Calendar overview 1798
Switzerland it comes to the French invasion
and establishing the Helvetic Republic .
|Theobald Wolfe Tone leads the Irish Rebellion of 1798 .||Napoleon Bonaparte embarks on the Egyptian expedition .|
|1798 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1246/47 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1790/91 (September 10-11)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1203/1204 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2341/42 (southern Buddhism); 2340/41 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||74th (75th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1160/61 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4131/32 (October 2/3)|
|French revolutionary calendar||Year VI./VII. of the Republic (September 21/22)|
|Islamic calendar||1212/13 (turn of the year June 14/15)|
|Jewish calendar||5558/59 (September 10-11)|
|Coptic calendar||1514/15 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2108/09 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2109/10 (New Year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1854/55 (April)|
Politics and world events
Revolutionary wars in Europe and the Mediterranean
Germany / France
- January 4th : The Republic of Mulhouse votes to join France .
- May 1st : The area on the left bank of the Rhine occupied by the French introduces civil status.
- May 11th : During the French Revolution , the board member Louis-Marie de La Révellière-Lépeaux supports the bloodless coup d'état of the 22nd Floreal VI, which is directed against the Jacobins .
- January 24th : The “ Révolution vaudoise ” marks the beginning of the independence of the canton of Vaud .
- January 28th : The French invasion of the Swiss Confederation begins.
- February 3 : In the canton of Bern , the Légion fidèle founded. It will be dissolved again on March 9th .
- March 2 : The Canton of Thurgau is established in Switzerland , previously a common rule of the Old Confederation .
- March 5 : Bernese troops face the French armies (Generals Schauenburg and Masséna ) in the Battle of Grauholz (General von Erlach) and the Battle of Neuenegg (General von Graffenried ). The old republic of Bern is going under.
- April 12 : The Helvetic Republic is proclaimed after revolutions broke out in various cantons of the Old Confederation and French troops invaded since the turn of the year 1797/98
- April 26th : Battle at Hägglingen
- April 30th : Battle near Wollerau
- May 2nd : Battle of Schindellegi
- September 7th to 9th : The horror days of Nidwalden
- January 9th : The magnificent ship of the Venetian Doge , the Bucentaur , is completely destroyed by Napoleon's soldiers because they overestimate the value of the gold leaf applied .
- February 10th : French troops under General Louis-Alexandre Berthier take Rome . France declared war on the Papal States after the assassination of its military attaché .
- February 15 : France destroys the Papal States and establishes the Roman Republic .
- December 10th : The Piedmontese Republic is proclaimed in Turin by French influence .
- December 23 : King Ferdinand IV , ruler of the Kingdom of Naples , flees to Sicily from advancing French troops .
- May 23 : A French-backed uprising against the British breaks out in Ireland . The organizer of the uprising is the Society of United Irishmen under the leadership of Theobald Wolfe Tone . Through treason and the work of informants, the British Army found out about the project immediately before it began and prevented the rebels from conquering Dublin . Despite this unexpected setback, the insurgents manage to take the surrounding counties around Dublin. The rebellion quickly spreads to other counties. In some cases, however, the British Army can quickly put them down again, and in some cases all of the people suspected of the rebellion are killed or arrested by loyalists. In return, the rebels' anger is usually directed against wealthy Protestants. The British Army can put down most uprisings in a matter of days, preventing a full rebellion across the country. Only County Wexford can be held by the rebels for a long time, but the rebellion effectively ends with the defeat at the Battle of Vinegar Hill on June 21 , when 20,000 British soldiers invade the county. Only a few troops were fighting with the British Army until July 14th .
- On August 22nd, 2,000 French soldiers land in County Mayo , where they help about 5,000 insurgents to defeat British troops in the Battle of Castlebar . After this victory they proclaim the Republic of Connaught , which will last until the British victory over the rebel and French forces on September 8th .
- October 12th : Another unit of French troops wants to land in County Donegal, but the British navy is able to intercept the units at sea and defeat them in the sea battle at Tory Island . Theobald Wolfe Tone is found and arrested on board the captured French flagship. Over the next two weeks, British frigate patrols combed the passage to Brest and captured three more ships.
- November 19 : Theobald Wolfe Tone commits suicide after being sentenced to death for high treason.
- May 19 : Napoleon Bonaparte sets out for Egypt with a French army of 40,000 men .
- June 11th : Malta surrenders without a fight to Napoleon, who has embarked on the Egyptian expedition with his troops . The Order of St. John of Malta subsequently leaves the island and goes to Russia .
- July 2nd : Napoleon Bonaparte's Egyptian expedition takes the port city of Alexandria .
- July 21 : In the Battle of the Pyramids , Napoleon Bonaparte's invading army defeats a Mamluk army under Mourad Bey on their Egyptian campaign .
- July 24th : Napoleon enters Cairo after defeating the Egyptian army .
- 1st / 2nd August : The British admiral Horatio Nelson destroys the French fleet commanded by Comte Brueys in the sea battle near Abukir in the Nile Delta, which never fully recovers from this blow.
- 22 / October 23 : A riot in Cairo is crushed by Napoleon. Around 2,500 insurgents are killed, the leaders arrested and executed.
- End of the year: Under British pressure, the Ottoman Empire under Sultan Selim III. France the war.
- April 7th : From the territories ceded by Spain in the Pinckney Treaty in 1795 , the United States forms the Mississippi Territory , which extends over the southern half of the present-day Mississippi and Alabama states .
- April: Federalist John Jay wins New York gubernatorial election .
- July 7th : With the annulment of treaties with France by the United States Congress , quasi-war breaks out between the two states, an undeclared war that is only fought at sea. US Navy squadrons run out and attack French privateers. In the face of increasing piracy in the Mediterranean and looting by privateers of revolutionary France , Congress has already seen itself compelled to build a navy to protect the growing sea trade.
- Georgia is the last of the US states to ban the slave trade; only trading, the use of slaves is still possible.
- September 10th : A Spanish flotilla is defeated by British settlers off British Honduras in the Battle of St. George's Caye with the support of the Royal Navy . As a result, no further attempts by Spain to bring the area back into its sphere of influence.
- November 8th : The British captain John Fearn and his crew are the first European to set foot on an unknown island that he calls Pleasant Island .
- March 17th : The Dutch East India Company , one of the largest trading companies of its time, is dissolved after 196 years of existence.
- The Kirner private brewery is founded.
science and technology
- Early to mid-August: On the Gotha Observatory in Gotha is the first European astronomers Congress instead.
- September 9 : The astronomer William Herschel sighted in the constellation Cepheus the galaxy NGC 6946 .
- December 9 : Wilhelm Herschel's observations of the sky let him find the galaxy NGC 613 in the constellation Sculptor .
- December 10 : Wilhelm Herschel discovers the galaxies NGC 163 and NGC 270 in the constellation Whale .
- December 18 : The central archive of the Helvetic Republic is founded in Bern.
- Henry Cavendish develops his method for measuring the gravitational constant .
- Alois Senefelder develops the lithography . The lithography process became the most important method of reproducing images in the 19th century.
- The anthropology in pragmatic terms by Immanuel Kant appears.
- October 16 : With the bull Ad universam agri Dominici curam , Pope Pius VI. the Archdiocese of Warsaw .
Architecture and fine arts
- The construction of the Castle Freienwalde in Freienwalde is designed by the architect David Gilly for Friederike of Hesse-Darmstadt - the widow of the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm II. As a summer residence in the style of - Classicism built. It is completed in 1799.
- The Lili Temple in Offenbach am Main is built by the French architect Nicolas Alexandre Salins de Montfort in the classicism style.
- End of the year: Goethe publishes the first issue of the periodical Propylaea , a magazine for fine arts . In terms of content, this is almost exclusively contested by Goethe himself and his friend, the painter and art historian Johann Heinrich Meyer .
- Summer: Friedrich Schiller writes the ballads Die Bürgschaft and Der Kampf mit dem Drachen .
- September: William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge initiate the English romantic movement with the first publication of the important poetry collection Lyrical Ballads . The work contains Coleridge's most famous ballad, The Rime of the Ancient Mariner .
Music and theater
- 29 / 30 April : The oratorio The Creation of Joseph Haydn has its world premiere under the composer's direction at the Schwarzenberg Palace at Neuer Markt in Vienna private audience.
- June 12 : World premiere of the opera The second part of the Magic Flute by Emanuel Schikaneder / Peter von Winter in the Freihaustheater Vienna
- July 6 : World premiere of the opera Die Geisterinsel by Johann Friedrich Reichardt at the Hofoper Berlin
- July 25 : World premiere of the opera L'Hôtellerie portugaise by Luigi Cherubini at the Théâtre Feydeau in Paris
- August 5th : World premiere of the opera Le Rendez-vous supposé ou Le Souper de famille by Henri Montan Berton at the Opéra-Comique in Paris
- January 4 : Wilhelm Arnoldi , Bishop of Trier († 1864 )
- January 5 : James Semple , American politician († 1866 )
- January 6th : Melchior von Diepenbrock , Cardinal and Prince-Bishop of Breslau († 1853 )
- January 6th : Gaspar Hernández from Peru, priest, educator and politician in the Dominican Republic († 1858 )
- January 8 : Waddy Thompson , American politician († 1868 )
- January 14 : Isaäc da Costa , Dutch poet and writer († 1860 )
- January 14 : Johan Rudolf Thorbecke , Dutch statesman († 1872 )
- January 17 : Johann Joseph Rosenbaum , German Catholic clergyman and theologian († 1867 )
- January 19 : Auguste Comte , French mathematician, philosopher and critic of religion, founder of positivism († 1857 )
- January 19 : Johann Adolph Heinlein , German lawyer and mayor († 1829 )
- January 24th : Karl von Holtei , German writer, actor and theater director († 1880 )
- January 24th : Karl Georg Christian von Staudt , German mathematician († 1867 )
- January 26 : Albert August Wilhelm Deetz , Prussian soldier and member of parliament († 1859 )
- January 31 : Carl Gottlieb Reissiger , German composer and court conductor in Dresden († 1859 )
- January 31 : Henriette von Bissing , German narrator († 1879 )
- February 1 : Franz von Hauslab , old Austrian general and cartographer († 1883 )
- February 8 : Matthias Franz Borgnis , German banker, jeweler and tobacco manufacturer († 1867 )
- February 10 : Heinrich Karl Brandes , German philologist, travel writer and high school teacher († 1874 )
- February 13 : Heinrich Alexander von Arnim , Prussian statesman († 1861 )
- February 20 : Richard M. Young , American politician († 1861 )
- March 17 : John Bennett Dawson , American politician († 1845 )
- March 18 : Joseph Chmel , Austrian Augustinian canon and historian († 1858 )
- March 22nd : Eduard Gans , German lawyer, legal philosopher and historian († 1839 )
- March 24 : Richard F. Simpson , American politician († 1882 )
- March 25 : Christoph Gudermann , German mathematician († 1852 )
- March 30th : Luise Hensel , German poet († 1876 )
- April 2 : August Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben , German Germanist and poet († 1874 )
- April 3 : Charles Wilkes , American naval officer and polar explorer († 1877 )
- April 7 : Pasquale Lucchini , Swiss engineer and politician († 1892 )
- April 11 : Pierce Mason Butler , American politician († 1846 )
- April 11 : Alfred V. du Pont , American industrialist († 1856 )
- April 15 : Ludwig Hofacker , Protestant theologian († 1828 )
- April 18 : Antonio Rolla , Italian violin virtuoso († 1837 )
- April 25 : Friedrich Ludwig Haarmann , founder of the first German building trade school († 1864 )
- May 3 : Thomas Dickens Arnold , American politician († 1870 )
- May 5 : Christian Friedrich Scherenberg , German poet († 1881 )
- May 6 : Heinrich von Quintus-Icilius , German administrative lawyer and politician († 1861 )
- May 12 : Cornelis Adriaan Bergsma , Dutch chemist, botanist and agricultural scientist († 1859 )
- May 20 : Heinrich August Wilhelm Stolze , German stenographer († 1867 )
- May 22nd : Alexander McDonnell , Irish chess master († 1835 )
- May 23 : Ludwig Benjamin Henz , German railway engineer († 1860 )
- May 28 : Josef Dessauer , Austrian composer († 1876 )
- June 3 : Nikolaus Ludwig Arnold , German lawyer († 1886 )
- June 6 : Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Bötticher , German pedagogue and historian († 1850 )
- June 9 : August Wellauer , German classical philologist and educator († 1831 )
- June 13 : Christian Bähr , classical philologist († 1872 )
- June 14 : František Palacký , Czech historian and politician († 1876 )
- June 15 : Alexander Gorchakov , Russian statesman († 1883 )
- June 21 : Wolfgang Menzel , German late Romantic poet († 1873 )
- June 24 : Edward Turner , English chemist († 1837 )
- June 29 : Willibald Alexis , German writer and poet († 1871 )
- June 29 : Giacomo Leopardi , Italian poet († 1837 )
- July 8 : Thomas Burr Osborne , American politician († 1869 )
- July 13 : Charlotte of Prussia , Russian tsarina († 1860 )
- July 14 : Alessandro Antonelli , Italian architect († 1888 )
- July 16 : Eduard Friedrich Poeppig , German explorer († 1868 )
- July 24 : John Adams Dix , American politician († 1879 )
- July 25 : Albert Knapp , German poet († 1864 )
- July 28 : Hezekiah Williams , American politician († 1856 )
- August 12 : Abraham Rencher , American politician († 1883 )
- August 13 : August Friedrich Ernst von Arnswaldt , German writer († 1855 )
- August 15 : Henry de Labouchère , British statesman († 1869 )
- August 15 : WO von Horn , German writer († 1867 )
- August 16 : Mirabeau B. Lamar , American politician, ambassador and President of the Republic of Texas († 1859 )
- August 20 : Paul Wilhelm Eduard Sprenger , Austrian architect († 1854 )
- August 21 : Jules Michelet , French historian († 1874 )
- August 25 : Joseph von Auffenberg , German playwright and poet († 1857 )
- August 25 : Henrik Hertz , Danish writer († 1870 )
- August 26th : August Friedrich Moritz Anton , German educator († 1868 )
- August 28 : Harro Harring , revolutionary, poet and painter († 1870 )
- August 28 : John WA Sanford , American politician († 1870 )
- August 31 : Georg Friedrich Puchta , German lawyer († 1846 )
- September 1 : Jean-Augustin Franquelin , French painter († 1839 )
- September 2 : Thomas Holliday Hicks , American politician († 1865 )
- September 4 : Hippolyte Dussard , French economist (VWL) († 1876 )
- September 9 : Joseph Anselm Feuerbach , archaeologist and professor of philology († 1851 )
- September 11th : Franz Ernst Neumann , German physicist († 1895 )
- September 17 : Antonio Benedetto Antonucci , Cardinal of the Catholic Church († 1879 )
- September 22 : Joseph C. Noyes , American politician († 1868 )
- September 25 : Henry Scheffer , French painter († 1862 )
- September 28 : Bonaventura Genelli , German painter, draftsman and engraver († 1868 )
- October 2 : Carlo Alberto I , King of Sardinia-Piedmont and Duke of Savoy († 1849 )
- October 7th : Jean-Baptiste Vuillaume , French violin maker († 1875 )
- October 8 : Karl Ludwig von Bruck , Austrian politician († 1860 )
- October 11 : Ida Arenhold , co-founder and first head of the Friederikenstift hospital in Hanover († 1863 )
- October 12 : Peter IV , Portuguese King and Brazilian Emperor († 1834 )
- October 13 : Herman Wilhelm Bissen , Danish sculptor († 1868 )
- October 22 : Jodocus Donatus Hubertus Temme , German politician, lawyer and writer († 1881 )
- October 24 : Massimo d'Azeglio , Italian writer, painter and politician († 1866 )
- October 24 : Wilhelm Amandus Auberlen , Württemberg teacher, musician and composer († 1874 )
- October 26 : Beda Weber , writer, theologian and member of the Frankfurt National Assembly († 1858 )
- October 28 : Levi Coffin , American Quaker, abolitionist and businessman († 1877 )
- October 29 : Ulrike von Pogwisch , German prioress († 1875 )
- November 4 : Henriette Méric-Lalande , French opera singer († 1867 )
- November 5 : Maria-Carolina of Bourbon-Sicily , daughter of King Francis I of Naples († 1870 )
- November 15 : Karl von Moltke , Danish politician († 1866 )
- November 16 : Persifor Frazer Smith , American officer († 1858 )
- November 23 : Gustav Asverus , German lawyer († 1843 )
- November 23 : Robert Oettel , businessman, founder of German pedigree poultry breeding († 1884 )
- November 29 : Hamilton Rowan Gamble , American politician († 1864 )
- November 30 : Carl Wilhelm Asher , German lawyer and publicist († 1864 )
- December 6 : Friedrich Karl von Prittwitz , Russian major general († 1849 )
- December 7th : Lodewijk-Jozef Delebecque , Belgian bishop († 1864 )
- December 8 : Thomas T. Whittlesey , American politician († 1868 )
- December 10 : Alexander Pawlowitsch Brjullow , Russian architect and watercolorist († 1877 )
- December 12 : Friedrich August Grotefend , German classical philologist († 1836 )
- December 13 : Otto Philipp Braun , Bolivian Minister of War from Kassel († 1869 )
- December 17 : Julius Converse , American politician († 1885 )
- December 18 : Heinrich Smidt , German writer († 1867 )
- December 20 : Albert Dufour-Féronce , German banker, entrepreneur and railway pioneer († 1861 )
- December 22 : George Walker Crawford , American politician († 1872 )
- December 24th : Adam Mickiewicz , Polish poet († 1855 )
- December 28 : Édouard d'Anglemont , French poet († 1876 )
- December 30 : Godehard Braun , German auxiliary bishop († 1861 )
- December 31 : Friedrich Robert Faehlmann , German-Estonian philologist († 1850 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Carl Amon , Austrian painter († 1843 )
- Bonaventura Carles Aribau i Farriols , Spanish writer, poet and economist († 1862 )
- Ivan Malchasowitsch Andronikow , Georgian prince and Russian general († 1868 )
- Karl Burkart , German administrative lawyer († 1851 )
- Caspar Halbib , Hungarian-German church musician and composer († around 1850)
- Sojourner Truth , American abolitionist and women's rights activist († 1883 )
First half of the year
- January 1 : Irakli II , Georgian King (* 1720 )
- January 4th : Gavin Hamilton , Scottish painter, archaeologist and art dealer (* 1723 )
- January 20 : Christian Cannabich , German violinist, conductor and composer (* 1731 )
- January 22 : Matija Antun Relković , Croatian scout (* 1732 )
- January 26 : Christian Gottlob Neefe , German composer, organist, conductor and musicologist (* 1748 )
- February 12 : Stanislaus II August , last King of Poland (* 1732 )
- February 13 : Christian Friedrich Schwartz , German missionary (* 1726 )
- February 13 : Wilhelm Heinrich Wackenroder , German lawyer and writer (* 1773 )
- February 15 : Johann Baptist Enderle , German painter (* 1725 )
- February 27 : Heinrich Ferdinand Möller , German actor and writer (* 1745 )
- March 5 : Karl Ludwig von Erlach , Swiss general (* 1746 )
- March 21 : Albert Philipp Frick , German lawyer and university professor (* 1733 )
- April 1 : Johann Wilhelm Schmid , German Protestant theologian (* 1744 )
- April 9 : Josef Friedrich Wilhelm , Prince of Hohenzollern-Hechingen (* 1717 )
- April 11 : Karl Wilhelm Ramler , German poet and thinker / philosopher (* 1725 )
- April 22nd : Sebastian Seemiller , German Catholic theologian (* 1752 )
- May 10 : George Vancouver , British Royal Navy officer and explorer (* 1757 )
- May 14 : David Ruhnken , Dutch scholar (* 1723 )
- May 14 : Carl Gottlieb Svarez , Prussian lawyer and judicial reformer (* 1746 )
- May 15 : Thomas Jenkins , British painter, art collector, antique dealer and banker (* 1722 )
- May 16 : Joseph Hilarius Eckhel , numismatist (* 1737 )
- May 25 : Asmus Carstens , German painter (* 1754 )
- May 30th : Nikolaus Wilhelm Schröder , German orientalist and librarian (* 1721 )
- June 4th : Giacomo Casanova , Italian adventurer and writer (* 1725 )
- June 9 : Johann Georg Pforr , German painter (* 1745 )
- June 16 : Ignaz Pfefferkorn , Jesuit, missionary and natural scientist (* 1726 )
- June 24th : Marie Christine , Austrian Archduchess (* 1742 )
Second half of the year
- July 1 : Johann Friedrich Mende , German mechanical engineer (* 1743 )
- July 2 : François-Louis Bourdon , French politician (* 1758 )
- July 6th : Adrien Duport , French politician (* 1759 )
- July 15 : Gaetano Pugnani , Italian violinist and composer (* 1731 )
- July 16 : Christian Gottfried Hahmann , German builder (* 1739 )
- July 19 : Johann Gottfried Malleck , Viennese organ builder (* 1733 )
- July 21 : Charles Joseph de Croix, Count Clerfait , Austrian field marshal (* 1733 )
- July 27 : Ernestine Christine Reiske , German author and private scholar (* 1735 )
- August 1st : François-Paul Brueys d'Aigalliers , commander of the French fleet in the battle of Abukir (* 1753 )
- August 1st : Aristide Aubert Dupetit-Thouars , French admiral and navigator (* 1760 )
- August 11th : Joshua Clayton , American politician (* 1744 )
- August 30 : Matthias Wilhelm von Below , Prussian lieutenant general and governor of the fortress Stettin (* 1722 )
- September 1 : Christian Friedrich Exner , German builder (* 1718 )
- September 5 : Joshua Coit , American politician (* 1758 )
- September 7th Peter Frederik Suhm , Norwegian historian (* 1728 )
- September 15 : Michael Gröll , German printer, publisher and author (* 1722 )
- September: Ulrich Bräker , Swiss writer (* 1735 )
- October 5th : Antoine de Chézy , French hydraulic engineer (* 1718 )
- October 17th : Johann Samuel Göbel , Saxon finance secretary and historian (* 1762 )
- October 25 : Gottlieb Jacob Weizsäcker , German cook and progenitor of the Weizsäcker family (* 1736 )
- October 28 : Esteban José Martínez , Spanish navigator and explorer (* 1742 )
- November 2 : Jean-Joseph d'Apcher , French nobleman (* 1748 )
- November 10 : Allen Jones , American politician (* 1739 )
- November 10 : Gabriel Lenkiewicz , Order General (* 1722 )
- November 14th : Naonobu Ajima , Japanese mathematician (* 1732 )
- November 26th : Friedrich Albrecht Carl Gren , German chemist (* 1760 )
- December 1 : Christian Garve , German philosopher (* 1742 )
- December 4 : Luigi Galvani , doctor, anatomist and biophysicist (* 1737 )
- December 9th : Johann Reinhold Forster , German scientist (* 1729 )
- December 16 : John Henry , American politician (* 1750 )
- December 16 : Thomas Pennant , Welsh scientist, ornithologist and archaeologist (* 1726 )
- December 18 : Michael Johann von Wallis , Austrian Field Marshal and President of the Court War Council (* 1732 )
- December 19 : Charles-Joseph Panckoucke , French writer and publisher (* 1736 )
- December 30th : Christian Gotthelf von Gutschmid , theologian, educator and statesman of the Electorate of Saxony (* 1721 )
- December: Eleazer McComb , American politician (* 1740 )