district of Berlin
|Residents||41,758 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density||5784 inhabitants / km²|
|Incorporation||Oct. 1, 1920|
|Postcodes||10315, 10365, 10367|
The current district goes back to the village of Lichtenberg, which was founded in Barnim in the 13th century . For many centuries this village remained a small, agricultural settlement with a few hundred inhabitants in the east of the city of Berlin. It was not until the end of the 19th century that industrialization increased the number of Lichtenberg residents many times over, so that in 1907 the town was granted town charter. Through the creation of Greater Berlin in 1920, the city Lichtenberg but was incorporated to Berlin and has since formed the eponymous district in the Berlin district of Lichtenberg.
The district of Lichtenberg lies roughly in the middle of the administrative district of Lichtenberg. It is bordered in the north by Landsberger Allee and in the east by Rhinstrasse . In the south, the Ostbahn and the connecting curve to the Ringbahn form the border of the district, in the west the Ringbahn, Storkower Straße and Vulkanstraße .
The village of Lichtenberg
The Angerdorf Lichtenberg emerged in the course of the German colonization of Barnim around 1230. However, it was only mentioned in a document on May 24, 1288 in a border treaty in which the dispute over the border between the Berlin village of Stralau and the village of Rosenfelde was settled. In the second half of the 13th century, the Lichtenberg village church was built on today's Loeperplatz . This old village center still forms the historic center of the district today. In 1364, Lichtenberg was mainly owned by the von Rüthenick family, whose ancestors were probably involved in founding the village ( still recognizable today by the name Rutnikstrasse ). In 1375 Alt-Lichtenberg was 44 Hufen (about 1000 hectares ), including four Pfarrhufen, and owned a jug ( Latin taberna , tavern ).
In 1391 Lichtenberg - like other villages in the area - was bought by the city of Berlin, making it a combing village . The Berlin Ratskammerei thus had higher and lower jurisdiction in Lichtenberg and operated a Vorwerk (estate management) in town .
Lichtenberg comprised a total of 60 hooves in 1527 (around 4.6 km²). A forge was built around 1620. The population hardly grew in the first few centuries. In 1624 there were 219 residents.
The Thirty Years War hit the village hard. The Vorwerk was completely ruined during the war and could only be leased again after it was rebuilt in 1688. A report written in 1652 by the land rider Ulrich Gärtner to the Great Elector speaks of only nine Hufnern and nine Kossäts in Lichtenberg compared to 17 Hufnern and 13 Kossäts in 1624. It was not until 1696 that the number of full farms increased again to 12, in 1705 to 13 and finally from 1744 until the 19th century on 14th With the additional eleven Kossatenstellen Lichtenberg was relatively large compared to other villages of this time. A windmill was built in Lichtenberg around 1750, followed by the establishment of the Friedrichsberg Colony in the Lichtenberg district in 1771 . In 1777 a school was built next to the church on the village green and equipped with a spacious "room (...) for making silk" in order to obtain a financial subsidy from the royal government. In 1778 two wells and in 1795 two pumps were built in the village.
Relations with Berlin remained rather low until the middle of the 18th century. The Lichtenbergers paid their duties and services to the local works. In 1729 it comprised just over 455 acres (around 1.16 km²). Belonged to the homestead
"[...] the magistrate's house, the arrendator's apartment, the cow-stable, the lambs-stable, the barn, two mutton stables, the shepherd's apartment, the shepherd's stable and in the yard a wagon-shower and pig-stable , a wooden pigeon house, a fountain in the yard and a fountain in the street "
In 1783 the estate was separated from the field and corridor community with the village and given a long lease , the lands were partially separated . In 1806 the estate was partly bought by the State Chancellor Karl August von Hardenberg and finally in 1815 . The Lichtenberger Kietz was built in 1783 on a plot of land already known as “Kietzer Lacken” in 1571 through the construction of four semi-detached houses for eight Büdner on today's Lückstraße.
Relations with Berlin only intensified in the late 18th century, when several wealthy families, officers and high officials from Berlin built country seats and villas in Lichtenberg. Among these was the governor of Berlin, General Wichard von Möllendorff , who built a castle-like, if only one-storey country estate around 1780. Not only were the large hall and other rooms of the “Möllendorff'schen Schlösschen” beautifully painted, but a park and a farm yard were also laid out. In this way, Lichtenberg became the temporary residence of some wealthy families from Berlin and at the same time a popular destination for the Berlin population thanks to its newly developed gastronomy .
The actual old village of Lichtenberg remained untouched by these changes at the beginning of the 19th century. According to a census, 326 people lived in Lichtenberg in 1800, including 14 farmers, ten farmers, five Büdner and 17 residents or tenants. At that time the only commercial operations in Lichtenberg were blacksmiths, taverns, windmills and brickworks . The writer Karl Gutzkow described the village of Lichtenberg around 1820 to 1830 as follows:
“Small, low mud houses with thick thatched roofs, a gloomy, shady linden tree in front of the gate, wheels, drawbars, slats blocking the entrance. The costume was rural, with a short jacket, leather trousers, and brightly colored night caps; the language is Low German . "
In fact, in the first decades of the 19th century, Lichtenberg was largely dominated by agrarian conditions , mostly from the 18th century. Apart from the brick-roofed, massive residential house, the estate also consisted only of thatched half-timbered houses . These were almost completely destroyed in a devastating fire on September 10, 1833. Further fires in 1838, 1839 and 1840 destroyed a total of nine farms. Of the Lichtenberg buildings from this and earlier times, only the foundation walls of the village church have been preserved. It was not until the middle of the 19th century that massive residential buildings and, from around 1860, stone farm buildings were built. At the end of the 19th century, the Friedrichsberg colony became part of the Lichtenberg community.
On November 11, 1898, after a two-year construction period, the Lichtenberg Town Hall was completed. The neo-Gothic brick building cost 396,335 marks at the time and is still the town hall of the Lichtenberg district today .
The municipality of Lichtenberg with its 71,000 inhabitants was granted town charter on April 1, 1908, after this had already been announced on November 15, 1907 in the Royal Prussian State Gazette No. 263 . The first solemn meeting of the city council took place in the town hall in January 1908, and the first mayor, Oskar Ziethen , was elected in the same month . The Hubertus Hospital was built between 1911 and 1914, and in 1932 it was named Oskar Ziethen . Likewise, new school buildings were completed at short intervals in the parts of the settlement (Old) Lichtenberg and Wilhelmsberg (today Fennpfuhl).
The city of Lichtenberg experienced a considerable increase in population and a strong increase in industrial and commercial companies in 1912 through the incorporation of the rural community of Boxhagen-Rummelsburg . From 1912 to 1920 the city was officially called Berlin-Lichtenberg .
With the establishment of Greater Berlin , the city of Lichtenberg was incorporated into Berlin in 1920 and has since been the eponymous district for the Berlin district of Lichtenberg, which was founded in the same year . At the time of incorporation, Lichtenberg was by far the most urbanized former village in the eastern Berlin area. When Berlin was expanded, it brought in a floor area of more than 1000 hectares and a highly developed urban structure. Since the district boundary was changed in 1938, parts of the former city of Berlin-Lichtenberg ( Boxhagen and Friedrichsberg ) have been assigned to today's district of Berlin-Friedrichshain .
Illustration of the story
On the occasion of the celebrations for the hundredth anniversary of the granting of the town charter, the district administration had a tourist guidance system developed, which Wall AG had taken over the financing . The metal steles erected on April 1, 2008 at nine different locations in the district provide information in pictures and text about the history and sights of Lichtenberg.
The museum of the Lichtenberg district is located in the former town hall of Boxhagen-Rummelsburg at Türrschmidtstraße 24 in the Rummelsburg district . It is now called "Museum Lichtenberg im Stadthaus".
The population of Lichtenberg is listed from the first mention in 1624 to the founding of Greater Berlin and the resulting incorporation of Lichtenberg into Berlin in 1920. The population grew only slowly over centuries, then rose sharply between the beginning of industrialization in 1870 and incorporation in 1920 on. The figures from 2007 onwards refer to the Lichtenberg district of the district of the same name.
Source from 2007: Statistical report AI 5. Residents in the state of Berlin on December 31st. Basic data. Office for Statistics Berlin-Brandenburg (respective years)
Industry and economy
From the end of the 19th century to 1945
The area between Landsberger Chaussee (today: Landsberger Allee ) and Rittergutstraße (today: Josef-Orlopp-Straße ) - also known as the "Industriegebiet Herzbergstraße " - developed into an important business location in the up-and-coming Lichtenberg in the 19th century. The following companies in particular contributed to this:
- Siemens & Halske , later Siemens Plania (Herzbergstrasse)
- Berolina margarine works from 1909 (Herzbergstrasse)
- Norddeutsche Kugellagerfabrik GmbH from 1938/1939
- Sausage factories, large bakeries, a fishmeal factory (Rittergutstrasse and Siegfriedstrasse), the administration and some production buildings of the consumer cooperative in Berlin and the surrounding area
- VEB Bärensiegel Berlin , headquarters in Josef-Orlopp-Straße
These large companies had their own industrial sidings .
The construction and operation of two hospitals, today's Oskar Ziethen Hospital (since 2005 Sana Klinikum Lichtenberg) in Fanningerstrasse and the Herzberge insane asylum (today: Evangelical Hospital Queen Elisabeth Herzberge ) in Herzbergstrasse, strengthened economic development. Last but not least, traffic proved to be an important pillar of the economy, the district had the Lichtenberg train station ( located in the neighboring district of Rummelsburg since 2001 ) and the tram depot in Siegfriedstrasse.
The Friedrichsfelde central cemetery , established in 1881 and assigned to the Lichtenberg district in 2001, is located in the district. The memorial of the socialists is located on it . The Lichtenberg residential complex north of the Lichtenberg train station was built in the 1920s.
Between 1945 and 1990
After the Second World War , the large companies were expropriated. Many were initially unable to produce because of dismantled machines or a lack of raw materials. Not until 1952 did the production of industrial goods begin again. The factories were converted into state- owned enterprises (VEB). Examples of companies with high economic strength in Lichtenberg were:
The Theater an der Parkaue was founded in 1945. In the GDR it was called the Theater of Friendship . It is the largest state theater for young audiences in Germany.
The GDR Ministry for State Security had its seat in Lichtenberg . It took up the entire square Normannenstrasse-Magdalenenstrasse-Frankfurter Allee-Ruschestrasse. The Normannenstrasse research and memorial site has been located here since 1990 .
South of Frankfurter Allee, the new development area Frankfurter Allee Süd was built in the 1970s .
Due to the political and economic change in 1990 and due to products that were often not marketable in terms of quality and price, most of the operations were gradually wound up. What remained were small or medium-sized craft businesses; Numerous shopping centers have been added (358: shopping arcades Landsberger Allee 358 [closed around 2008; demolished around 2016 in order to prepare the specialty store with non-center-relevant main ranges], Möllendorffpassage in Möllendorffstrasse , Ringcenter II, Ringcenter III in Frankter Allee, Mauritiuskirch-Center in Mauritiuskirchstrasse, Asiamarkt Dong Xuan Center in Herzbergstrasse).
In the early 2000s, there was an intensive expansion of earlier production and storage areas south of Landsberger Allee as an economic focus. After some tug-of-war about size and architecture, IKEA Germany was able to open its largest store to date here in December 2010. There is a Globus hardware store in the neighborhood, the size of which an official referendum was held. In addition, Höffner has also set up a branch here.
The Lichtenberg Tourism Marketing project has been in place since 2007 to strengthen small and medium-sized enterprises and institutions in the tourism-related economy in the district. The sponsor is the Hohenschönhausen-Lichtenberg Business District, which is co-financed by the European Fund for Regional Development .
Regular events in the district (selection)
- Spectaculum on the bright mountain, summer two-day medieval festival in the town hall park
- Participation in the Fête de la Musique
- Changing art exhibitions in the Town Hall basement
- Medieval Christmas market in the Rathauspark
- Lichtenberg shines
Local public transport
The federal highways B 1 and B 5 cross the district on a common route in a west-east direction ( Frankfurter Allee ). A busy road in north-south direction is the Weißenseer Weg - Möllendorffstraße , a section of Landsberger Allee also runs from east to west on the northern border of the district.
|from 1908: First Mayor of the City of Lichtenberg|
|from 1921: District mayor from the formation of Greater Berlin|
|from 1979: District Mayor of the then new district
(excluding Marzahn, Hellersdorf, Biesdorf, Kaulsdorf, Mahlsdorf)
|1979-1990||Günter Milke||SED / PDS|
|1990||Peter Hlavaty||SED / PDS|
|1992-1995||Gottfried Mucha||Alliance 90 / The Greens|
- Source: Berlin monthly magazine
For the district mayors after the merger of the former districts of Lichtenberg and Hohenschönhausen to form the district that has existed since 2001, see District Lichtenberg # Mayor .
Sons and daughters of Lichtenberg
- Waldemar Atzpodien (1834–1910), landowner and local politician
- Hermann Roeder (1856–1941), landowner and local politician
- The Loeper family , farmers and landowners in the former village of Lichtenberg
- Friedrich Peine (1871–1952), politician (SPD)
- Herbert Grabert (1901–1978), theologian and publicist
- Heinrich Fritz Kuhn (1906–1991), teacher and painter
- Georg Lehnig (1907–1945), resistance fighter against National Socialism
- Kurt Borm (1909–2001), SS-Hauptsturmführer and doctor in the Nazi killing center in Pirna-Sonnenstein
- Ilse Stöbe (1911–1942), resistance fighter
- Erwin Nöldner (1913–1944), resistance fighter against National Socialism
- Kurt Schmidt (1913–1947), resistance fighter against National Socialism
- Paul Dinter (1922–2001), racing cyclist
- Hans-Werner Fabarius (1929–2018), local history researcher
- Hans-Joachim Helwig-Wilson (1931–2009), photojournalist and political prisoner in the GDR
- Katja Lange-Müller (* 1951), writer
- Tatjana Sterneberg (* 1952), political prisoner in the GDR
- Gesine Lötzsch (* 1961), politician (Die Linke)
- Anja Reich (* 1967), journalist and author
- Djamila Rowe (* 1967), model
- Marianne Burkert-Eulitz (* 1972), politician (Alliance 90 / The Greens)
- Jordi Truxa (* 1973), coin designer
- Jördis Triebel (* 1977), actress
- Christian Awe (* 1978), street art artist
- Alexander Fehling (* 1981), actor
- Sarah Schindler (* 1981), singer and actress
- Johann Fohl (* 1982), actor
- Axel Ranisch (* 1983), director and actor
- Daniel Siebert (* 1984), soccer referee
- Christoph Sydow (1985-2020), journalist
- Patrick Hausding (* 1989), diver
Personalities associated with Lichtenberg
- Wichard von Möllendorff (1724–1816), Prussian Field Marshal General, lived in Lichtenberg
- Johann Ludwig Weitling (1758 – after 1792), schoolmaster in Lichtenberg
- Gustav Kielblock (1843–1917), local politician, honorary citizen of Lichtenberg
- Oskar Ziethen (1858–1932), first mayor of the city of Lichtenberg
- Hermann Lewandowski (1875–1950), founder of the Venetia chocolate and sugar confectionery factory
- Alfred Siggel (1884–1959), District Mayor of Lichtenberg 1926–1933
- Franz Stimming (1884–1952), District Mayor of Lichtenberg 1945
- Willy Abel (1875–1951), inventor and engineer, founder of the Harras works in Lichtenberg
- Oskar Maretzky (1881–1945), City General Counsel in Lichtenberg
- Fritz Thurm (1883–1937), Lichtenberg City Councilor 1926–1933
- Friedrich Jacobs (1889–1964), doctor, lived on Fanningerstrasse
- Georg Loewenstein (1890–1998), city doctor in Lichtenberg
- Hans Zoschke (1910–1944), resistance fighter against National Socialism, grew up in Lichtenberg
- Jutta Resch-Treuwerth (1941–2015), journalist and sex therapist, grew up in Lichtenberg
- Werner Teske (1942–1981), employee of the MfS , the last executed death sentence in the GDR, lived on Hendrichplatz
- Paul van Dyk (* 1971 as Matthias Paul), disc jockey, grew up in Lichtenberg
- List of streets and squares in Berlin-Lichtenberg
- List of cultural monuments in Berlin-Lichtenberg
- List of stumbling blocks in Berlin-Lichtenberg
- Bundestag constituency Berlin-Lichtenberg
- Emil Unger: History of Lichtenberg until it was granted city rights. Weber, Berlin 1910.
- The architectural and art monuments in the GDR, capital Berlin, Volume II. Institute for Monument Preservation at Henschelverlag, Berlin 1987.
- Hans-Jürgen Rach: The villages in Berlin. A handbook of the former rural communities of Berlin. Verlag für Bauwesen, Berlin 1988, ISBN 3-345-00243-4 .
- Jan Feustel : Walks in Lichtenberg. (Berlin reminiscences; 75). Haude and Spener, Berlin 1996, ISBN 3-7759-0409-3 .
- History of the district (old) Lichtenberg district office
- Event and information portal for Berlin-Lichtenberg
- Johannes Schultze (ed.): The land book of the Mark Brandenburg from 1375 . Berlin 1940, p. 110 gives 44 hooves, combined with the footnote that the other two handwriting variants A and C (p. XXIII) name 64 hooves.
- 100 years of city rights for the place Lichtenberg. On April 1st the celebrations / numerous events around the anniversary begin in the district. In: Neues Deutschland , March 27, 2008.
- together with the Friedrichsberg colony and the Lichtenberger Kietz
- together with Boxhagen-Rummelsburg
- Lichtenberg (with Friedrichsberg and Wilhelmsberg) . In: Berliner Adreßbuch , 1912, part 5, p. 281.
- Lichtenberg district . In: Berliner Adreßbuch , 1914, part 5, p. 102.
- Statistical report AI 5 - hj 2 / 19. Residents in the state of Berlin on December 31, 2019. Basic data. P. 26
- B plan no. 11–61 of the BA Lichtenberg from 2013 (PDF), accessed on August 18, 2017.
- Maria Curter: Berlin's district mayor . In: Berlin monthly magazine ( Luisenstädtischer Bildungsverein ) . Issue 7, 1997, ISSN 0944-5560 , p. 126 ( luise-berlin.de ).
- I never met the enemy . In: Der Spiegel . No. 7 , 1992 ( online ).