Maria Christina of Austria (1742–1798)

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Archduchess Marie Christine of Habsburg-Lothringen (around 1766)

Maria Christina (also Marie Christine ) Johanna Josepha Antonia Archduchess of Austria from the House of Habsburg-Lothringen (born May 13, 1742 in Vienna ; †  June 24, 1798 ibid) was the fifth child of Emperor Franz I Stephan and Empress Maria Theresa as well as Archduchess of Austria. She married Prince Albert of Saxony in 1766 and has since been Duchess of Saxony-Teschen and from 1781–1789 and 1791–1792 governor of the Austrian Netherlands . After being expelled from the Netherlands twice (1789 and 1792), Maria Theresa's favorite daughter, who loves art, lived with her husband in Vienna in the last years of her life and died there in 1798 at the age of 56.

Early years

Maria Christina was born on the 25th birthday of her mother Maria Theresa. The next day she was baptized in the Hofburg ; her full baptismal name was Maria Christina Josepha Johanna Antonia . At the Viennese court, however, she was always called either Marie or Mimi in her family . In contrast to her siblings, Maria Theresa rarely reprimanded her, as can be seen from letters that her mother wrote to her. Little is known about her early childhood. A report by the Prussian ambassador in Vienna, Otto Christoph von Podewils , dated March 22, 1747 , described the then five-year-old as pretty and witty.

Archduchess Maria Christina of Austria, painting by Martin van Meytens (1750)

The archduchess, capricious and spirited even in her youth, received a particularly loving upbringing from her parents. The fact that Maria Christina was so clearly preferred by her mother conjured up the jealousy of her siblings, whom she avoided and criticized her outstanding position within the family ever more violently. Maria Christina also got on very badly with her tutor, Princess Maria Charlotte Trautson. But Maria Theresa did not fulfill her wish to change her Aja until 1756, when she got the widowed Countess Maria Anna Vasquez, née Kokosowa, as a new teacher. Your relationship with them was much better. A few years later, the Countess Vasquez even rose to the position of chief stewardess to Maria Christina's court.

As an intelligent, eager to learn and quick to understand girl, Maria Christina enjoyed a conscientious education. The Jesuit Father Lachner taught her in several languages ​​and history. The Archduchess learned u. a. perfect Italian and French, which according to Podewils she was particularly fond of speaking, and good English. She also turned out to be a talented painter very early on. The drawings of the imperial family, some of which are exhibited in Schönbrunn Palace , testify to their great artistic talent. Besides family members, she also portrayed herself. She also copied genre pictures by Dutch and French masters. Her gouache picture Nikolobescherung , made around 1762, should be highlighted , on which her father Franz Stephan is shown reading the newspaper, her mother Maria Theresia preparing the coffee and her three youngest siblings, Ferdinand Karl , Marie Antoinette and Maximilian Franz with their gifts, such as a doll for Marie Antoinette.

Self-portrait of the Archduchess, 1765

As a 17-year-old Maria Christina had a romance with Ludwig Eugen von Württemberg , but as the ducal son of the emperor's daughter, he was not considered a husband and Maria Theresa was also displeased. At the beginning of January 1760, Prince Albert of Saxony - who would later marry Maria Christina - came to the Viennese court with his brother Clemens and was warmly welcomed by the imperial couple. He got to know the beautiful Archduchess at a house concert, in which she participated, and soon developed a great affection for her, as he explains in his memoir. At the end of January 1760 Albert and Clemens left Vienna again.

Over the next few years, Maria Christina enjoyed an intense friendship with Princess Isabella of Parma , who was about the same age and married Maria Christina's older brother, later Emperor Joseph II , in Vienna on October 6, 1760 . Among other things, the two young women often played music together. The beautiful, educated and very sensitive Isabella, who loathed the court ceremony and regarded her outstanding social position as a noblewoman as an unhappy, meaningless fate, was happy and apparently satisfied on the outside despite this inner attitude. While she was very much loved by her husband, she, in turn, was rather reserved towards him. Rather, she felt an affection for Maria Christina - although she responded less intensely - which is expressed in about 200 enthusiastic letters to her sister-in-law, mostly written in French. From Maria Christina only one character study of Isabella remained, in which she portrayed Isabella as amiable, kind and generous, but also did not omit her weaknesses. Maria Christina deeply regretted the early death of her sister-in-law, who tended more and more to melancholy and longing for death, who died at the age of just 22 years on November 27, 1763.

Marriage to Albert von Sachsen

In December 1763, Prince Albert of Saxony went to Vienna to assure the imperial family of his condolences on Isabella's death. He had made the acquaintance of the Crown Princess shortly after her marriage to Joseph (II) and, as he noted in his diary, also registered her close friendship with Maria Christina. He felt strongly drawn to the latter. In 1764 he saw Maria Christina first in spring in Vienna and later in Preßburg , the then capital of Hungary, more often. The affection was mutual. However, due to his position, which was relatively financially weak and politically ineffective by imperial standards, Albert did not believe that he had any prospect of marrying the imperial daughter. But then he was invited to Vienna to study new rules of service for the cavalry, was allowed to take part in hunts and amusements at the imperial court and received from Maria Christina the request to let his feelings for her run free, but not yet to show them publicly .

Maria Christina had a strong influence on her mother, who actually advocated their relationship with Albert, sought however to keep initially secret because Emperor Franz Stephan his daughter rather with the son of his sister Elisabeth Therese , Duke Benedetto Maurizio of Chablais , marry wanted to. Maria Theresa suggested that her daughter, who was impatient for a decision regarding her liaison with Albert, should appear veiled and cautiously wait and see. However, the Archduchess found it difficult to conceal her sympathies for the prince, so that she received new maternal warnings to continue to pursue a tactic of silence.

Archduchess Maria Christina of Austria, Duchess of Teschen

Albert also took part in a trip of the imperial family to Innsbruck in July 1765 to celebrate the wedding of the future Emperor Leopold II to Maria Ludovica of Spain . Since the Duke of Chablais was also present at the wedding, Maria Christina and her prince had to proceed even more carefully. After Leopold's marriage, Franz I Stephan suddenly died of a stroke or heart attack on August 18, 1765 . The death of the emperor caused deep sorrow among his family members, including Maria Christina, whose marriage plans no longer encountered any obstacles, as her mother had long since drawn on her side. In addition to her older sister Maria Anna (who embarked on a spiritual career) she was the only daughter of Maria Theresa who was not married according to political considerations. However, due to the court mourning that usually lasted a good year because of the death of the emperor, respectful restraint was initially called for when realizing the intended marriage.

Wedding preparations began as early as November 1765. Maria Theresia made sure that the young couple was financially well-equipped from then on. In December 1765 she appointed Albert Field Marshal and Governor of Hungary, in which capacity he resided in Pressburg. The castle there was renovated for 1.3 million guilders, with Maria Theresa even taking care of the selection of furniture and tableware. She had the so-called Grünnehaus set up for Maria Christina and Albert near Laxenburg Castle . When the couple came to Vienna later, they were also allowed to live in the rooms of the empress widow in the Hofburg. Maria Christina received from her mother as a rich dowry the Duchy of Teschen ( Austrian Silesia ) - after which Albert became Duke of Saxony-Teschen -, Mannersdorf, Hungarian-Altenburg and other lordships as well as a hundred thousand gold guilders. The couple's court consisted of about 120 people. This important marriage property of Maria Christina aroused the resentment and envy of her siblings.

On January 7th, 1766 Albert, who had been relegated to the Saxon - Polish throne, entered Pressburg and was greeted by a polite welcome from the class and the population. His engagement to Maria Christina took place on April 2, 1766, and the following April 8, the wedding ceremony in the chapel of Schloss Hof , a Marchfeld castle east of Vienna . At this wedding ceremony, at which the Empress widow was also present, Maria Christina wore a white, beaded mousseline dress and Albert a uniform, whereas the other guests were dressed in black due to the constant court mourning. Soon afterwards the newlyweds moved happily into Pressburg. Maria Christina was shunned throughout her life by her sisters, who had been denied love marriages.

In the first few weeks after the wedding, Maria Christina, Albert and Maria Theresia had a lot of correspondence. The Dowager Empress gave her daughter, whom she missed very much, rules of conduct towards her husband. She should submit to this and not decide independently. In addition, they must maintain a decent lifestyle based on Christian values. In the meantime, the duke and ducal couple enjoyed their marital happiness, held a splendid court at Pressburg Palace, held splendid celebrations here and also frequently traveled to Vienna.

Marie Christine of Austria, Duchess of Saxony-Teschen (around 1776)


Maria Christina gave birth to a daughter named Christina in May 1767, but she died one day after the birth. The puerperal fever befell Maria Christina, while Albert mid-June 1767 smallpox was given; but both spouses recovered. Since Maria Christina could not bear any further children due to the difficult delivery, in 1790 she persuaded her brother, Emperor Leopold II , to give her his son, Archduke Karl , for adoption in order to have an heir.

  • Princess Christina of Saxony-Teschen (* May 16, 1767 - May 17, 1767)
  • adopted: Archduke Karl (born September 5, 1771; † April 30, 1847) (nephew of Maria Christina, later known as the Sieger von Aspern ).

Life in Pressburg; Italy trip

Maria Christina soon succeeded in gaining the affection of the Hungarian nobility and people, but often stayed in Vienna with her husband. During Albert's government, Bratislava became a cultural center. Maria Christina shared a passion for drawing with her husband. Already in Pressburg Albert began to set up a very important art collection, which, with the help of his wife, was slowly expanded through the acquisition of drawings and copperplate engravings , which represents the core of today's Albertina .

From December 1775 to July 1776, Maria Christina and her husband were on an extensive trip to Italy to visit their siblings, such as Leopold in Florence , Maria Karolina in Naples , Maria Amalia in Parma and Ferdinand in Milan . The Hungarian governor couple also met with Pope Pius VI. together. However, Maria Christina's poor health and increasing melancholy were already indicated when Albert was active in the military in 1777/78 during the War of the Bavarian Succession .

Governor of the Austrian Netherlands

First years

After the death of Charles of Lorraine on July 4, 1780, Albert and Maria Christina were to succeed him as governor of the Austrian Netherlands (roughly equivalent to today's Belgium and Luxembourg ) according to the will of Maria Theresa . But Maria Theresa died on November 29, 1780 while the new governor couple was preparing for their journey, which ended their quite happy years. Joseph II now assumed sole rule as emperor. He had a bad relationship with his sister and had been jealous of her privileged position and intimate relationship with her mother. In order to get her out of Vienna, he confirmed her and her husband's appointment as Dutch governors, but reduced their income there. On June 3, 1781, Maria Christina and Albert left Vienna, were received by the authorized minister Georg Adam von Starhemberg, who had previously represented them, in Tienen on the following July 9, and the next day made their solemn entry into Brussels , where they now resided.

The emperor did not give his sister the financial means appropriate to her position. Maria Christina complained to her brother Leopold and criticized how she had been treated during the division of Maria Theresa's inheritance. She and her husband could not play an independent political role either, but were limited to a representative position. Even before taking office, Joseph II had toured the Austrian Netherlands for seven weeks in 1781, found the administration and internal conditions to be negative, and decided to implement far-reaching reforms soon. He discussed his plans with the ministers and leading officials, and the governor couple only had to sign the orders that had been made with the imperial approval. Albert and his wife also took part in hunts, received visits, had Laken Castle built as a summer residence not far from Brussels from 1782–1784, and expanded their art collection.

In the Austrian Netherlands, however, there were strong social tensions, most of the property belonged to the members of the top two classes, the nobility enjoyed an overly clear preference in the tax and judicial system, there were great grievances in the administration, the guilds hindered economic development and foreign trade Suffered from the blocking of the Scheldt for the carriage of goods. Joseph II's plans to exchange the Austrian Netherlands for Bavaria or to force the opening of the Scheldt barrier to shipping in 1784/85 failed. In 1783, in place of Starhemberg, the emperor appointed Ludovico Carlo di Belgiojoso as Minister Plenipotentiary. Joseph II, who lacked understanding of the traditional Dutch conditions, decreed drastic church reforms, through which the Catholic Church lost its primacy in November 1781 and various monasteries were abolished in March 1783. He also intended to introduce a centralized administration at the administrative level.

Travels to Vienna and France

On the instructions of Joseph II, Maria Christina and Albert traveled to Vienna in the winter of 1785/86 when it was very cold. The emperor received his guests politely and invited them to parties. Because of her visit, the operas The Drama Director by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Prima la musica e poi le parole by Antonio Salieri, commissioned by Joseph II, were premiered in the Orangery of Schönbrunn Palace on February 7, 1786 . However, the governor couple did not succeed in persuading the emperor to take a more cautious approach to the implementation of his reform plans for the Netherlands and the withdrawal of regulations.

At the end of July 1786, Maria Christina and her husband accepted an invitation from the French monarch Louis XVI. to Paris . In Palace of Versailles she met her sister Marie Antoinette, with whom she had a cool relationship, as the imperial ambassador to France, Florimond Claude von Mercy-Argenteau , stated. Marie Antoinette tried to keep her sister's visits to Versailles as short as possible and did not give her a reception at the Petit Trianon . During their flying visit to France, however, the governor couple visited museums and factories, was present at the court's merrymaking and met among others. a. also the finance minister Jacques Necker and his daughter, the well-known writer Madame de Staël . In the middle of September 1786 the return to Brussels was on the program.

Resistance to reform plans of Joseph II.

In the meantime, the political situation in the emperor's Dutch provinces worsened. When Joseph II ordered an extensive modification of the central government institutions there in early 1787, a reorganization of the division of the country equivalent to the dissolution of the previously existing provinces and a reorganization of the judicial organization, there was great resistance to these reforms, which were carried out too quickly and comprehensively. For example, the Brabant estates refused to pay taxes. Above all, two oppositional groups formed against the innovations ordered by the emperor: On the one hand, the so-called extras , supported by numerous nobles and clergy , who advocated maintaining the traditional conditions, and on the other hand, the Vonckists , named after their leader Jan Frans Vonck , who are for a democratic right to have a say in planned reforms, in that their introduction should be tied to the approval of a state representative to be elected using the census system.

A revolt that took place in Brussels on May 30, 1787, in which numerous people marched to the governor's residence and demanded the removal of Belgiojosos, forced Maria Christina and Albert to withdraw the imperial decrees, for which they were celebrated by the population. But for Joseph II, who condemned the compliance of the governor couple, a revocation of his orders was out of the question. He wanted to suppress possible further uprisings by force and therefore increased the number of regiments in the Netherlands under the command of General and Count Joseph Murray . He also ordered Belgiojoso and his sister and her husband to comment in Vienna. The governors arrived there at the end of July 1787, but they could not change the emperor's opinion. Ferdinand von Trauttmansdorff became the new Minister Plenipotentiary and the ambitious General Richard d'Alton took the place of Murray, who was more willing to compromise.

Maria Christina and Albert went back to the Austrian Netherlands in January 1788, where the potential for conflict was now significantly increased. New unrest was foreseeable. The governor warned her imperial brother in a letter in April 1788 that the apparent calm in the country was only external and that fear and disharmony prevailed, but assured that she had done her best to restore confidence. Trauttmansdorff wanted to push through the Josephine reforms in a somewhat milder style, but was nevertheless faced with strong opposition from the Brabant estates. The advocate Hendrik van der Noot , who headed the party of extras , played a leading role in this resistance . After his escape in August 1788 he tried in vain in Breda to fight against the imperial government in the Austrian Netherlands with the support of the Republic of the Seven United Provinces and the Prussian soldiers there. Nevertheless, the resistance of the Brabant estates became more and more violent.

Displaced twice

The outbreak of the French Revolution in the summer of 1789 also affected the Austrian Netherlands. There an association Pro aris et focis had already formed, which endeavored to set up an army to carry out a survey by military means. So an army of Belgian patriots gathered in Breda. Maria Christina and her husband moved from Laken to Brussels, but did not yet leave the country, as Joseph II requested. On October 24, 1789, however, the Brabant Revolution began . From Breda, the anti-imperial-minded “patriot army” invaded Brabant and over the next few weeks brought this province and Flanders under their control. On November 18, Maria Christina had to flee the country with Albert, albeit reluctantly. The governor couple traveled to Bonn via Luxembourg, Trier and Koblenz . Maria Christina and her husband were allowed to stay there for a long time in Poppelsdorf Palace on the instructions of their youngest brother, Archbishop and Elector Maximilian Franz of Cologne . Van der Noot was able to triumphantly move into Brussels on December 18, 1789.

Maria Christina was bitter about her expulsion, but nevertheless tried to take steps to maintain her brother's rule in the Austrian Netherlands. In particular, on December 12, 1789, she wrote to the Archbishop of Mechelen that the emperor would now display a different behavior towards the rebellious provinces. However, despite many promises made by the prelate, nothing happened. In addition, Maria Christina damaged the publication of her letters to Trauttmansdorff in public opinion.

The former Austrian Netherlands completed its transformation into the independent Republic of the United States of Belgium in January 1790 under the new Prime Minister van der Noot. The seriously ill Emperor Joseph II died on February 20, 1790. His successor was his younger brother Leopold II. Maria Christina had a better relationship with him than with Joseph II and exchanged many letters with him from her estate. In a letter she advised Leopold either to initiate negotiations to regain his rule over Belgium or to bet on the military map. The monarch, shaped by the Enlightenment , was able to curb the excitement in various parts of the Austrian domain through concessions and, after negotiating an armistice in the Turkish War, sent troops to Belgium, which had since been weakened by the split between the two opposition movements of Vonckists and extras . The Austrians conquered Brussels without a fight in early December 1790. Maria Christina and Albert, who after their stay in Bonn had lived first in Frankfurt, then in Vienna and Dresden , returned to Brussels on June 15, 1791 as governors. The population received them in a friendly manner, but they were also suspicious.

Maria Christina's rather democratic understanding of politics before the Brabant Revolution was now more authoritarian. Leopold II, however, relied on a more moderate exercise of power in his regained Dutch provinces in order not to provoke new uprisings, pardoned many Vonckists and also came to an understanding with the extras . Franz Georg Karl von Metternich , the father of Count Klemens Wenzel Lothar von Metternich , who later belonged to the leading European politicians, became the new authorized minister . Maria Christina was very sad when Leopold II passed away on March 1st, 1792.

After that, the governor ruled with her husband in Brussels on behalf of her nephew Franz II , who had succeeded Leopold II as emperor and who also did not affect the privileges of his Dutch provinces. In October 1792, however, French revolutionary armies invaded the Austrian Netherlands. General Charles-François Dumouriez decisively defeated the Austrian troops commanded by Maria Christina's spouses Albert and Charles de Croix on November 6, 1792 at the Battle of Jemappes . As a result, the bitter governor couple were again forced to flee, but were able to take many of their goods, including their art collection, out of the country by sea and transfer them to Hamburg . However, one of the three ships on which the precious cargo was located was destroyed as a result of a hurricane.

Last years and death; Memoria

Maria Christina no longer exercised political influence. After a stay in Münster in the winter of 1792/93, she moved to Dresden, who was seriously ill, with Albert. The duke and ducal couple lived harmoniously, but were less wealthy than before and therefore no longer had such an expensive court. At the beginning of 1794 it learned that from now on it would receive financial support from Emperor Franz II. After moving permanently to Vienna, Maria Christina and her husband lived in the palace of Count Emanuel Silva-Tarouca . In the future, Albert mainly looked after his art collections. After the rise of Napoleon , Maria Christina was deeply shocked by the associated military clashes and great human sacrifices, even though she welcomed the peace of Campo Formio (October 1797) between Napoleon and Francis II.

Cenotaph of Marie Christine of Austria in the Augustinian Church in Vienna

In 1797 Maria Christina, who had become melancholy, was already in very poor health and was suffering from a stomach disease. In July 1797 she went to Teplitz for a spa treatment and achieved a brief improvement in her health, but soon suffered from great pain again. Because of the renovation of the palace on the Augustinian Bastion , Albert and his wife moved into the Palais Kaunitz, which he had rented . After a brief recovery, Maria Christina became sicker and sicker in mid-June 1798, assured her husband of her deep, lifelong love for him in a suicide note and died the following day, June 24th, 1798, of her stomach disease at the age of 56. She is one of the 41 people who received a " separate burial " with the body being divided between all three traditional Viennese burial sites of the Habsburgs ( imperial crypt , heart crypt , ducal crypt ).

Albert, deeply saddened by the death of his wife, had a tomb erected for Maria Christina in the Augustinian Church. In the decorations of this tomb, the work of the eminent classical sculptor Antonio Canova , there is not a single Christian symbol to be recognized, but several motifs used by Freemasons are shown. The flat wall pyramid contains a medallion of Maria Christina and figures made of Carrara marble. It bears the inscription Uxori Optimae Albertus ("The best wife, Albert"). In a book by Van de Vivere published in 1805 about the tomb of Canova, which is also available in a German translation from the same year, it is clear that it is a tomb that arose out of Christian thought, although the influence of the Enlightenment is noticeable. Using the means and interpretation language of allegory , Canova created the symbols and figures that were used in ancient and early Christian thought to mourn or bury the death of a person.

In 1867, Christinengasse in Vienna's Innere Stadt (1st district) was named after Maria Christina; Albertgasse was named after her husband in 1862 in Josefstadt (8th district) . The Krisztinaváros district in Budapest bears her name.


Pedigree of Maria Christina of Austria

Nikolaus Franz von Vaudémont (1609–1670)
⚭ 1634
Claudia of Lorraine (1612–1648)

Ferdinand III. (1608–1657)
⚭ 1651
Eleonora of Mantua (1630–1686)

Louis XIII (1601–1643)
⚭ 1615
Anna of Austria (1601–1666)

Karl I. Ludwig (1617–1680)
⚭ 1650
Charlotte von Hessen-Kassel (1627–1686)

Ferdinand III. (1608–1657)
⚭ 1631
Maria Anna of Spain (1606–1646)

Philipp Wilhelm (1615–1690)
⚭ 1653
Elisabeth Amalia of Hessen-Darmstadt (1635–1709)

Anton Ulrich von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (1633–1714)
⚭ 1656
Elisabeth Juliane von Holstein-Norburg (1634–1704)

Albrecht Ernst I. zu Oettingen (1642–1683)
⚭ 1664
Christine Friederike von Württemberg (1644–1674)

Great grandparents

Duke Karl V. Leopold (1643–1690)
⚭ 1678
Eleanor of Austria (1653–1697)

Philip I of Bourbon (1640–1701)
⚭ 1671
Elisabeth of the Palatinate (1652–1722)

Emperor Leopold I (1640–1705)
⚭ 1676
Eleonore Magdalene von der Pfalz (1655–1720)

Duke Ludwig Rudolf of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (1671–1735)
⚭ 1690
Christine Luise von Oettingen (1671–1747)


Duke Leopold Joseph of Lorraine (1679–1729)
⚭ 1698
Élisabeth Charlotte de Bourbon-Orléans (1676–1744)

Emperor Charles VI. (1685–1740)
⚭ 1708
Elisabeth Christine von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (1691–1750)


Emperor Franz I Stephan (1708–1765)
⚭ 1736
Maria Theresia (1717–1780)

Maria Christina of Austria


Roman-like representations

  • Rebecca Novak: Maria Christina - Diary of a Daughter , August Verlag, Dreesbach 2010, ISBN 3-940061-45-X .

Web links

Commons : Marie Christine von Österreich  - Album with pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Friedrich Weissensteiner : The daughters of Maria Theresa . Bastei-Lübbe, Bergisch Gladbach 1996, ISBN 3-404-64145-0 , pp. 57-78.
  2. Friedrich Weissensteiner: The daughters of Maria Theresa , 1996, ISBN 3-404-64145-0 , pp. 78-88.
  3. ^ Friedrich Weissensteiner: The Daughters of Maria Theresa , 1996, ISBN 3-404-64145-0 , p. 88.
  4. Friedrich Weissensteiner: The daughters of Maria Theresa , 1996, ISBN 3-404-64145-0 , pp. 89-91.
  5. ^ Michael Erbe : Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg . Kohlhammer, Stuttgart, Berlin, Cologne 1993, ISBN 3-17-010976-6 , pp. 172-174; Friedrich Weissensteiner: The daughters of Maria Theresa , 1996, ISBN 3-404-64145-0 , pp. 91-93.
  6. ^ Friedrich Weissensteiner: The daughters of Maria Theresa , 1996, ISBN 3-404-64145-0 , p. 93f.
  7. ^ Michael Erbe: Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg , 1993, ISBN 3-17-010976-6 , pp. 174-176; Friedrich Weissensteiner: The daughters of Maria Theresa , 1996, ISBN 3-404-64145-0 , pp. 95-98.
  8. ^ Michael Erbe: Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg , 1993, ISBN 3-17-010976-6 , pp. 176-179; Friedrich Weissensteiner: The daughters of Maria Theresa , 1996, ISBN 3-404-64145-0 , pp. 98-100.
  9. ^ Friedrich Weissensteiner: The daughters of Maria Theresa , 1996, ISBN 3-404-64145-0 , pp. 100-103.
  10. Oliver Pink : Danube Monarchy: A State of 51 Years . Die Presse (online), June 23, 2017 (print edition: June 24, 2017).