The America's Cup is the oldest sailing regatta still held today . The prize is a trophy and has its origin in a race around the British Isles Isle of Wight in 1851. It is named after its first winner, the yacht America of the New York Yacht Club (NYYC).
For the America's Cup, the boats of two yacht clubs - defenders and challengers - compete against each other in several races. The yacht that wins a predetermined number of races wins the cup. According to the deed of foundation, the defender determines the sailing area. The deed of foundation stipulates that defenders and challengers can make agreements on the rules within certain limits, e.g. B. as regards the number of races.
From the first defense in 1870 to the 20th regatta in 1967 there was only one challenger at a time. In 1970 there were several challengers for the first time, so the organizing New York Yacht Club agreed to determine the official challenger through a preliminary round. Between 1983 and 2007 until the temporary withdrawal of the sponsor Louis Vuitton and again from 2013, the challenger was determined by the Louis Vuitton Cup . Even taking part in the Louis Vuitton Cup required great financial commitment: the budgets of the high-tech yachts sometimes exceeded 100 million dollars. The yachts had to be built in the country of the registered team. There were significant changes to the last two ACs. In 2010, both defenders and challengers sailed with multihulls for the first time. In 2013, catamarans were agreed and the participating teams constructed "hydrofoil catamarans " that sailed over 40 knots (75 km / h). For 2017 the boats " AC50F Katamaran " were shortened from 72 feet (almost 22 m) to 50 ft (a good 15 m), remained 24 m high and were able to reach 50 kn (92 km / h) for the first time during training.
The America's Cup 1851 to 1980
As early as 1851, the Great Exhibition was the first world exhibition in London , a fair at which each country was supposed to present its best products. For the British, this was the reason to invite the Americans to come to England on a yacht and compete with them in a regatta. An American yacht club accepted the challenge and commissioned the construction of a schooner (two-master).
The regatta was held on August 22, 1851 off the British Isle of Wight , initially under the name 100 Sovereign Cup , and won by the American schooner America of the New York Yacht Club (NYYC). The approximately 30 meters (93 feet ) long two-master crossed the finish line at 20:37 in front of 15 British participants from the Royal Yacht Squadron club with a 20-minute lead. The America was the winner of this race to name to the 1870 inaugural under this name America's Cup. The trophy, which the successful syndicate received, was presented to the New York Yacht Club with the condition that the trophy could be challenged by other yacht clubs, which must come from other nations. This was done with a deed of gift , the so-called deed of gift . The passage that it should be a fight between friendly nations caused irritation, especially at AC 2003. In particular, Alinghi (Switzerland) and BMW Oracle Racing (USA) competed with multi-national teams. The team members relocated to the respective country in order to comply with the Deed of Gift. International teams are now allowed.
The Americans defended the cup in an incomparable series of victories for 132 years (from 1851 to 1983) in 25 irregular competitions.
One of the greats of the America's Cup early years was Scottish entrepreneur Thomas Lipton (Lipton Tea). Between 1899 and 1930 he challenged the Americans five times with his yachts ( Shamrock I to Shamrock V ), but lost each time. For this he received a specially created trophy for the “best of all losers”. Lipton was not successful in sailing, but he did increase the awareness of his tea brand in the USA. So he practically became a pioneer in sports marketing.
In the 1930s, Harold S. Vanderbilt , who came from an American railway dynasty, competed successfully as a skipper three times (1930, 1934 and 1937). During this time, the Cup was held with the very long (around 41 m) J-class yachts .
After the Second World War , from 1958, the J class yachts were replaced by the smaller 12 meter class yachts. The construction of these boats was based on a formula that resulted in 12 m. The length of the yachts was about 20 m, which is about half of the J-class yachts.
The winning streak of the Americans continued after the Second World War for eight more regattas up to and including 1980.
The America's Cup between 1980 and 1990
The controversial Australian businessman Alan Bond was unsuccessfully involved in the America's Cup three times (1974, 1977 and 1980) . Finally, he took part for a fourth time in 1983, and with the Australia II controlled by John Bertrand won on September 26, 1983 for the first time in 132 years a non-American team. The Australians beat the legendary American skipper Dennis Conner (Conner won the cup four times out of nine competitions). A decisive factor was the higher speed potential of the Australia II , which was characterized by an innovative " wing keel ". The keel was developed under the direction of Ben Lexcen in Australia; Among other things, the German Aerospace Center was involved in the development .
Dennis Conner brought the trophy back to the USA at the next Cup in 1987 in Perth, outside Australia.
A year later in 1988 the legendary "unequal duel" (mis-match) followed: New Zealand challenged Conner with a huge 36 m long yacht, the KZ1 , but the tricky Dennis Conner defended the cup with a catamaran (two-hull boat). Subsequently, both parties accused themselves of breaking the rules in court, but in the last instance Conner kept the trophy, although it was in the early days - against the French. Challenger Baron Marcel Bich - had already given "precedent rule extensions" on the part of the defending NYYC.
The America's Cup since 1992
These overstretching of the regulations were reason enough to establish a new yacht class. Since 1992 the cup has only been held with boats of the "International America's Cup Class" (IACC). These must be constructed within a given framework of length, weight (max. 24 tons), width (max. 4.5 m), draft (max. 4.1 m), sail area etc. and are therefore similar. The length, sail area and displacement must meet a formula that leads to boat lengths between 20 and 28 m. An IACC yacht has 17 crew members and one guest, i.e. a maximum of 18 people on board. The sail numbers are assigned consecutively, regardless of the nationality of the yacht.
|Typical dimensions of an IACC yacht|
|Length over all||26 meters|
|Mast height||33 meters|
|Sail area on the wind||320 square meters|
|of which mainsail||215 square meters|
|spinnaker||160% d. Sail area|
|total weight||Max. 24 tons|
|Keel ballast||19 tons|
|Crew size||17 people + 1 guest|
After the New Zealand team won twice with skipper Russell Coutts in 1995 and 2000 and put the Pacific state in a collective frenzy of joy, it was defeated in 2003 by the Swiss Alinghi - for the first time a European syndicate won the Cup, plus one from a landlocked country . Ironically, the Swiss had lured away the skipper Russell Coutts, who had previously been successful for New Zealand.
The 31st America's Cup 2003
The 31st America's Cup was held in Hauraki Gulf, New Zealand in 2003. The winner was the Swiss team Alinghi against the cup defender Team New Zealand , so the cup went to a European team for the first time in the 152-year history of the America's Cup.
For this cup it was planned to send a German challenger syndicate into the race for the first time with the Düsseldorf Yacht Club and the Illbruck . Due to financing problems, the boat was not completed and ultimately you could not compete. Michael Illbruck , however, lent this boat (GER 68) for training purposes to the New Zealand team "Emirates Team New Zealand", the challenger to Alinghi in the 2007 America's Cup. At the end of 2006 Michael Illbruck got the boat back from the New Zealanders, ready to sail.
The 32nd America's Cup 2007
The 32nd America's Cup was held off the coast of Valencia (Spain) in 2007 , as Switzerland is a landlocked country and therefore cannot be held there. After the original regatta off the Isle of Wight, this was the first time that the Cup took place in Europe. For the first time a German boat was registered for this cup. On April 29, 2005 the United Internet Team Germany (helmsman: Jesper Bank ) registered. In 2007 a total of 12 teams from 9 countries competed against the Alinghi. As in the last cup, the final took place between the Swiss team Alinghi and the challenger team New Zealand . The defending champion Alinghi won 5-2.
The 33rd America's Cup 2010
The Spanish club "Nautico Español de Vela" gave the first challenge to the Alinghi-Club Société Nautique de Genève , but was disqualified in court because it did not organize an annual race at sea and thus did not comply with the provisions of the foundation charter. The Golden Gate Yacht Club, represented by BMW Oracle Racing , became the new challenger ("Challenger of Record"), who, together with defender Alinghi , should determine the rules for the next edition.
Since the two associations could not agree on a set of rules, the deed of foundation was valid. In court it was decided that the 33rd America's Cup will start on February 8, 2010 in front of Valencia. Only the SNG and GGYC were allowed to participate, the rules were only limited by the deed of foundation, which stipulated boats up to 90 feet long. According to the deed of foundation, the cup was held according to the "best of three" mode.
BMW Oracle Racing competed with a trimaran (three-hull boat) and adjustable wings instead of sails and thus won the first two races and won the America's Cup.
The 34th America's Cup 2013
The 34th America's Cup was organized by the Golden Gate Yacht Club with the Challenger of Record. Mascalzone Latino was the new Challenger of Record with the Club Nautico di Roma.
Oracle Racing and Team Mascalzone Latino initially aimed at a redesign of the cup. However, the owner of Mascalzone Latino announced on May 12, 2011 that it had given up its America's Cup commitment. Team Alinghi also decided not to participate because owner Ernesto Bertarelli did not agree to the rules of the 33rd and 34th America's Cup.
The regatta took place in San Francisco in 2013 . In addition to the defending champion, seven other teams had registered by mid-May 2011: The new "Challenger of Record" Kungliga Svenska Segelsällskapet (Artemis Racing) around Torbjörn Törnqvist and Paul Cayard , the Aleph Yacht Club with skipper Bertrand Pacé , Meĭ Fań Yacht Club (Team China), Emirates Team New Zealand with the yacht Aotearoa , the Yacht Club de France (Team Energy), Real Club Nautico de Valencia (Green Comm Racing) and Sail Korea Yacht Club (Team Korea).
The yachts of the class "AC 72" were sailed. These catamarans have a hull length of 22 meters (72 feet) and a width of 14 meters. The boat, driven by 11 sailors, has a rigid wing sail 40 meters high and a wing area of 230 to 260 m². If the speed is sufficient, wings attached under water, so-called hydrofoils or foils for short , lift the boat so that the hulls leave the water. In this way the flow resistance of the boat is significantly reduced. 2013 was the first year in which the so-called foils were used.
Starting in 2011, preliminary regattas were sailed with the smaller yachts of the "AC 45" class. The World Series uses AC 45 catamarans, a one-design wing sailing catamaran specially designed for the event by Oracle Racing. The AC 45 was designed as a smaller version of the larger AC 72 class that was used for the 2013 America's Cup. In 2015, the AC 45F class was modified in order to achieve improved performance for the boats by means of hydrofoiling capability. Top speeds of 37 kn are achieved.
The AC45 has the following specifications: - Construction: honeycomb core, carbon fiber double sandwich - Length: 13.45 m (44.1 ft) - Width: 6.90 m (22.6 ft) - Weight: 1.290–1.320 kg (2.840– 2,910 lb) - maximum draft: 2.7 m (8 ft 10 in) - draft: 21.5 m (71 ft) without extension, 25.5 m (84 ft) with extension - wing: 20 m (66 ft) 83.5 m² (899 sq ft) wing element with three slotted flaps - Extension: 4 m (13 ft) high, 8.7 m² (94 sq ft) area -Fock area: 48 m² (520 sq ft), by sailmaker of Team Wahl provided (2011–2013 series), provided by North Sails (2015–2016 series) -Gennaker Area: 125 m² (1,350 sq ft), provided by the sailmaker of Team Wahl (2011–2013 series) , made available by North Sails (2015-2016 series) -builders: Kern Builders (NZ), TP Cookson (NZ) -crew: 5 + 1 guest -Daggerboards: two conventional swords (2011-2013 series) with right L- Elevator type (2015–2016 series) rudder: two balanced spade rudders r (2011-2013 series) with T-type horizontal stabilizers (2015-2016 series)
On May 9, 2013, the Swedish catamaran Artemis capsized while training in San Francisco Bay , causing the front cross member to break and the boat to collapse. It was Andrew Simpson pushed out of the international team of the British under the water and drowned. Six months earlier, in October 2012, during a descent maneuver in a wind of 25 kn, Oracle's boat overturned over the bow and was later severely damaged by currents and waves. The wing was almost completely destroyed and the crew managed to escape into the water. In the aftermath of the Artemis accident, the management of the 34th America's Cup proposed various measures to improve safety, including lowering the intended upper wind limit from 33 (wind force 7) to 23 knots (wind force 6).
On September 25th, Oracle Team USA won the 34th America's Cup in the 19th race 9: 8 against New Zealand's Aotearoa , after they had previously been 1: 8 behind. The team had to win 11 races to compensate for a penalty of two penalty points for violating the rules.
|won runs in green|
|(P) canceled or (A) canceled races in red|
|run||date||PDT||Oracle Team USA||Aotearoa from Team New Zealand||delta||was standing|
|United States||New Zealand|
|1||September 7, 2013||1:15 pm||24:06||23:30||00:36||0||1|
|2||September 7, 2013||2:15 pm||23:38||22:46||00:52||0||2|
|3||September 8, 2013||1:15 pm||25:28||25:00||00:28||0||3|
|4th||September 8, 2013||2:15 pm||22:42||22:50||00:08||0 1||3|
|5||September 10, 2013||1:15 pm||23:50||22:45||01:05||0||4th|
|P 2||September 10, 2013||2:15 pm||called off||-||-||0||4th|
|6th||September 12th, 2013||1:15 pm||32:26||31:39||00:47||0||5|
|7th||September 12th, 2013||2:15 pm||25:54||24:48||01:06||0||6th|
|8th||September 14, 2013||1:15 pm||23:09||24:01||00:52||0 1||6th|
|A 3||September 14, 2013||2:15 pm||-||-||-||0||6th|
|9||15th September 2013||1:15 pm||21:53||22:40||00:47||1||6th|
|10||15th September 2013||2:15 pm||22:17||22:00||00:17||1||7th|
|P 4||17th September 2013||1:15 pm||-||-||-||1||7th|
|P 4||17th September 2013||2:15 pm||-||-||-||1||7th|
|11||18th September 2013||1:15 pm||23:56||23:41||00:15||1||8th|
|P 4||18th September 2013||2:15 pm||-||-||-||1||8th|
|12||19th September 2013||1:15 pm||23:49||24:20||00:31||2||8th|
|P 4||19th September 2013||2:15 pm||-||-||-||2||8th|
|A 5||20th September 2013||1:20 pm||-||-||-||2||8th|
|13||20th September 2013||2:33 pm||27:20||28:44||01:24||3||8th|
|P 4||21st September 2013||1:15 pm||-||-||-||3||8th|
|P 4||21st September 2013||2:15 pm||-||-||-||3||8th|
|14th||22nd September 2013||1:15 pm||33:47||34:10||00:23||4th||8th|
|15th||22nd September 2013||2:22 pm||27:34||28:11||00:37||5||8th|
|16||23rd September 2013||1:45 pm||30:43||31:16||00:33||6th||8th|
|P 6||23rd September 2013||2:15 pm||-||-||-||6th||8th|
|17th||September 24, 2013||1:15 pm||24:04||24:31||00:27||7th||8th|
|18th||September 24, 2013||2:15 pm||22:01||22:55||00:54||8th||8th|
|19th||September 25, 2013||1:15 pm||23:24||24:08||00:44||9||8th|
1 The US wins in races 4 and 8 scored no points due to the jury's punishment.
2 The US team took a break after Race 5.
3 The second race on September 14th was canceled because the wind speed was exceeded. Aotearoa was in the lead at this point.
4 Cancellations due to exceeding the permissible wind speed.
5 The race was stopped because the 40-minute time limit was exceeded. Aotearoa was in the lead.
6 Cancellation of the 2nd race due to the passage of time.
The 35th America's Cup 2017
After completing the 34th Cup, the Golden Gate Yacht Club (USA) accepted the challenge of the Hamilton Island Yacht Club (Australia) for the multimillionaire Bob Oatley as a representative for the 35th America's Cup. The Hamilton Island Yacht Club withdrew its participation in July 2014 due to cost reasons. The regattas then took place from May 26th to June 26th in the Great Sound of the Bermuda Islands. In addition to the defending champion Oracle Team USA (Golden Gate Yacht Club, USA) with the yacht 17 , Artemis Racing from Sweden ( Kungliga Svenska Segelsällskapet ) with the boat Mighty Blue , Land Rover BAR (Royal Yacht Squadron, Great Britain) with the catamaran Rita , Emirates Team New Zealand (Royal New Zealand Yacht Squadron) with Aotearoa , SoftBank Team Japan (Kansai Yacht Club, Japan) and Team France (Yacht Club de France) with Groupama .
Each team was only allowed to build one type AC50 catamaran , with the number 50 indicating the approximate boat length in feet, in this case 15 m (49ft 3in) overall length (AC stands for America's Cup). Each catamaran has two hulls, each with an approximately lying on mast height sword (eng daggerboard.), The shaped L in the lower part as a water bearing surface (eng. Hydrofoil, short foil) is formed, and have an onboard stern rudder. Most of the propulsion is provided by the almost 23 m high drive wing, which is like half an aircraft wing. The sword can be adjusted in height and rotated within defined limits around two axes, one in the longitudinal direction of the trunk and a second, horizontally transversely directed axis (rake axis). The height of the rudder is not adjustable and can be rotated around a vertical axis (control of the direction of travel) and, within narrow limits, around a horizontal axis (rake axis). The rudder (eng. Rudder) resembles an inverted T; During the so-called foiling, the T-shaped part (rudder wing) delivers a downward force that cancels the forward tilting moment generated by the drive wing . The hydrofoils lift the hulls of the catamaran out of the water during foiling . The leeward sword and both oars are in the water, while the windward sword is drawn up and hovers over the water. By reducing the water resistance and the adjustable drive wing, which replaces the conventional mainsail, the boats can reach speeds of over 40 knots (= 74 km / h). Each team has two sets of swords, one for high and one for low wind speeds . The blades and oars are controlled purely hydraulically. For foiling, the blades and oars must be actively controlled. The boats are not inherently stable in this regard. The hydraulic power required to operate the control systems is generated mechanically by the crew. Electrical storage systems are prohibited. Most boats use hand cranks (so-called grinders ) for this, but the New Zealanders' victorious boat has stationary bicycles , similar to a bicycle ergometer . The New Zealand team continued u. a. a cyclist, Simon van Velthooven . In addition to aerodynamic advantages, the pedal drive promises 30% more hydraulic power. In addition, the crew members can also perform trim tasks because they have their hands free.
The regatta procedure was unusual, as the cup defender was allowed to take part in the qualifying round, in which the boats compete against each other in pairs, although he was already qualified for the final. He could not only perfect his boat and study his opponents; it also took points away from the competitors and thus influenced the selection process of the final challenger. In addition, the US boat had a victory point advantage in the final, as it was ahead of the eventual, final challenger at the end of the qualifying round. The four best challengers in the qualifying round then determined the final challenger in quarter and semi-final regattas.
Team France dropped out in the qualifying round. The US defender won the qualifying round, securing a point lead for the final. In the qualifying round, the New Zealand team succeeded for the first time in the history of the America's Cup in keeping the boat completely on the wings in a race and achieving 100% so-called fly time . New Zealand finished second in the qualifying round and therefore had the right to choose its opponent for the first knockout round. The British team was chosen, and from June 4th to 12th Emirates Team New Zealand and Land Rover BAR as well as Artemis Racing and SoftBank Team Japan faced each other.
New Zealand, which overturned spectacularly in the fourth race of the first knockout round in the pre-start phase, won the elimination against the British team 5-2. The Japanese boat lost 3: 5 to the Swedish participants.
In the second knockout round, the Aotearoa from New Zealand and the Blue Magic from Sweden met. A maximum of three races were carried out per regatta day. On the first day, after a sovereign New Zealand success and a narrow victory for the Swedes in the third race, New Zealand again emerged victorious after Sweden's skipper Nathan Outteridge slipped away during a maneuver due to centrifugal forces and went overboard. The 31-year-old was taken out of the water by a support boat; his boat then gave up this race. In gusty winds of up to 15 knots, the Swedes dominated race 4 on the second day. Race 5 brought light winds of 10 knots, with which the Aotearoa coped much better; the New Zealanders were at times more than 600 meters ahead. The Swedes did not finish this race due to technical problems in order to have as much time as possible for repairs before the start of race 6. Better turning maneuvers and higher speed secured the New Zealand yacht with a lead of just one second in this close race and a 4: 2 lead. In the seventh run it was rainy with light wind conditions. The Swedes had to accept a penalty for early starts. A turn of the wind made her fall back further; however, they managed to stay on the wings longer in very light conditions and then come back up. The race was then canceled due to the lull. After starting again, Team New Zealand won the necessary fifth point, which brought the Aotearoa to the final against US defender 17 .
Seven victory points were required in the final. According to the rules, the Aotearoa started with -1 point, as they were behind the American 17 in the qualifying round . The defenders only had to win seven races to win the cup, the New Zealanders needed eight wins. The catamaran from New Zealand won the first four races held on two consecutive days. In turning and gusty easterly winds of nine to twelve knots, the American 17 could not keep up with the New Zealand Aotearoa , which was an average of 1-2 knots faster in the first three races and a good half a knot faster in the fourth. The cup defender had five days to make up for this speed deficit by the next four races. In race 6, the Americans took the first point with an 11 second lead, but then lost both races again the next day, with Jimmy Spithill again making a number of mistakes that were unusual for him. There was a tendency for the Aotearoa team to have open races in which the 17 won the start, whereas the US boat lost relatively significantly if it was already behind at the start. After the first four days of the final, the challengers were 6-1 ahead. On June 26, 2017, the New Zealanders clearly won the 9th regatta despite losing the start and secured the overall standings 7-1.
The 36th America's Cup
The New Zealand club Royal New Zealand Yacht Squadron must defend the cup. Prada boss Patrizio Bertelli has announced that he and his team Luna Rossa will be the first challenger to the Kiwis for the next cup. He thus takes on the role of the formal challenger, the so-called Challenger of Record. This negotiates the rules of the next regatta and the elimination competitions with the defender. In particular, the boat class must be determined.
No catamarans are used as boats, but monohull yachts again. With a length of 75 feet, they are also significantly larger than the catamarans used in the last event. They are only three meters shorter than the boats used between 1992 and 2007. Whether the yachts are allowed to use wings will not be known until the AC75 class rule expected for March 2018. The crew should be 10 to 12 men. The return to the monohulls that had previously been used throughout was possible because New Zealand was the only team not to commit to using catamarans before the last Cup. This turn to monohull yachts had been a condition of the Italians when they successfully supported the New Zealanders in their fight for victory after their own exit from the 35th America's Cup. Each participant is allowed to build two yachts; However, test drives between the two boats are not allowed, as are tow tank tests. "Bicyclists" instead of grinders are not prohibited.
As the only participant in the 35th edition, New Zealand had not committed to holding the competition every two years in the future. The regattas for the 36th America's Cup are scheduled to take place off Auckland in 2021, which gives just under four years time for the development of the new yachts. In 2019 and 2020 New Zealand will host pre-regattas for the America's Cup, in which, as before, the defender will not take part.
20 percent of the crew must have a passport of the country or their main residence or center of life in the country for which the team starts. This nationality rule is considered to be a disadvantage for challengers, since in the past only New Zealand was able to muster a team consisting largely of compatriots. For example, the US team has so far used a crew led by the Australian skipper Jimmy Spithill and led by the New Zealander Sir Russell Coutts . Foreign athletes were also recently at the start for other crews.
Since the development of a new type of boat, the construction of two boats per team, the nationality requirement and larger crews, as well as long stays in distant New Zealand are cost-driving, the defending New Zealanders reckon with no more than eight teams.
The cup is a 67.6 cm [26-5 / 8 inch (= inch)] high jug made of 134 ounces of silver-plated Britannia metal (high-alloy tin). The trophy was made in 1848 by the London jeweler R. & G. Garrard for the then price of 100 sovereigns (100 pounds sterling ). Lord Anglesey donated the trophy to the Royal Yacht Squadron (RYS) yacht club during the reign of Queen Victoria and named it One Hundred Sovereigns Cup after the purchase price (not the “100 Guineas Cup”, as is sometimes wrongly quoted).
He is nicknamed the auld mug (in German roughly the old mug ). The cup has no bottom. In 1958, a 17.8 cm (7 inch) high pedestal was installed underneath so that additional winners could be engraved. Until Yacht Australia II won the trophy for the first time in 1983, the trophy was screwed into a showcase at the New York Yacht Club , which has organized the AC since 1870. American US for the skipper of the defender yachts ( defender ) was the unspoken maxim, they would have a defeat replace their head the bottomless pot.
From 2003 to 2010 the trophy was displayed in a showcase in the clubhouse of the Société Nautique de Genève , but was also presented elsewhere on certain occasions.
The America's Cup winner is marked in bold.
|Cup No.||year||Defending champion||nation||Challenger||nation||Result|
|1851||America||United States||Aurora, Arrow, Alarm and others||United Kingdom||1-0|
|01||1870||Magic||United States||Cambria||United Kingdom||1-0|
|02||1871||Columbia and Sappho||United States||Livonia||United Kingdom||4: 1|
|03||1876||Madleine||United States||Countess of Dufferin||Canada||2-0|
|05||1885||Puritan||United States||Genesta||United Kingdom||2-0|
|06||1886||Mayflower||United States||Galatea||United Kingdom||2-0|
|07||1887||Volunteer||United States||Thistle||United Kingdom||2-0|
|08||1893||Vigilante||United States||Valkyrie II||United Kingdom||3-0|
|09||1895||Defender||United States||Valkyrie III||United Kingdom||3-0|
|10||1899||Columbia||United States||Shamrock||United Kingdom||3-0|
|11||1901||Columbia||United States||Shamrock II||United Kingdom||3-0|
|12||1903||Reliance||United States||Shamrock III||United Kingdom||3-0|
|13||1920||Resolute||United States||Shamrock IV||United Kingdom||3: 2|
|14th||1930||Enterprise||United States||Shamrock V||United Kingdom||4-0|
|15th||1934||Rainbow||United States||Endeavor||United Kingdom||4: 2|
|16||1937||ranger||United States||Endeavor II||United Kingdom||4-0|
|17th||1958||Columbia||United States||Scepter||United Kingdom||4-0|
|18th||1962||Weatherly||United States||Gretel||Australia||4: 1|
|19th||1964||Constellation||United States||Sovereign||United Kingdom||4-0|
|20th||1967||Intrepid||United States||Lady Pattie||Australia||4-0|
|21st||1970||Intrepid||United States||Gretel II||Australia||4: 1|
|22nd||1974||Courageous||United States||Southern Cross||Australia||4-0|
|24||1980||Freedom||United States||Australia||Australia||4: 1|
|25th||1983||Liberty||United States||Australia II||Australia||3: 4|
|26th||1987||Kookaburra III||Australia||Stars & Stripes||United States||0: 4|
|27||1988||Stars & Stripes||United States||New Zealand||New Zealand||2-0|
|28||1992||America 3||United States||Il Moro di Venezia||Italy||4: 1|
|29||1995||Young America||United States||Black Magic||New Zealand||0: 5|
|30th||2000||New Zealand||New Zealand||Luna Rossa||Italy||5-0|
|31||2003||Team New Zealand||New Zealand||Alinghi||Switzerland||0: 5|
|32||2007||Alinghi||Switzerland||Emirates Team New Zealand||New Zealand||5: 2|
|33||2010||Alinghi 5||Switzerland||USA 17||United States||0: 2|
|34||2013||17th||United States||Aotearoa||New Zealand||19: 8|
|35||2017||17th||United States||Aotearoa||New Zealand||21: 7|
Accidents and safety measures
In a training accident in May 2013 Andrew Simpson drowned under the capsized boat of Sweden's Artemis Racing.
Since then, crews have only been allowed on the water with helmets, life jackets, emergency knives and mini-ventilators. During the preparatory training in May 2017 off Bermuda, there were rollovers and collisions.
The arbitration panel , in which five international, former judges sit, is the highest authority in disputes between the teams. In addition, there are sports courts of the associations that organize other races that can and were called by the teams at these races to clarify disputes that are also relevant for the AC (see Dennis Conner ).
- America's Cup Hall of Fame
- Wind , a 1992 American sports film
- Youth America's Cup , the junior series for participants up to 24
- Tatjana Pokorny, Jochen Schümann : Alinghi's summit storm. America's Cup . Delius Klasing, Bielefeld 2003, ISBN 3-7688-1489-0 .
- Ranulf Rayner, Tim Thompson (Illustrator): The history of the America's Cup from 1851 to today (original title: The story of the America's Cup 1851-2003 , translated by Tanja Grittner, foreword and text on the victory of the Alinghi by Jochen Schümann ). BLV, Munich 2003, ISBN 3-405-16626-8 .
- Marc Bielefeld , Peter Sandmeyer: The challengers . Murmann, Hamburg 2006, ISBN 3-938017-49-X .
- Jan-Felix Litter: America's Cup - Marketing of Tradition . In: Lars Nuschke: Marketing potentials of top-class sport. A consideration of selected case studies , Sierke, Göttingen 2007, pp. 19–35, ISBN 978-3-940333-31-5 .
- Michael D'Antonio : A Full Cup. Sir Thomas Lipton 's Extraordinary Life and His Quest for the America's Cup . Riverheads Books, New York 2010.
- YACHT online: America's Cup yachts juxtaposed over time. Accessed: August 10, 2012
- America's Cup Official Website (English, French, Spanish, Italian)
- "Your Majesty, there is no second" a text by Peter Sandmeyer
- Golden Gate Yacht Club, Appellant, v Société Nautique de Genève, Respondent, and Club Náutico Español de Vela, Intervenor-Respondent . English. April 2, 2009, corrected May 27, 2009.
- "Gliding" off Bermuda: Challenger wanted for Oracle orf.at, May 27, 2017, accessed May 27, 2017. - With a link to video (0:57, ZIB 20 contribution from May 26, 2017.)
- Since 1851: In the Beginning ( April 22, 2010 memento on the Internet Archive ), The Early Challenges ( April 22, 2010 memento on the Internet Archive ). Retrieved August 22, 2011
- Original text: Deed of Gift from Wikisource.Retrieved December 29, 2010
- See Südkurier of October 29, 2008
- mascalzonelatino.it: Mascalzone Latino says goodbye to the 34 ° America's Cup
- What Went Wrong in the Deadly America's Cup Crash Adam Fisher: What Went Wrong in the Deadly America's Cup Crash, wired.com May 9, 2013
- THE BOAT THAT COULD SINK Adam Fisher; The Boat that could sink the America's Cup, wired.com May 9, 2013
- Ten knots less wind
- America's Cup technology understandable 3, hydraulic drive and car steering wheels. From Lars Bolle. In: Yacht online from May 20, 2017, accessed on June 20, 2017
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- yacht-online: It goes back to Monohulls (Tatjana Pokorny), September 11, 2017 , accessed on September 14, 2017
- changes at the America's Cup: New Zealand plans to defend its title. In: Spiegel Online . July 19, 2017. Retrieved June 9, 2018 .
- Royal Yacht Squadron: The Yacht America ( October 16, 2008 memento in the Internet Archive ). Retrieved January 27, 2009
- Spiegel Online: Team Oracle is severely punished (September 4, 2013)