Fremantle is a city on the west coast of Australia . It serves as the port city for Perth . Originally separate from neighboring Perth, Fremantle is now part of the Perth conurbation , as is Joondalup and Mandurah .
Fremantle is named after the British Admiral Charles Fremantle , who took possession of the area for the British Crown in May 1829. The name is stressed on the first syllable; In the colloquial short form it is called “Freo”.
Fremantle's climate is similar to the Mediterranean climate in Europe, for example that of Greece or southern Italy: hot, dry summers with only a few rainy days and temperatures of up to 43 ° C (measured on December 26, 2007) contrast with cool, humid winters.
The cool wind that comes from the south during the hot summer and thus "blows from Fremantle to Perth" is colloquially known as the "Fremantle Doctor". Temperatures below 0 ° C are very rare in Fremantle, and snowfall is practically unknown.
Monthly average temperatures and rainfall for Swanbourne (near Fremantle)
Fremantle was founded by British settlers in 1829 as part of the Swan River Colony . In 1837 one of Western Australia's first whaling companies was founded, the Fremantle Whaling Company , which built the Bathers Beach Whaling Station at the eastern entrance to the harbor. In 1929 Fremantle was declared a city and had a population of about 25,000. In 1876, Fremantle was the scene of a spectacular prisoner liberation , during which six Fenians , Irish freedom fighters, broke out of prison, fled to Rockingham and there fled to the United States on the American ship Catalpa . The catalpa had been traveling from the United States to Australia for almost a year to pick up the prisoners.
At the mouth of the Swan River is the port of Fremantle , which is important as a transshipment point for the greater Perth area. The Fremantle Port Authority is responsible for the infrastructure and operations in the port area . To secure the waterway more are on the coast in front of the estuary and on nearby islands lighthouses were built, so on the two jetties in front of the port entrance, the North Mole Lighthouse and the counterpart on the south pier, on the island of Rottnest lighthouses Wadjemup and Bathurst and south of it on the headland Woodman Point the Woodman lighthouse .
Culture and sights
Fremantle is considered one of the cultural centers of Perth. Colonial buildings erected by prisoners , the old jetty and harbor, the Maritime Museum and many other buildings of general historical interest can be found here.
This includes the Round House , the oldest surviving building in Western Australia, which was built as a prison in 1830/1831. It comprised eight cells and a prisoner residence, all of which were arranged around a central courtyard. In the 1800s, whales were hunted in Bathers Beach Bay below the Round House. To do this, a tunnel was constructed under the Round House through which the whalers could get into the city. When the first 75 prisoners from Britain arrived in 1850 to add to the colony's dwindling population, the Round House proved too small to house them. The convicts built a new prison, which was completed in the 1850s and used as Fremantle Prison until 1991.
The Fremantle Prison was once one of the most notorious prisons in the British Empire . British convicts as well as local, military and prisoners of war were housed here. Today it is considered to be one of the most important cultural heritage sites in the country. At the same time, it also houses a backpacker hostel .
The Round House is in the West End of Fremantle, a district with colonial buildings on the southern edge of the harbor and vaguely reminiscent of Stockholm . A process of gentrification in the early 1990s was accelerated by the establishment of the University of Notre Dame Australia as the university restored and used many of the buildings in the West End.
The majestic Fremantle History Museum was also built by prisoners from native limestone in the 1860s. The Ord Street building previously housed a mental hospital and served as the US Navy base during World War II . Today, the Immigration Museum is housed here, at one of the most striking points in the city, which is dedicated to the history of all immigrants who arrived in Western Australia.
The Fremantle Markets are a well known tourist attraction. They are located in the city center on the "Cappuccino Strip", so named because of the large number of restaurants and cafés. The Prime Minister of Western Australia, John Forrest , laid the foundation stone for the market on November 6, 1897. More than 150 stalls are located in the Victorian building, which was listed by the National Trust and Heritage Council in 1980.
The neo-Gothic St. Patrick's Basilica was built in 1900 above the harbor.
In 1891 the Irish engineer Charles O'Connor deepened the port. He removed the strip of limestone and the sandy shallows at the entrance to the Swan River, making Fremantle a viable port for commercial shipping. The city is still the main port for Western Australia . During the Second World War was the second largest base for submarines of the Allies , in the Pacific were active ( Pacific Theater ). Up to 125 US , 31 British and 11 Dutch submarines operated from Fremantle before the Americans moved on to the Philippines .
The Fremantle Telefunken Station ( Applecross Wireless Station ) for the telegraph connection to Penant Hills near Sydney stood on the approximately 42 m high hill in what is now Wireless Hill Park on the way to Perth . The hall that originally housed the power plant is now accessible as the Wireless Hill Museum .
In 1987 Fremantle was the venue for the America's Cup sailing regatta , which took place on Gage Roads.
The city has a sporting rivalry with Perth, especially in the Australian Football League (AFL) between the local Fremantle Football Club (also known colloquially as The Dockers ) and the West Coast Eagles from Perth. The two teams are at home in the same stadium, the Perth Stadium .
- Seberang Perai , Malaysia, since 1978
- Yokosuka , Japan, since 1979
- Capo d'Orlando , Italy, since 1983
- Molfetta , Italy, since 1984
- Funchal , Portugal, since 1996
- Bon Scott (1946–1980), former singer of the group AC / DC , is buried in the cemetery in the east of the city.
- Casey Minson (born 1985), ice hockey player
- Samantha Kerr (* 1993), soccer player and captain of the Australian national team .
- City of Fremantle (English)
- Historical Timeline (English)
- Fremantle Aboriginal Heritage Walks (English)
- Australian Bureau of Statistics : Fremantle (State Suburb) ( English ) In: 2016 Census QuickStats . June 27, 2017. Retrieved April 7, 2020.
- Minutes. Strategy and Project Development Committee. City of Fremantle, July 10, 2017, accessed January 3, 2019 .
- Australian Bureau of Meteorology : Swanbourne Station. Observation period: 1993–2013. Retrieved January 22, 2014.
- The Fenians. Fremantle Prison, Department of Planning, Lands and Heritage, 2019, accessed January 3, 2019 .
- Wireless connection with telephone system across Australia. (PDF; 1.8 MB) In: Telefunken newspaper. 2nd year, No. 8, p. 38ff.
- The Wireless Circuit. Applecross Station officially opened yesterday. The West Australian, October 1, 1912, p. 7 , accessed December 30, 2018 .
- Wireless Hill Park. Place Number 03518. In: State Heritage Register. State Heritage Office, Government of Western Australia, December 31, 2016, accessed January 5, 2019 .
- Wireless Hill Museum. City of Melville, accessed January 5, 2019 .