|Charité - University Medicine Berlin|
|Sponsorship||State of Berlin , corporation under public law|
|CEO||Heyo K. Kroemer|
|Employee||15,500 (2019; incl. 290 professors)|
|including doctors||4,454 (scientists and doctors)|
|Annual budget||€ 2.0 billion (2019)|
|Affiliation||Humboldt University , Free University|
The current association of university clinics with 290 professors and 8077 students (as of 2019) goes back to a pest house created in 1710 , which became an important teaching when teaching at the University of Berlin (since 1949: Humboldt University of Berlin ) began in 1810 - and research center was that more than half of the German Nobel laureate for medicine or physiology come. Since 2003, the medical faculties of the Humboldt and Freie Universität have been united under the name Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin . They are spread over four campuses .
With the announcement of the results of the Excellence Strategy on July 19, 2019, the Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin as an institution of the Berlin University Alliance (together with the Humboldt University of Berlin, the Free University of Berlin and the Technical University of Berlin ) is one of the eleven German Universities of Excellence .
A cabinet order from the Prussian King Friedrich I dated November 14, 1709 can be considered the reason for founding the Charité . In it, the king ordered the establishment of "Lazareth houses" outside the cities in order to be prepared accordingly "in the event of the current dangerous plague". The royal decree was triggered by the Great Plague in Eastern Europe , which had already partially depopulated the Kingdom of Prussia and now also threatened the Mark Brandenburg and Berlin. On May 13, 1710, the pension scheme for Berlin was founded, and construction work began on the plague house in the northeast of the city. In fact, the feared emergency did not materialize; the plague epidemic in the years 1709–1711 only touched Brandenburg in the Uckermark and did not reach Berlin. The "Lazareth" built in front of the Spandowisches Tor outside the city walls was not needed for plague sufferers and initially served as a poor and workhouse ( spinning house ) for the poor, beggars, illegitimate pregnant women and prostitutes, as well as a garrison hospital.
On January 9, 1727, King Friedrich Wilhelm I (the "Soldier King") ordered the conversion of the military hospital into a community hospital in a further cabinet order and ordered in a marginal note: "The house should be called the Charité." of the king, Johann Theodor Eller (1689–1760). In the years that followed, new buildings were built to ensure hospital supplies: a kitchen building was erected with a dining room that also served as a church, as well as a bakery and brewery .
The original plague house was a square, two-storey building with a length of 48 meters, where the hospital staff lived on the ground floor and the sick, separated by men and women, lived on the upper floor. In 1713 a Theatrum anatomicum was also opened , so that the house, together with the Collegium medico-chirurgicum founded in 1724, also became a training center for military doctors. Between 1785 and 1800, the Charité was expanded in several stages, and the changed city walls meant that the Charité had been within the Berlin urban area since 1800. The hospital became a pure hospital at the end of the 18th century.
In the 1790s in particular, the Charité was exposed to considerable criticism, possibly relating to the quality of health care. Friedrich Wilhelm III. set up a three-person commission to examine the alleged deficiencies, of which Ludwig Formey, one of the critics of the time, also belonged. The commission concluded that the shortcomings were even more serious than had been assumed. A cabinet order was then issued, according to which the Charité should be set up more appropriately. The financial resources were topped up by donations from the royal treasury, and the citizens also made substantial financial contributions.
In 1795, the Pépinière was founded for the education and training of military doctors, which in 1809 took over the library of the dissolved Collegium medico-chirurgicum. Rudolf Virchow and Hermann von Helmholtz were scholarship holders at this academy. In 1801, Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland was appointed royal personal physician and senior Charité physician. In 1810 Hufeland also became dean of the medical faculty of the newly founded Berlin university . In the following years, the university provided training for “civil” medical students, while the Charité trained military doctors and surgeons. The training at the Charité was much more practice-oriented “at the bedside”, while the training at the university was very theoretical and general, in line with Wilhelm von Humboldt's ideal of education . Hufeland, on the other hand, saw the advantages of practice-oriented training and sought a closer connection between the Charité and the university. The separation of the two institutions initially persisted, but was gradually broken after the university had more and more clinics of its own built on the Charité site. In 1828 part of the medical clinic was relocated from Ziegelstrasse to Charité. More and more specialist clinics followed, until in 1927 the surgical university clinic was the last clinic to be relocated to the Charité.
Carl August Wilhelm Berends became head of the Charité in 1815. Rudolf Virchow was appointed director of the Pathological Institute, which was built in the same year and expanded in 1873, and was thus able to help his cellular pathology achieve a scientific breakthrough. The principle of his teaching omnis cellula e cellula revolutionized medical science.
Emil Adolf von Behring and Paul Ehrlich worked at the health department, which was founded in 1876 . Robert Koch had worked at the Imperial Health Department in Berlin since 1880. In the immediate vicinity of the Charité there is a memorial to Robert Koch, who worked there during this time and discovered the causative agents of anthrax, tuberculosis and cholera ( Filippo Pacini was the first person to describe cholera that was ignored 30 years earlier ).
From 1896 to 1917 there were extensive renovations and new buildings in the area of the Charité. Their approval is largely due to Friedrich Althoff , Ministerialdirektor in the Prussian Ministry of Culture. This created the structural prerequisites for the successful further development of the medical faculty. A monument on the clinic grounds honors the meritorious Prussian science politician Friedrich Althoff. The red brick buildings are now a listed building. There is still an Althoff building with an Althoff hall at the Charité today .
The Charité enjoyed its greatest reputation in the German Empire between 1870 and 1918 . The appointment policy of appointing only deserved professorships led to less young and scientifically more creative professorships. For example, Ferdinand Sauerbruch (1875–1951) had already passed the zenith of his career when he joined the Charité in 1927.
In the following time, the name Charité became internationally known through numerous outstanding doctors and scientists, such as Rudolf Virchow, Hermann von Helmholtz, Robert Koch, Paul Langerhans, Paul Ehrlich and Emil Adolf von Behring. But also the founders of medical specialties and other well-known experts such as Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach , Ferdinand Sauerbruch , Wilhelm Griesinger , Albrecht von Graefe , Heinrich Schulte , Otto Heubner , Ernst von Leyden , Caspar Friedrich Wolff , Karl Bonhoeffer , Heinrich Adolf von Bardeleben , Hans Erhard Bock , August Bier , Friedrich Kraus , Walter Stoeckel , Friedrich Theodor von Frerichs , Theodor Schwann , Friedrich Gustav Jakob Henle , Johann Lukas Schönlein , Ludwig Traube , Bernhard von Langenbeck , Theodor Billroth , Gustav von Bergmann , Curt Schimmelbusch , Theodor Brugsch , Leonor Michaelis , August von Wassermann , Emil Fischer , Rahel Hirsch , Selmar Aschheim , Bernhard Zondek , Rudolf Nissen , Hermann Oppenheim , Herbert Herxheimer , Gustav Killian , Carl Adolf Passow , Samuel Mitja Rapoport , Georg Ostapowicz and Hermann Gutzmann worked here. Eight later Nobel Prize winners began their scientific path at the Charité, such as Werner Forßmann and Albrecht Kossel .
Due to the division of Berlin after the Second World War , the Charité was in East Berlin . Located in the very west of what was then the Mitte district, it bordered directly on the Berlin Wall from 1961 - on the Spree and Humboldthafen / Berlin-Spandau shipping canal in the form of a water boundary.
The division of the city also divided the university and hospital landscape: In the GDR , the Charité was considered the leading hospital in the 'capital of the GDR', affiliated to the Humboldt University (HU). In West Berlin , the Westend municipal hospital was converted into the Charlottenburg University Hospital and the Benjamin Franklin University Hospital was also built ; both institutions belonged to the Free University of Berlin (FU).
From 1977 to 1982 the clinic's 21-storey ward block was built on Luisenstrasse in what was then East Berlin . The lowering of the groundwater level as part of the foundation work on the high-rise are presumably the main reason for the static destruction of the old Friedrichstadt-Palast , which had to be demolished in the early 1980s due to massive damage caused by settlement.
In 1986, the Berlin Senate decided to relocate the University Medical Center from the Westend Clinic to Wedding and the Rudolf Virchow Municipal Hospital . The associated extensive new construction and renovation work did not end until 1998 and made the location the most modern clinic in Europe.
After German reunification , the Charité made personal inquiries to the so-called Gauck authority in October 1991 . 20 professors, including seven clinic directors, were relieved of their posts due to involvement in the GDR regime. Later, all employees were systematically examined for cooperation with the MfS. The closure was sometimes requested. In some cases there was a desire for the attractive location. The employees founded several associations with the aim of maintaining the Charité at the Mitte location. Some demonstrations took place. A few years later, the Berlin university and hospital landscape was restructured: On April 1, 1995, the Rudolf Virchow University Hospital was separated from the Free University and assigned to the Humboldt University. Merged into a joint medical faculty in 1997, the previously independent clinics formed the Charité from 1998. The Mitte location was retained, the new name was Charité University Hospital of the Humboldt University Berlin with the addition of Campus Charité Mitte or Campus Virchow-Klinikum .
In mid-2003, the Berlin university medicine was restructured again: The Charité merged with the medical faculty of the Free University of Berlin. The decision arose mainly from the tense budget situation in the state of Berlin, which gave the merged Charité a budget for research and teaching of 98 million euros. Despite some objections from the Free University of Berlin and the Benjamin Franklin University Hospital (UKBF) in Lichterfelde, the name “Charité” was retained. Only the logo, originally a lettering based on the handwriting of Friedrich Wilhelm I, has been replaced by a double C, which was designed by the Hamburg designer Peter Schmidt . The name of the faculty belonging to both universities is Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin.
The Charité is managed by the Board of Directors . It is based on Campus Mitte and consists of the chairman of the board Heyo K. Kroemer, the board member for health care Ulrich Frei, the dean of the faculty Axel Radlach Pries and the board member for finance and infrastructure Astrid Lurati. This management body is controlled by the supervisory board . To him belong u. a. the senators responsible for science and finance in the Berlin state government, as well as other representatives from science, society and business. Heyo K. Kroemer has been the CEO since September 2019. The pharmacologist was previously the full-time dean and spokesman for the board of the University Medical Center Göttingen. He replaced the neurologist Karl Max Einhäupl , who headed the Charité as chairman of the board from 2008 to 2019 and was previously the medical director of the Charité Center for Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry and former chairman of the Science Council. He took over the chairmanship of the board on September 2, 2008 from Detlev Ganten . Acting dean has been Axel Radlach Pries since January 2015, and Astrid Lurati has been Chief Financial Officer since May 2016.
With numerous special research areas of the German Research Foundation, the Charité is one of the top scientific and medical institutions in Germany. Today a third of all patents in Berlin come from the Charité. In the area of university teaching, eleven different courses are currently offered, such as human medicine, dentistry and nursing science , but also subjects such as bio-informatics , medical physics and international health . The Charité is included in the hospital plan of the city of Berlin, but also performs supraregional care tasks. Every year around 154,261 inpatients and 700,819 outpatients are treated (as of 2019).
The Charité is a member of the Student Loan Fund .
The Charité's materials and supply management as well as construction and technology, the so-called facility management , were spun off on January 1, 2006 into a company founded specifically in October 2005, the Charité CFM Facility Management GmbH (CFM for short). In addition to large parts of the Charité administration, the former Charité subsidiaries KRS and Medilog, which the Charité founded together with the Zehnacker Facility Management company, were incorporated into the CFM . Until the end of 2018, CFM shareholders were Charité (51%) and VDH Health Care Services GbR (49%), behind which the companies Vamed Deutschland, Dussmann and Hellmann Worldwide Logistics are hidden. Since January 1, 2019, the Charité has held 100% of the shares again. The CFM provides a large part of the non-medical and non-nursing services for the Charité, such as catering , cleaning and logistics . It has around 2,200 employees. According to its own information, CFM achieved a turnover of around 125 million euros and a profit of 449,000 euros in 2007. The red-red-green state government decided in its coalition agreement to gradually take over the CFM employees again as state-owned employees.
The European Commission dealt with the award of the several hundred million euro facility management contract to VDH Health Care Services and with the establishment of Charité CFM Facility Management GmbH , which, according to media reports, checks whether European law has been violated. Furthermore, CFM Facility Management has already come under fire several times for its low wages and inadequate working conditions .
With subsidiaries, the Charité has 18,700 employees, making it one of the largest employers in Berlin. The annual turnover in 2015 was around 1.6 billion euros. Their motto is "Research, Teach, Heal, Help".
In 2003 the Charité made losses of 53 million euros. The deficit was reduced in the following years through austerity measures and in 2010 amounted to 17.7 million euros. The Charité was able to generate small surpluses in 2011 and 2012 (2011: 8.2 million euros, 2012: 5.2 million euros). Due to the renovation of the high-rise bed building on the Charité Mitte campus, a decline in income was expected for the 2013 financial year, which led to a result of 1.6 million euros (excluding special effects from the release of third-party funding).
The years 2014–2017 also ended with a positive economic result: 7.6 million euros in 2014, 3.7 million euros in 2015, 3.8 million euros in 2016 and 1.8 million euros in 2017. For the eighth time As a result, a positive annual result was achieved in 2018 with a surplus of 800,000 euros.
Around 15,500 employees work at the Charité locations. 2800 of them are CFM employees who take on non-medical services such as transport, cleaning, catering and security. In April 2016, the state clinic and the ver.di union concluded a collective agreement after several years of negotiations and several strikes . For the first time, a minimum number of staff for intensive care medicine , inpatient nursing and the children's clinic was specified. Measures to relieve the workforce were also agreed: night shifts were to be increased by up to 40 posts and, if there was a shortage of staff, temporary workers were requested or beds were blocked. As a result of this agreement, the federal government wanted to prescribe lower limits for the staffing of clinics nationwide.
The ver.di union already complained in March 2017 that various agreements were not being adhered to.
The Charité is housed at four main locations ( campuses ):
- Campus Benjamin Franklin (CBF) in Lichterfelde
- Campus Berlin-Buch (CBB) in Buch
- Campus Charité Mitte (CCM) in Mitte
- Campus Virchow-Klinikum (CVK) in Wedding
The clinics on the Berlin-Buch campus (Robert-Rössle and Franz-Volhard-Klinik) were taken over by Helios Kliniken in 2001 . Today's Helios Klinikum Berlin-Buch with its 1200 beds has not belonged to the Charité since then. Nevertheless, the Charité remains represented as a teaching company in the clinics and employs around 300 people on the Buch campus.
The locations in Mitte, Lichterfelde and Wedding each cover large parts of the entire medicine. There are special research and treatment focuses , such as the Center for Space Medicine on the Benjamin Franklin campus, the German Rheumatism Research Center and the Allergy Center Charité on the Charité Mitte campus or the Center for Molecular and Clinical Cardiology on the Berlin-Buch campus. The Charité's Institute for History in Medicine and Ethics in Medicine has been located in Dahlem since autumn 2013.
So that research, teaching and health care can be better organized, the Charité has founded 17 Charité centers (spelling: CharitéCentren ). More than 100 clinics and institutes work within the centers. 13 Charité centers will focus on patient care and four centers will focus on research and teaching. Most of the Charité centers are organized across locations. This is intended to promote the integration of the locations. In addition, all Charité centers are to be given independent management with responsibility for results.
- CC 1: Human and Health Sciences (ZHGB)
- CC 2: Basic Medicine (1st stage of study)
- CC 3: Dentistry, oral and maxillofacial medicine
- CC 4: Charité-BIH Center for Therapy Research
- CC 5: Diagnostic and preventive laboratory medicine
- CC 6: Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine
- CC Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine 7:
- CC 8: Surgical Medicine
- CC 9: Orthopedics and trauma surgery
- CC 10: Charité Comprehensive Cancer Center
- CC 11: Cardiovascular and vascular medicine
- CC 12: Internal Medicine and Dermatology
- CC 13: Internal medicine with gastroenterology and nephrology
- CC 14: tumor medicine
- CC 15: Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry
- CC 16: Audiology / Phoniatrics, Ophthalmology and ENT Medicine
- CC 17: Women's, pediatric and adolescent medicine with perinatal center and human genetics
Special isolation station
The Charité's special isolation ward serves to isolate and treat patients with highly contagious infectious diseases such as viral hemorrhagic fever or smallpox . It is located as a free-standing pavilion with two above-ground and two underground floors in a park-like area of the Virchowklinikum. In the case of quarantine , it can be cordoned off widely. The station was put into operation in 1978 as the largest facility of its kind in Germany and has been equipped with the latest technology since its renovation from 2006 to 2010. Up to 20 patients can receive intensive medical treatment there under quarantine conditions. Usually the ward serves as an infection and lung ward.
The building complex consists of a pure area in which there is a monitoring center, common rooms for staff and storage rooms. Personnel enter the quarantine area through security gates wearing special full protective suits that have a filtered air supply. Patients are smuggled in with special vehicles directly from the outside into the patient's room at ground level. Up to the patient's room, four negative pressure levels ensure an air flow from the clean to the unclean area. The exhaust air is cleaned by high-performance filters. Waste and sewage are autoclaved and treated separately on site in the basement . An intensive disinfection process takes place during the discharge of personnel and material. A large team of medical, technical and logistical employees is continuously trained and practices the application.
In October 2012, Serratia bacteria were found in at least 22 infants on two of the clinic's five neonatology wards. On October 5, 2012, an infected baby died of his underlying disease. The parents of the dead child were only informed of the infection after the burial.
In November 2012, the case of a nurse who allegedly sexually abused one or more patients at the clinic became known. The clinic management did not report the case to the police until a week later. The President of the Berlin Medical Association defended this approach.
Via the Erasmus Student Network with a large number of major universities in almost all European countries.
United States : Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine - Baltimore United States : Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine - Chicago Australia : Monash University - Melbourne People's Republic of China : Zhejiang University , Zheijiang People's Hospital - Hangzhou People's Republic of China : Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai East Hospital - Shanghai People's Republic of China : Tongji Medical College - Wuhan South Korea : Gachon University of Medicine and Science - Incheon Russia : Nikolai Nilowitsch Burdenko State Medical Academy - Voronezh Japan : Saitama Ika Daigaku | Saitama Medical University - Moroyama Japan : Chiba University - Chiba Cuba : Instituto Superior de Ciencias Medicas - Havana United Kingdom : University of Oxford - Oxford Israel : Hadassah Medical Center - Jerusalem Canada : Université de Montréal - Montreal Kenya : University of Nairobi School of Medicine - Nairobi
The Berlin Medical History Museum (BMM) of the Charité is known for its pathological-anatomical collection. At the beginning of February 2020, the museum, which opened in 1899, temporarily closed until the end of 2021 in order to substantially modernize it.
The Charité's patient library looks back on a long tradition and was founded well over 100 years ago as the hospital library of the Royal Charité. It offers patients and employees comprehensive library care at two locations (CCM, CBF). The media inventory comprises 14,000 units (CCM) and 18,000 units (CBF).
- My last hope - chief physicians at the Charité. Documentation, Germany 2010
- Europe's largest university hospital (1) - The Capital Hospital. Documentation, Germany 2012
- Charité . TV series, Germany, directed by Sönke Wortmann , 2017 (Season 1); Anno Saul , 2018 (Season 2)
- The Charité - Stories of Life and Death. Documentation, Germany 2017
- The Charité - Medicine under the swastika , documentation, Germany 2019
- Famous doctors of the Charité (GDR TV archive). First broadcast in 1981 on GDR television . With Fred Düren, Ernst Meincke, Günter Naumann, Horst Schulze, Horst Drinda. Directors: Manfred Mosblech, Ursula Bonhoff, Joachim Kunert, Wolf-Dieter Panse. On DVD. Year of production 2011. Year of publication 2017. EAN : 4052912771857.
On the Focus clinic list , which is considered to be the most comprehensive quality comparison of hospitals in Germany, the Charité also took first place in 2020 and was thus named “Germany's best clinic” for the eighth time in a row.
The American weekly Newsweek and the data portal Statista have awarded Charité fifth place in a ranking of the 1000 best clinics in the world. According to Newsweek and Statista, this makes the Charité the best clinic in Europe.
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- Heinz David : "The house should be called the Charité ..." - Continuities, breaks and breaks as well as new beginnings in the 300-year history of the Medical Faculty (Charité) of the Berlin University. 2 vol., Akademos, Hamburg 2004, ISBN 3-934410-56-1 .
- Henning Falko: The polar bear in anatomy. Stories from 300 years of Charité. Eulenspiegel Verlag, Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-359-02262-6 .
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- Official website of the Berlin University Alliance
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- Curriculum vitae Max de Crinis , online edition Mythos Elser
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