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Hematology (from ancient Greek αἷμα haima "blood", and λόγος logos "teaching") is the study of physiology , pathophysiology and diseases of the blood and the blood-forming organs. It includes malignant diseases of the blood , disorders of the formation of the bone marrow , blood changes due to immunological processes, disorders of hemostasis (hemorrhagic diathesis; hemophilia ) and coagulability of the blood ( thrombophilia ). The last two disease groups mentioned are also subsumed under the technical term hemostaseology (teaching of blood coagulation).

The most important blood diseases are acute and chronic leukemia (blood cancer), malignant changes in the lymph nodes (colloquially " lymph node cancer "), anemia ( anemia ) and haemophilia ( blood disease).

Most blood diseases can be diagnosed from the blood itself (usually in the blood count ), but in some cases a bone marrow puncture must be performed or a lymph node removed and examined.

See also


  • Karl-Georg von Boroviczény, H. Schipperges and E. Seidler (eds.): Introduction to the history of hematology. Stuttgart 1974.
  • Christa Habrich , Irmgard Müller, Stefan Schulz (eds.): From the blood test to the blood picture. An exhibition on the early history of hematology and oncology. Gelsenkirchen 1993.
  • Ludwig Heilmeyer , Herbert Begemann: blood and blood diseases. In: Ludwig Heilmeyer (ed.): Textbook of internal medicine. Springer-Verlag, Berlin / Göttingen / Heidelberg 1955; 2nd edition, ibid. 1961, pp. 376-449.
  • Stefan Schulz, Irmgard Müller: Hematology. In: Werner E. Gerabek , Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil , Wolfgang Wegner (eds.): Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte. De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4 , pp. 522-525.