanus serum and various bactericidal sera were developed in quick succession , especially for veterinary medicine. They were also checked at the institute, as were tuberculin and later the active vaccines . Ehrlich's most important employee was Julius Morgenroth .

The side chain theory

Paul Ehrlich in his study in the Georg-Speyer-Haus in Frankfurt , 1910

This work inspired Ehrlich to develop his famous " side chain theory " in 1897 . In his understanding, the reaction between poison and the active components of the serum, like the effect of the poison itself, was a chemical reaction . He explained the poisonous effect using the example of tetanus poison . The protoplasm of the cells contains special "side chains" (in today's parlance macromolecules ) to which the poison binds and thus disrupts their function. If the organism survives the toxic effects, the blocked side chains are replaced by new ones. This regeneration can be trained, which explains the phenomenon of immunization. If there is an excess, the side chains can also be released into the blood as antibodies. In the following years Ehrlich expanded his side chain theory with a concept ("amboceptors", receptors of the first, second and third order, etc.) that is difficult to understand today. Between the antigen and the antibody, he adopted another immune molecule, which he called an "additive" or " complement ". According to his understanding, the side chain had at least two functional groups. In 1903 Ehrlich received the highest scientific award in Prussia, the "Great Golden Medal for Science". Ehrlich was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1908 together with Ilja Metschnikow for the theoretical foundation of immunology and for his work on the standardization of value determination . Metschnikow, who had researched the cellular branch of immunity ( phagocytosis ) at the Pasteur Institute , had previously attacked Ehrlich sharply.

Cancer research

In 1901 the Prussian Ministry of Finance complained that Ehrlich had exceeded his budget and his income was subsequently cut. In this situation, Althoff put him in touch with Georg Speyer , co-owner of the Lazard Speyer-Ellissen banking house . The empress dowager's cancer had caused a sensation, whereupon wealthy Frankfurt citizens collected for cancer research. Ehrlich was personally commissioned by Kaiser Wilhelm II to devote all his energy to cancer research. A department for cancer research was attached to the Institute for Experimental Therapy , where Gustav Embden and others were employed. Ehrlich had made it clear to his sponsors, however, that cancer research initially meant basic research and that a cure was not to be expected quickly.

One of the results he and his colleagues achieved was the observation that as tumors propagated through transplantation, the malignancy of tumor cells increased from generation to generation. If the primary tumor was removed, the metastases developed rapidly. Ehrlich transferred methods of bacteriology to cancer research. Analogous to vaccination, he tried to generate immunity against cancer by injecting weakened cancer cells. In cancer research as well as in chemotherapeutic research (see next section) he introduced methods of large-scale research .


The vital staining

Ehrlich's monograph The Oxygen Need of the Organism was published in 1885 . A color-analytical study , which he also submitted as a habilitation thesis . With it Ehrlich introduced the new technique of vital staining . One of his results was that dyes are only easily absorbed by the living organism in granular form. He injected the dyes alizarin blue and indophenol blue into experimental animals and observed after their death that they had stained different organs to different degrees. In organs with high oxygen saturation indophenol was retained, in a middle group indophenol but not alizarin blue was reduced. Finally, there was a zone of low oxygen saturation where both dyes had been reduced. In this work, Ehrlich also formulated his research-leading conviction that all life processes can be traced back to chemical-physical processes that take place in the cell.

Methylene blue

Vital staining with methylene blue: cells of the human oral mucosa

During his research, Ehrlich came across methylene blue , which he thought was particularly suitable for staining bacteria (for example, Robert Koch later used methylene blue as a dye for his research on the tuberculosis pathogen ). From Ehrlich's point of view, a side result was that the long extensions of the nerve cells , the axons , in particular , could be stained with methylene blue. Although he initiated a doctoral thesis on this topic, he was not further committed. According to Ludwig Edinger's judgment , however, he had also opened up a powerful field of work for neurology .

In the period after mid-1889, when Ehrlich was unemployed, he continued his research with methylene blue privately. His work on vital staining gave him the idea of ​​using it therapeutically. Since plasmodia - among them the malaria pathogens - could be stained with methylene blue, it might also be able to cure malaria. In two patients at the Moabit City Hospital , the fever actually subsided and the plasmodia disappeared from the blood. He obtained the methylene blue from the paintworks vorm. Meister Lucius & Brüning AG (later renamed Hoechst AG ), which started a long cooperation with this company.

The search for a "chemotherapy specifica"

Paul Ehrlich in his laboratory (1910)

Ehrlich had already resumed work on methylene blue before the Institute for Experimental Therapy moved to Frankfurt. After Georg Speyer's death, his widow Franziska Speyer wanted to keep her husband in memory. She donated the Georg-Speyer-Haus , which was built in 1906 right next to the Institute for Experimental Therapy . As its director, Ehrlich relocated his chemotherapeutic research here. He was looking for a substance that worked as well as methylene blue but didn't have any of the side effects . His role model was on the one hand the effect of quinine against malaria, on the other hand he said that, analogous to serum therapy, there must also be chemical pharmaceuticals that are just as specific for individual diseases. His goal was a " Therapia sterilisans magna ", ie to kill all pathogens with a single treatment. He described an ideal medicine as the magic ball .

He used a trypanosome disease in guinea pigs as a model (“experimental therapy”) , on which he tested various chemical substances. With trypan itself could actually successfully trypanosomes kill. From 1906 Ehrlich intensively investigated Atoxyl , which had been brought onto the market by the “United Chemical Works”. The chemist Alfred Bertheim became an important employee of Ehrlich . In addition to other arsenic preparations, he had it tested by Robert Koch on his sleeping sickness expedition in 1906/07. Contrary to the meaning of the name ("non-toxic"), Atoxyl mainly damaged the optic nerve. Ehrlich expanded the systematic testing of chemical compounds in the sense of a "screening", as is still practiced in the pharmaceutical industry today. Next, Preparation 418, arsenophenylglycine, showed therapeutic effects in animal studies. He also had it tested in Africa.

Honest and Sahachiro Hata

Ehrlich and his colleague Sahachiro Hata determined on August 31, 1909 that the "preparation 606", the arsenic compound arsphenamine , was effective against "spirilla" ( spirochetes ), to which the causative agent of syphilis belonged. After tests on rabbits, the production of pre-series ampoules was started for testing on patients in clinics and polyclinics in cooperation with the Hoechst paint factory. The side chain theory developed by Ehrlich served as the basis of the view formulated by him and Hata that the arsenic preparation clings to the spirochetes, pierces their membrane and thus destroys what has since turned out to be wrong. In human trials, the preparation proved to have few side effects. The spirochetes had disappeared in seven syphilis patients. After an extensive clinical test - all those involved had the negative example of tuberculin in mind - the Hoechst paint factory put the preparation on the market at the end of 1910 under the name “Salvarsan”.

Neosalvarsan in two dosages. Yellow: dosage II (0.3 g), red: dosage III (0.45 g)

This was the first systematically developed and specifically acting therapeutic agent based on preliminary theoretical considerations that had ever been produced. "Salvarsan" was still unsatisfactory in terms of side effects and solubility, so that in 1911 it was replaced by "Neosalvarsan".

The drug triggered the so-called "Salvarsan War". On the one hand, it was hostile to people who feared moral disinhibition. In addition, Ehrlich was alleged, with clearly anti-Semitic tones, that he was overly enriched. Because there were deaths during the clinical trial, he was even accused of walking over dead bodies. In addition, Paul Uhlenhuth claimed the priority of the discovery for himself. On the other hand, Ehrlich's opponents who pointed out the ineffectiveness or lack of healing success through his preparation were "almost automatically" referred to as anti-Semites. Ehrlich died without experiencing the rehabilitation of his achievements in syphilis therapy.


motion pictures

Grave site in the Jewish cemetery on Rat-Beil-Strasse in Frankfurt am Main

Ehrlich's life and work was filmed in 1940 by William Dieterle in the US feature film Paul Ehrlich - A Life for Research (original title: Dr. Ehrlich's Magic Bullet , "Dr. Ehrlich's magic bullet") with Edward G. Robinson in the title role. Since the Nazi government at the time (Paul Ehrlich's family, including his widow, and his colleagues who were friends with him were forced into exile) did not like this homage by a Jewish scientist, this film version was kept secret as far as possible.

Postage stamps and banknote

On his 100th birthday in 1954, the Deutsche Bundespost issued a commemorative stamp for Ehrlich and Emil von Behring, who was just a day younger. A stamp with the same subject was also issued in 2004. The 200 D-Mark banknote showed Ehrlich.

Honest as the namesake

As early as 1910 - while Ehrlich was still alive - a street in Frankfurt-Sachsenhausen was named after Ehrlich. During the “ Third Reich ”, Paul Ehrlich's achievements were kept secret, while Emil von Behring was stylized as the ideal of an Aryan scientist. Ehrlich's wife and daughters were driven into emigration. The "Paul-Ehrlich-Strasse" was renamed in 1938 by the National Socialists in Ludwig-Rehn-Strasse ; shortly after the end of the war this renaming was reversed. Today streets in Berlin , Hamburg , Freiburg im Breisgau , Lübeck , Kaiserslautern , Karlsruhe , Bad Homburg , Bad Nauheim , Munich , Leimen and Bergheim are named after Ehrlich. Many schools, pharmacies and clinics also bear his name.

The German Federal Office for Sera and Vaccines (since 2009 Federal Institute for Vaccines and Biomedical Medicines ) in Langen was named the Paul Ehrlich Institute in his honor . The Paul Ehrlich and Ludwig Darmstaedter Prize awarded by the Paul Ehrlich Foundation is the most prestigious and, in the early Federal Republic, the most highly endowed medical German science prize for biomedical research. Paul Ehrlich's name is also borne by the Paul Ehrlich Society for Chemotherapy e. V. (PEG) in Frankfurt am Main, the Paul-Ehrlich-Klinik in Bad Homburg and the Paul Ehrlich - Gunther K. Schwerin - Human Rights Award of the ADL .

In 1970 the lunar crater was named Ehrlich after him. The UK Antarctic Place-Names Committee named Mount Aciar in Antarctica after him, but the original name was retained. An asteroid was named after Paul Ehrlich in 2004: (65708) Ehrlich .

In 2016, the Benjamin Franklin / Goethe Contest, which had been held at the Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin and the Medical Faculty of the University of Frankfurt since 1998, was renamed the Paul Ehrlich Contest .



Encyclopedia of microscopic technology by Ehrlich and colleagues
  • Alfred Blaschko : Paul Ehrlich died. In: Berliner Tageblatt. Volume 44, 1915, No. 425 (Saturday, August 21, 1915), pp. 1 f.
  • Claude E. Dolman: Honestly, Paul . In: Charles Coulston Gillispie (Ed.): Dictionary of Scientific Biography . tape 4 : Richard Dedekind - Firmicus Maternus . Charles Scribner's Sons, New York 1971, p. 295-305 .
  • Martha Marquardt: Paul Ehrlich as a person and worker. Memories from thirteen years of his life. 1902-1915. With an introduction by Richard Koch . Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart et al. 1924. (Martha Marquardt was Ehrlich's secretary for many years)
  • Werner Leibbrand:  Honestly, Paul. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 4, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1959, ISBN 3-428-00185-0 , p. 364 f. ( Digitized version ).
  • Heinrich Satter: Paul Ehrlich. Founder of chemotherapy. Life - Work - Legacy. Oldenbourg, Munich 1962 (2nd edition there 1963).
  • Ernst Bäumler: Paul Ehrlich. Researcher for Life . 3rd, revised edition. Edition Wötzel, Frankfurt am Main 1997, ISBN 3-7973-0345-9 .
  • Timothy Lenoir: A magic bullet: Research for profit and the growth of knowledge in Germany around 1900 . In: Minerva. Vol. 26, No. 1, 1998, pp. 66-88. doi: 10.1007 / BF01096701
  • Hans Loewe: Paul Ehrlich. Creator of chemotherapy. Stuttgart 1950.
  • Florian G. Mildenberger : No salvation through arsenic? The salvarsand debate and its consequences. In: Specialized prose research - Border Crossing 8/9, 2012/2013, pp. 327–390.
  • Albert Neisser: Paul Ehrlich, died August 20, 1915. In: Arch. Dermatol. Syph. Volume 121, 1915, pp. 557 f.
  • Arthur M. Silverstein: Paul Ehrlich's Receptor Immunology. The Magnificent Obsession . Academic Press, San Diego 2002, ISBN 978-0-12-643765-2 . (Explanation of the side chain theory)
  • Fritz Sörgel et al .: From dye to receptor: Paul Ehrlich and chemistry. ( Memento from April 9, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) In: News from chemistry. Vol. 52, 2004, pp. 777-782. (PDF file; 150 kB)
  • Fritz Sörgel et al .: Which job title does Ehrlich's work justice? In: Chemotherapy Journal. Vol. 13, No. 4, 2004, pp. 157-165. ( PDF file , 340 kB)
  • Werner Köhler : Honestly, Paul. In: Werner E. Gerabek , Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil , Wolfgang Wegner (eds.): Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte. De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4 , p. 336 f.
  • Axel C. Hüntelmann: Paul Ehrlich: Life, Research, Economics, Networks . Wallstein, Göttingen 2011, ISBN 978-3-8353-0867-1 .
  • Friedrich Hoffmann : Deadly Worlds - The incredible story of three doctors who saved millions of lives . Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau 2010, ISBN 978-3-451-06202-5 .
  • Gerhard Venzmer : Paul Ehrlich. Live and act. Stuttgart 1948.
  • Otto H. Warburg : Paul Ehrlich. In: Hermann Heimpel , Theodor Heuss , Benno Reifenberg (Eds.): The Great Germans. German Biography, Volume IV. Berlin 1957, pp. 186–192.
  • Kirsten Weinig (Ed.): Short guide to the exhibition “Arsenic and top research. Paul Ehrlich and the beginnings of a new medicine ”, Berlin 2015

Web links

Commons : Paul Ehrlich  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikisource: Paul Ehrlich  - Sources and full texts

Individual evidence

  1. see Hessisches Staatsarchiv Marburg (HStAMR), Best. 908 No. 1568, p. 190 ( digitized version ).
  2. Paul Ehrlich: The assessment of the value of diphtheria healing serum and its theoretical basis. In: Clinical Yearbook. Volume 6, Jena 1897, pp. 299-326 ( digitized version ).
  3. a b Peter Kröner: Paul Ehrlich , in: Wolfgang U. Eckart and Christoph Gradmann (eds.): Ärztelexikon. From antiquity to the 20th century , 1st edition 1995 CH Beck Munich, medical dictionary. From antiquity to the present , 2nd edition 2001, 3rd edition 2006 Springer Verlag Heidelberg, Berlin, New York. Medical glossary 2006 , doi: 10.1007 / 978-3-540-29585-3 .
  4. Hüntelmann: Paul Ehrlich , p. 28.
  5. Ernst Bäumler: Paul Ehrlich. Researcher for Life. 3. Edition. Frankfurt am Main 1997, p. 182.
  6. Florian G. Mildenberger (2012/13), p. 332 f.
  7. Florian G. Mildenberger (2012/13), p. 334 f.
  8. 157 (Kungl. Svenska Vetenskapsakademien: Personförteckningar 1739-1915). 1915, Retrieved May 5, 2018 (Swedish).
  9. Entry on honest; Paul (1854-1910) in the Archives of the Royal Society , London
  10. ^ Fellows Directory. Biographical Index: Former RSE Fellows 1783–2002. Royal Society of Edinburgh, accessed December 3, 2019 .
  11. Guide to the graves of well-known personalities in Frankfurt cemeteries . Frankfurt am Main 1985, p. 49.
  12. Contributions to the knowledge of aniline stains and their use in microscopic technology . In: Archives for microscopic anatomy . Vol. 13, 1877, pp. 263-277.
  13. See also Arthur M. Silverstein: Paul Ehrlich's receptor immunology. The magnificient obsession. San Diego 2002.
  14. Nicholas C. Lloyd, Hugh W. Morgan, Brian K. Nicholson, Ron S. Ronimus: The composition of Ehrlich's Salvarsan: Resolution of a century old debate. In: Angewandte Chemie, International Edition. Volume 44, 2005, pp. 941-944, here: p. 943.
  15. Florian G. Mildenberger (2012/13), p. 334.
  16. Hüntelmann: Paul Ehrlich , p. 10.
  17. Florian G. Mildenberger : No salvation through arsenic? The salvarsand debate and its consequences. In: Specialized prose research - Border Crossing 8/9, 2012/2013, pp. 327–390, here: pp. 327 f.
  18. ^ Wolfgang Weyers: The abuse of man. An illustrated history of dubious medical experimentation. New York 2003, p. 148 ff.
  19. Stefan Winkle: Cultural history of epidemics . Komet, Düsseldorf / Zurich 1997, ISBN 3-933366-54-2 , p. 602 .
  20. See also Paul de Kruif : Paul Ehrlich. The magic ball - the Salvarsan. In: Paul de Kruif: Microbe hunters. (Original edition: Microbe Hunters. Harcourt, Brace & Co., New York 1926) Orell Füssli Verlag, Zurich / Leipzig 1927; 8th edition ibid 1940, pp. 324-346.
  21. ^ Gerhard Venzmer (1948), p. III.
  22. Florian G. Mildenberger (2012/2013), p. 361 f.
  23. , accessed on May 21, 2017
  24. Florian G. Mildenberger: No salvation for arsenic? The salvarsand debate and its consequences. 2012/13, p. 327 f.
  25. , accessed on July 2, 2018