Calendar overview 1725
Treaty of Vienna and the Alliance of Herrenhausen
, two major European alliances are concluded.
Catherine I becomes
Empress of Russia .
|Maria Leszczyńska marries the French King Louis XV.|
|1725 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1173/74 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1717/18 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1130/31 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2268/69 (southern Buddhism); 2267/68 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||73rd (74th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1087/88 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4058/59 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1137/38 (turn of the year 8/9 September)|
|Jewish calendar||5485/86 (September 7/8)|
|Coptic calendar||1441/42 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2035/36 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2036/37 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1781/82 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- February 8 : Emperor Peter the Great dies at the age of 52 without naming a successor. Since his death had already been looming since the beginning of the year, two factions have formed at the imperial court, one of which supports the succession of the emperor's young grandson, Peter Alexejewitsch , while the other supports the accession to the throne of the emperor's widow, Katharina , who was born in Courland Maid and daughter of a Lithuanian farmer who the Tsar married in 1712 . The former group included members of old Russian noble families who were bitter opponents of Prince Alexander Danilowitsch Menshikov . With Peter's help, they want to overthrow the homines novi who rose under Peter the Great and restore the former influence of the boyars . The supporters of a line of succession to the throne of Catherine, who are recruited in particular from the ranks of the homines novi , are led by Alexander Menshikov, as well as the Russian nobleman Pyotr Andreevich Tolstoy and Admiral Fyodor Matveyevich Apraxin . Since Menshikov was in command of the First Guards Regiment and Field Marshal General, this group, which acts decisively and quickly, can rely on both Guards regiments. Catherine, who promises to appoint Peter as her successor, can meet the Archbishop of Novgorod , Theodosius III. Bribery to get Janovsky , who is at the head of the clergy, to their side. Then she secured the imperial treasure and the citadel and won the Holy Synod , the imperial bodyguard and numerous greats for herself. The two regiments of guards march in front of the palace. War Minister General Field Marshal Prince Anikita Ivanovich Repnin does not succeed in preventing Menshikov from carrying out his plans. Catherine I took over the Russian imperial crown on the day her husband died . But the real power lies with General Menshikov.
- To prevent further uprisings in Scotland , the Kingdom of Great Britain will enact the Second Disarming Act . The disarmament of the Scottish clans is implemented very effectively by George Wade .
European alliance systems
- April 30th : In the Treaty of Vienna , Emperor Karl VI. Support to Spain in regaining Gibraltar from Great Britain . In return, the Pragmatic Sanction is recognized and the Ostend Company is granted trading privileges.
- From August: Under Governor Richard O'Cahan , Great Britain strengthens the fortifications on Gibraltar in order to be prepared for an expected Spanish attack .
- September 3 : France , Great Britain and Prussia react to the Treaty of Vienna between Spain and the Habsburg Empire with the Alliance of Herrenhausen .
- December 15 : Dummer's war , which began in New England in 1722 between England and France and the Indian tribes allied with them , ends with an armistice.
- As the increasingly paranoid Mahmud Hotak , Shah of Persia from the Hotak dynasty gets the rumor happened, the sons of the last Safavid Shah Sultan Husayn were planning an uprising, he leaves more in February Safavid assassinate Prince.
- April 22 : Afghan officers free Mahmud's cousin Ashraf Khan from prison and begin a palace revolution. Ashraf becomes the new Shah , Mahmud dies on April 25th . Persia is at this point under military pressure from the Ottoman Empire as well as from Russia .
- When the Fulbe in Mali tried to subdue them and convert them to Islam, the Susu moved to their current settlement area in Guinea.
- September 27 : The first edition of the Hanauer Anzeiger , the third oldest German daily newspaper, appears.
science and technology
- May 31 : Würzburg professor Johannes Bartholomäus Adam Beringer is slipped the first so-called Würzburg Lying Stones.
- The astronomer James Bradley discovered the aberration of light caused by the movement of the earth around the sun.
Johann Sebastian Bach in Leipzig
- January 6th : Dearest Immanuel, Duke of the Pious
- January 7th : I will not leave my Jesus, BWV 124
- April 1st : Easter oratorio
- April 2 : Johann Sebastian Bach writes the church cantata Stay with us for Easter Monday , because evening will come (BWV 6) .
- April 8th . In the evening of the same Sabbath
- May 10 : Johann Sebastian Bach's church cantata On Ascension Day alone is premiered in Leipzig in his second year in office. The text is from Christiana Mariana von Ziegler .
- August 3rd : Torn, shattered, smashed the tomb
- August 19 : Praise the Lord, the mighty King of Honor, BWV 137
- Johann Sebastian Bach and his wife Anna Magdalena put together the second sheet music book for Anna Magdalena Bach .
Music and theater
- February 7 : The world premiere of the musical comedy Bretislaus, or the victorious resistance of Reinhard Keizer takes place at the Theater am Gänsemarkt in Hamburg.
- February 13th : The Dramma per musica Rodelinda by Georg Friedrich Händel is premiered with great success by the Royal Academy of Music at the King's Theater on London's Haymarket. The libretto is by Nicola Francesco Haym, based on a play by Pierre Corneille adapted by Antonio Salvi .
- March 17th : A public concert is held in Paris for the first time. The concert spirituel becomes a permanent institution until 1791.
- May 11 : The pasticcio L'Elpidia, ovvero Li rivali generosi by Leonardo Vinci and Giuseppe Maria Orlandini , arranged by Georg Friedrich Handel , based on a libretto by Apostolo Zeno , is premiered at the King's Theater in London. Senesino , Giuseppe Maria Boschi and Francesca Cuzzoni will sing at the world premiere of the Royal Academy of Music .
- August 28 : The world premiere of the opera Semiramide in Ascalona by Antonio Caldara with the libretto by Apostolo Zeno takes place in Vienna.
- September 27th : The musical comedy Pimpinone or The Unequal Marriage by Georg Philipp Telemann is premiered at the same time as a German adaptation of Handel's Tamerlano at the Theater am Gänsemarkt in Hamburg. The libretto is by Johann Philipp Praetorius based on a model by Pietro Pariati . The work arouses enthusiasm in the audience and becomes Telemann's greatest stage success.
- October 22nd : World premiere of the Singspiel Die Hamburger Schlacht-Zeit, or The Unsuccessful Fraud by Reinhard Keizer at the Theater am Gänsemarkt in Hamburg
- November 4th : The world premiere of the opera Il Venceslao by Antonio Caldara with the libretto by Apostolo Zeno takes place at the Hoftheater in Vienna.
- December 26th : The opera Siface by Nicola Porpora with the libretto by Pietro Metastasio is premiered on the same evening at the Teatro Regio Ducale in Milan and at the Teatro San Giovanni Crisostomo in Venice.
- Benjamin Schmolck publishes the New Year's song Jesus Nahme zum New Years .
- Antonio Vivaldi publishes the violin concertos The Four Seasons as part of his Opus 8 collection under the title Il cimento dell'armonia e dell'inventione ( The risk of harmony and invention ).
- May 21 : The Russian Empress Catherine I donates the Alexander Nevsky Order .
- June 1 : Anna Petrovna , daughter of Peter the Great, marries Duke Karl Friedrich von Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf in Saint Petersburg .
- May 24th : Jonathan Wild , one of England's most famous criminals, is hanged on the gallows in Tyburn . According to Daniel Defoe, the execution draws the largest crowd ever gathered in London.
- September 5 : After a proxy wedding took place in the Cathedral of Strasbourg on August 15 under the direction of Cardinal Armand I. Gaston Maximilien de Rohan-Soubise , with the Duke of Orléans taking over the role of bridegroom, the 15 -year-old French King Louis XV. in Fontainebleau the 22-year-old Polish Princess Maria Leszczyńska .
- Because of a dispute over hunting and fishing rights as well as the serving of beer, the Walchensee monastery is dissolved.
- The Calvinist German Reformed Church is founded by German immigrants near Philadelphia .
- All 200 crew members perished in the sinking of the Dutch East India sailor Akerendam off the Norwegian island of Runde .
First half of the year
- February 4 : Dru Drury , British entomologist († 1804 )
- February 5 : James Otis , American lawyer, politician and independence fighter († 1783 )
- February 12 : Johann Jakob Dusch , German poet and prose writer († 1787 )
- February 15 : Abraham Clark , American politician and founding father of the USA († 1794 )
- February 21 : Johann Jacob Tischbein , German painter († 1791 )
- February 25 : Karl Wilhelm Ramler , German poet and philosopher (the "German Horace") († 1798 )
- March 12 : Nicolás del Campo , Spanish officer, colonial administrator and viceroy of the Río de la Plata († 1803 )
- March 20 : Abdülhamid I , Sultan of the Ottoman Empire († 1789 )
- March 21 : Johann Franz Coing , German theologian and university professor († 1792 )
- March 24 : Samuel Ashe , American politician († 1813 )
- March 25 : Gaetano Besozzi , Italian oboist and composer († 1798 )
- around March 28 : Michael Christoph Emanuel Hagelgans , German painter († 1766 )
- April 2 : Giacomo Casanova , Italian writer and adventurer († 1798 )
- April 3 : Johann Gottfried Reyger , last mayor of the Free City of Danzig († 1793 )
- April 6 : Pasquale Paoli , Corsican revolutionary and resistance fighter († 1807 )
- April 6 : Johann Hermann Schacht , German Reformed theologian († 1805 )
- April 9 : Achatius Ludwig Karl Schmid , German legal scholar and civil servant of Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach († 1784 )
- April 26 : Johann Peter Miller , German Protestant clergyman and university professor († 1789 )
- April 26th : Louise von Plessen , Chief Chamberlain at the Danish Court († 1799 )
- May 2 : Wilhelm Jeremias Müller , German architect († 1801 )
- May 12 : Louis-Philippe I de Bourbon , Duke of Orléans († 1785 )
- May 23 : Robert Bakewell , British farmer and agronomist († 1795 )
- May 25 : Samuel Ward , Governor of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations († 1776 )
- June 1 : Johann Philipp Lorenz Withof , German professor of history, eloquence and morality († 1789 )
- June 15 : Johann Baptist Enderle , German painter († 1798 )
- June 25 : Johann Stephan Pütter , German constitutional law teacher and journalist († 1807 )
- June 29 : Maria Teresa Cybo-Malaspina , Duchess of Massa and Carrara († 1790 )
Second half of the year
- July 1 : Jean-Baptiste-Donatien de Vimeur , Count of Rochambeau, Marshal of France († 1807 )
- July 3 : Joseph Whipple III , British trader and politician, Lieutenant Governor of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations († 1761 )
- Mid-July: Francis Coventry , English writer and cleric († 1754 )
- July 23 : Nicolaus Anton Johann Kirchhof , German businessman, politician and scholar († 1800 )
- July 25 : Bernhard Rode , German painter († 1797 )
- August 29 : Charles Townshend , British nobleman and politician († 1767 )
- September 12 : Guillaume Le Gentil , French astronomer († 1792 )
- September 16 : Nicolas Desmarest , French geologist († 1815 )
- September 16 : Anna Barbara Gignoux , Augsburg calico manufacturer († 1796 )
- September 25 : Nicholas Cugnot , French artillery officer and inventor († 1804 )
- September 28 : Arthur Guinness , Irish brewer († 1803 )
- September 29 : Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive , British general and statesman in India († 1774 )
- October 17 : Adolf Friedrich Harper , German painter († 1806 )
- October 20 : Johann Christoph Stockhausen , German educator and Lutheran theologian († 1784 )
- October 21 : Franz Moritz von Lacy , Austrian general († 1801 )
- November 12th : Johann Friedrich Vulpius , Weimar official archivist and registrar († 1786 )
- November 16 : Christiane Henriette von Pfalz-Zweibrücken , Princess of Waldeck and Pyrmont († 1816 )
- November 18 : Martin Knoller , fresco painter in southern Germany and Austria († 1804 )
- November 22nd : Ignaz Günther , German sculptor († 1775 )
- November 27 : Johanna Charlotte Unzer , German poet and philosopher († 1782 )
- November 29 : Nicolas Guibal , Württemberg court painter of French origin († 1784 )
- December 6th : Theresia Benedicte von Bayern , Bavarian princess from the House of Wittelsbach († 1743 )
- December 7th : Beda Angehrn Johann Konrad , Prince Abbot of St. Gallen († 1796 )
- December 11th : George Mason , American politician and landowner, "Father of the Bill of Rights" († 1792 )
- December 14 : Bernhard Friedrich Hummel , German educator († 1791 )
- December 18 : Johann Salomo Semler , German Protestant theologian († 1791 )
- December 21 : Hans Joachim Bernet , Swiss Mayor († 1809 )
- December 25 : Esteban Salas y Castro , Cuban composer and church musician († 1803 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- François Cornelis van Aerssen van Sommelsdijk , Dutch nobleman († 1793 )
- Charlotte Finch , British royal governess († 1813 )
- Richard Gifford , English clergyman and poet († 1807 )
- Theresa Mengs , German painter († 1806 )
- Jeanne-Catherine Quinault , lover of Denis Diderot († 1812 )
- Tupaia , Polynesian, accompanied James Cook on his first South Sea voyage († 1770 )
- Patience Wright , American sculptor († 1786 )
- Alexander Ypsilantis , Dragoman of Greek descent at the Sublime Porte, voivode of Wallachia and Moldova († 1807 )
January to April
- January 6th : Chikamatsu Monzaemon , Japanese playwright (* 1653 )
- January 9 : Francesco Acquaviva , Italian cardinal (* 1665 )
- January 9 : Johann Caspar Hartung , German builder (* 1622 )
- January 11th : Juan Francisco de Bette , Spanish-Dutch nobleman and military leader (* 1667 )
- January 26 : Johann Christopher Jauch , German theologian and Baroque poet (* 1669 )
- January 26 : Sulchan-Saba Orbeliani , Georgian prince, monk, diplomat and writer (* 1658 )
- January 28th : Louis d'Aubusson, duc de La Feuillade , Marshal of France (* 1673 )
- February 5 : Georg Haase , German builder and bricklayer (* 1665 )
- February 5 : Johannes Sperlette , French philosopher (* 1661 )
- February 5 : Christoph Weigel the Elder , German engraver, art dealer and publisher (* 1654 )
- February 6 : Johann Philipp Krieger , German composer, organist and Kapellmeister (* 1649 )
- February 8 : John Bellers , English Quaker, economist and social reformer (* 1654 )
- February 8 : Peter I , Tsar and Emperor of Russia (* 1672 )
- February 15 : Johann Heinrich Wachenfeld , German porcelain painter, faience and porcelain manufacturer (* 1694 )
- March 2nd : José Benito de Churriguera , Spanish sculptor, carver and builder (* 1665 )
- March 25 : Johann Franz Loew von Erlsfeld , German-Bohemian doctor and lawyer (* 1648 )
- March 29 : Nicolaus Wilckens , Hamburg councilor (* 1649 )
- March 30th : Samuel Steurlin , German physician and scientist (* 1655 )
- April 2nd : Henri Simonis , Walloon cloth manufacturer and founder of the Iwan Simonis billiard cloth factory (* 1640 )
- April 8 : John Wise , North American pastor and writer (* 1652 )
- April 12 : Giovanni Battista Foggini , Italian sculptor and architect (* 1652 )
- April 20 : Sophia Charlotte von Platen-Hallermund , German-British noblewoman (* 1675 )
- April 23 : Friedrich Strunz , German literary scholar and philologist (* 1680 )
- April 25 : António de Albuquerque Coelho de Carvalho , Portuguese colonial administrator in Brazil (* 1655 )
- April 25 : Mir Mahmud Hotaki , Shah of Persia from the Hotaki dynasty (* around 1697 )
- April 27th : Johann Anton I. Knebel von Katzenelnbogen , Prince-Bishop of Eichstätt (* 1646 )
May to August
- May 9th : Johann Hinna , German religious writer and founder of a Rosary and Xaveri Society (* 1655 )
- May 10 : René de Froulay de Tessé , French diplomat and Camaldolese, Marshal of France (* around 1650 )
- May 21 : Martin Heinrich Böhme , Prussian court architect in Berlin (* 1676 )
- May 21 : Jan van Brouchoven , statesman of the Spanish Netherlands and the Kingdom of Spain (* 1644 )
- May 24th : Jonathan Wild , British criminal (* 1683 )
- June 12 : Tommaso Maria Napoli , Sicilian architect, mathematician and Dominican (* 1659 )
- before June 14: Salomon Franck , German lawyer and poet (* 1659 )
- June 27 : Christian Henrich Heineken , Lübeck child prodigy (* 1721 )
- June 29 : Arai Hakuseki , Japanese neo-Confucian scholar, economist and poet (* 1657 )
- June 29 : Juan Manuel Fernández Pacheco , Grande de España, Marqués of Villena and Duke of Escalona, founding director of the Real Academia Española (* 1650 )
- July 1 : Johann Ludwig Andreae , German Protestant pastor, cartographer, globe maker and author (* 1667 )
- July 18 : Franz Xaver Bovius , German Catholic priest and manufacturer of sundials (* 1677 )
- July 19 : Jeronimo de Haze de Georgio , Mayor of Amsterdam (* 1651 )
- July 20 : Edward Jeffreys , British politician (* 1669 )
- July 21 : Johann Philipp von Wurzelbau , Nuremberg astronomer (* 1651 )
- August 2nd : Otto Heinrich Volger , Mayor of Hanover (* 1676 )
- August 7th : Jean II Barraband , French Huguenot, religious refugee in Berlin (* around 1677 )
- August 12 : Pierre de Montesquiou d'Artagnan , French military man and Marshal of France (* 1640 )
- August 15 : Gerhard Noodt , Dutch legal scholar (* 1647 )
- 23 August : Christian August von Sachsen-Zeitz , Cardinal Archbishop von Gran and Imperial Principal Commissioner (* 1666 )
- August 27 : Johann Wilhelm Jahn , German Lutheran theologian and historian (* 1681 )
September to December
- September 2 : Charles-François Poërson , French painter (* 1653 )
- September 5 : Christian Wernicke , German epigrammatist and diplomat (* 1661 )
- September 12 : Martin Chladni , Hungarian Lutheran theologian (* 1669 )
- September 14 : Ortensio Mauro , Italian writer and librettist (* 1634 )
- September 15 : Felix Fossa , German Catholic priest, respondent in the Theatine monastery in Munich and provost of the Theatines in Salzburg (* 1656 )
- September 16 : Antoine V. de Gramont , French officer, general and diplomat (* 1671 )
- September 23 : John Clayton , British clergyman, geographer and naturalist (* 1657 )
- September 28 : Wolf Dietrich von Beichlingen , Grand Chancellor and High Court Marshal of the Elector of Electoral Saxony (* 1665 )
- October 2 : Johann Moller , German teacher, writer and literary historian (* 1661 )
- October 5 : Johann Sinapius , Silesian scholar and historian (* 1657 )
- October 11 : Polykarp Leyser III. , German Protestant theologian, superintendent, court preacher and orientalist (* 1656 )
- October 21 : Johann Stein , German lawyer (* 1661 )
- October 24th : Alessandro Scarlatti , Italian composer (* 1660 )
- November 4th : Johann Georg , Count of Ortenburg (* 1686 )
- November 8th : Marquard Ludwig von Printzen , royal Prussian diplomat, court marshal, head of the administration of spiritual and educational matters (* 1675 )
- November 20 : Wilhelm I , Landgrave of Hesse-Rotenburg (* 1648 )
- November 28 : Nikita Demidow , Russian industrialist (* 1656 )
- Heinrich Christoph Fehling , German court painter in Dresden (* 1654 ) November:
- December 10 : Nicolas Hartsoeker , Dutch biologist, mathematician and physicist (* 1656 )
- December 13 : Ferdinand Fischer , Austrian lute player, composer, music archivist and clergyman (* 1652 )
- December 15 : Georg Daniel von Buttlar , Knight of the Teutonic Order (* 1671 )
- December 26 : Jan František Beckovský , Bohemian-Czech writer, historian, translator and priest of the Order of Malta (* 1658 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Johannes Diodato , Armenian merchant and courier, owner of the first Viennese coffee house (* around 1640 )
- Giovanni Francesco Gemelli Careri , Italian lawyer, adventurer and world traveler (* 1651 )
- Francesco Antonio Giorgioli , Ticino Baroque painter (* 1655 )
- John Gow , Scottish pirate (* around 1698 )
- Stanisław Ledóchowski , Polish statesman, Marshal of the Royal Tribunal, Marshal of the Tarnogród Confederation, Sejm Marshal and Voivode of Volynia (* 1666 )
- Peter Plogojowitz , Serbian farmer and alleged vampire
- Carl Rosier , Flemish composer and violinist (* 1640 )
- Silvio Stampiglia , Italian poet and librettist, imperial court poet (* 1664 )