|After the victorious battle of Jena and Auerstedt, Napoleon Bonaparte enters Berlin at the head of his troops .|
|Franz II abdicates and dissolves the Holy Roman Empire .||Rheinbund is founded.|
|1806 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1254/55 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1798/99 (September 10-11)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1211/12 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2349/50 (southern Buddhism); 2348/49 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||75th (76th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1168/69 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4139/40 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1220/21 (turn of the year 20/21 March)|
|Jewish calendar||5566/67 (September 12-13)|
|Coptic Calendar||1522/23 (10/11 September)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2116/17 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2117/18 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1862/63 (April)|
Politics and world events
A German "epoch year"
The German-language historiography classifies the year 1806 in part as an "epoch year". The reason for this is the end of the Holy Roman Empire : On August 6, 1806, Emperor Franz II announced the laying down of the imperial crown . This turning point is or has been viewed by historians as a possible end date for early modern history . Accordingly, in 2006 - in the 200th anniversary year of the event - numerous publications and exhibitions were devoted to the fall of the empire, for example the exhibition Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation in the Magdeburg Cultural History Museum and the German Historical Museum in Berlin. In southern Germany, the founding of the kingdoms of Württemberg and Bavaria was remembered above all . In 1806 they - as well as Baden, Hessen-Darmstadt, Nassau and Berg - achieved political sovereignty and were able to enlarge their territories into largely closed units. On this basis, the governments of the states mentioned carried out a series of reforms and modernizations. There was also a change in northern Germany: in 1806 the region was first affected by the great territorial changes of the Napoleonic period. As a result of the Battle of Jena and Auerstedt on October 14, 1806, the Prussian state collapsed. The historian Bettina Braun considers this development to be no less relevant turning point than the resignation of the imperial crown by Franz II.
Political turning points
- January 1st: The rulers of Bavaria ( Maximilian Joseph ) and Württemberg ( Friedrich ) become kings .
- July 12 to 16: On the initiative of Napoleon, 16 emissaries of German imperial princes sign the Rhine Confederation Act , thereby founding the Rhine Confederation .
- August 6: Emperor Franz II from the House of Habsburg-Lothringen lays down the imperial crown and declares the Holy Roman Empire to be extinct. As Franz I he remains Emperor of Austria .
- October 9: Friedrich Wilhelm III. declares war on France .
- October 10: The Prussian general Louis Ferdinand Prince of Prussia is killed in the battle of Saalfeld in the fourth coalition war against Napoleon Bonaparte .
- October 14: Napoleon I defeats the Prussian army in the battle of Jena and Auerstedt .
- October 27th: Napoleon and his troops enter the Prussian capital Berlin .
- October 28: Surrender of the Prussian army under Prince zu Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen to Napoleon Bonaparte near Prenzlau
- DECEMBER 11: The Peace of Posen with Napoleon Bonaparte closes Saxony the Confederation of the Rhine on, it comes to area consolidations, will Elector Friedrich August III. the title of king was granted and later the Duchy of Warsaw fell to him.
- December 20: The Saxon Elector Friedrich August III. is proclaimed king and directs the fortunes of the Kingdom of Saxony as Friedrich August I.
- December 26: The Battle of Pultusk in the Fourth Coalition War ends in a draw between French and Russian-Prussian troops.
- August 26: The printer Johann Philipp Palm is executed on Napoleon's orders for a pamphlet directed against Napoleon in Braunau am Inn .
- August 30: Friedrich August von Nassau-Usingen and his cousin Friedrich Wilhelm von Nassau-Weilburg decide, under pressure from Napoleon, to merge their principalities to form the Duchy of Nassau .
- September 6th: The imperial city of Frankfurt am Main is incorporated into the Principality of Aschaffenburg and is now ruled by the Prince Primate of the Rhine Confederation , Karl Theodor von Dalberg .
- September 15: The imperial city of Nuremberg is officially handed over to the newly founded Kingdom of Bavaria by the French commissioner Joseph-Mathieu Fririon .
- October 16: The city of Erfurt , which belongs to Prussia, surrenders to the French after the battle of Jena and Auerstedt and is ruled by them until 1814.
- November 6th: The Battle of Lübeck ends Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher's retreat .
- November 7th: Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher surrenders after the Battle of Lübeck in the fourth coalition war with his Prussian units in Ratekau to the French under Marshal Bernadotte . The Lübeck French era begins.
- November 19: Hamburg is occupied by Napoleonic troops. The French era in Hamburg begins .
- The Principality of Erfurt , which is directly subordinate to the Emperor of the French, is formed from Erfurt and the surrounding areas including the County of Blankenhain .
- February 11: William Wyndham Grenville, 1st Baron Grenville , is appointed Prime Minister of the United Kingdom to succeed William Pitt , who died on January 23 . Since the country is at war, he tries to find the broadest possible coalition, which also includes the opposition under Charles James Fox , the so-called " government of all talents ".
- February 15: In the Paris Agreement negotiated between Napoleon Bonaparte and Christian von Haugwitz , Prussia undertakes to close all of its ports to British ships and to occupy the Electorate of Hanover . Great Britain then declares war on Prussia.
- February 27th: Prussia proclaims the occupation of the Electorate of Hanover , which was in personal union with Great Britain.
- November 21: Napoleon issues the Berlin decree , thereby establishing a continental blockade against Great Britain.
- June 2: Another Russo-Turkish war begins
- November 28: The Russian Emperor Alexander I joins the war against Napoleon. On the same day during the occupy fourth coalition war French units to the Prussian part of Warsaw .
- December 24th: The previous Russian occupation of the Danube principalities of Moldova and Wallachia triggers the declaration of war by the Ottoman Empire on the Tsar.
- December 30th: After the Ottoman Empire declares war, the Russians occupy Baku .
- The Wielkopolska Uprising begins.
- In the French-dominated Kingdom of Italy founded in 1805, French law, in particular the Civil Code, is introduced.
- March 30th: Joseph Bonaparte is appointed King of Naples by his brother Napoleon .
- June 5th: Louis Bonaparte becomes King of the Kingdom of Holland, newly founded on May 24th by treaty between France and the Batavian Republic .
- January 8th: The Cape Colony becomes a British Colony. Great Britain wants to secure its sea route to India with it.
- January 19: The British occupy the Cape of Good Hope in the Cape Colony . Eleven days earlier, to secure their sea route to India, they recaptured the area that they had given back to the Batavian Republic in 1803 .
- March 23: The participants of the Lewis and Clark Expedition , the first research trip from eastern North America to the Pacific coast , begin their return journey.
- May 30: In a duel , the future US President Andrew Jackson kills the regionally known duel shooter Charles Dickinson, who slandered Jackson's wife . Dickinson's ball, which is close to the heart, remains in Jackson's body for life.
- June 25th: A British invasion of the Río de la Plata begins with the capture of the city of Quilmes by troops commanded by General William Carr Beresford . Two days later they take Buenos Aires.
- July 15th: United States: The Pike Expedition begins.
- August 12: In Buenos Aires the soldiers under the command William Carr Beresford who were in the country due to a British invasion surrender to the Spanish forces of the later viceroy Santiago de Liniers .
Other events around the world
- August 18: Whaler and Captain Abraham Bristow discovers the Auckland Islands group .
- Mutiny in Velur
- March 22nd: The brothers Friedrich Philipp Stumm , Christian Philipp Stumm and Johann Ferdinand Stumm founded the Stumm Brothers company in Saarbrücken with the purchase of three ironworks in the Saar department , the Neunkircher Hütte , the Fischbacher Schmelze and the Halberger Werk .
- June 1: In Prussia , paper money , so-called "safe notes", is issued.
- October 9: In Switzerland , after several years of construction, the new road over the Simplon Pass is opened in Brig . The impetus was provided by Napoleon Bonaparte , who wanted better Alpine crossings for his troops.
science and technology
- March 23: After wintering at the mouth of the Columbia River , the American Lewis and Clark Expedition set off on the way home to St. Louis .
- October 7th: The Englishman Ralph Wedgwood receives a patent for a device for doubling documents , with which an ink-soaked paper in connection with a metal pen was meant. He starts production a few years later.
- December 21: Alexander von Humboldt reports for the first time about a magnetic storm .
- The American publicist, translator and writer Noah Webster publishes the dictionary A Compendious Dictionary of the English Language . It is to this work that most of the differences between American and British English can be traced back to.
- Clemens Brentano and Achim von Arnim publish the first volume of the folk song collection Des Knaben Wunderhorn . The work contains love , soldier , hiking and children's songs from the Middle Ages to the 18th century .
- Johann Wolfgang von Goethe completes his most famous work, Faust. A tragedy.
Music and theater
- January 15: The second version of the tragedy Stella by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe has its world premiere in Weimar.
- February 25th: The opera Faniska by Luigi Cherubini has its world premiere at the Theater am Kärntnertor in Vienna and is enthusiastically celebrated.
- October 4th: The world premiere of the comic opera Philoclès by Victor Dourlen takes place at the Opéra-Comique in Paris.
- Autumn: Ludwig van Beethoven completes the work on his 4th symphony .
- December 23: Ludwig van Beethoven premieres his only violin concerto at one of his concerts in the Theater an der Wien near Vienna .
- December 26th: The opera Adelasia ed Aleramo by Johann Simon Mayr based on the libretto by Luigi Romanelli is premiered at La Scala in Milan during the carnival season . Among others, Giacomo David , Teresa Belloc-Giorgi and Impératrice Sessi are on stage.
- February 26: Emperor Napoléon I orders the construction of a triumphal arch in Paris . The Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel is inspired by the Arch of Constantine in Rome .
- August 15: The foundation stone for the Paris Arc de Triomphe is laid.
- November 30th: Corps Bavaria founded in Munich
- August 11th: King Friedrich Wilhelm III. orders the establishment of the first Prussian school for the blind as the “Prussian-Royal Educational Institution”.
- October 19: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Christiane Vulpius are married in the sacristy of the Weimar Jakobskirche .
- The Englishwoman Anne Lister begins - initially only on individual scraps of paper - with the writing of her diaries.
- July 30th: With royal approval, the first Protestant parish in the Bavarian capital may be established in Catholic Munich .
- September 2: In the landslide of Goldau , in which on the southern flank of the Rossberg in the canton of Schwyz, almost 40 million m³ of Nagelfluh rock from the Gnipenspitze set in motion on a slideway sloping approx fall, 457 people are killed, over 100 houses, 220 stables and barns as well as two churches and two chapels were destroyed. The villages of Goldau and Röthen have disappeared, and the Lauerzersee is shrinking by a seventh of its area. Eyewitnesses report that the landslide triggered a 20 meter high tidal wave. Along with the Basel earthquake in 1356, this is the worst natural disaster in the history of Switzerland .
- Karl von Weber , German historian († 1879) January 1:
- Lionel Kieseritzky , French-Polish chess master († 1853) January 1st:
- Henriette Sontag , German opera singer († 1854) January 3:
- Augustus Bradford , American politician († 1881) January 9:
- January 13: Michel Chevalier , French economist and free trader († 1879)
- January 14: John Bragg , American politician († 1878)
- January 14: Matthew Fontaine Maury , American naval officer and hydrograph († 1873)
- January 16: Bernhard von Neher , German painter († 1886)
- January 18: Dorothea Pfeiffer , German painter († 1864)
- January 19: Wenzel Heinrich Veit , Czech composer († 1864)
- January 22nd: Antonio Caccia the Elder , Swiss writer in the Italian language († 1875)
- January 27: Juan Crisóstomo de Arriaga , Spanish violinist and composer († 1826)
- January 28: William Aiken Jr. , American politician († 1887)
- Ignaz Pallme , Austrian traveling salesman and Africa explorer († 1877) February 1:
- Theodor Avé-Lallemant , German music critic and music writer († 1890) February 2:
- Ansel Briggs , American politician († 1881) February 3:
- Friedrich August Bouterwek , German history painter († 1867) February 9:
- February 10: Orville Hickman Browning , American politician († 1881)
- February 15: Franz Xaver Haimerl , Austrian lawyer and university professor († 1867)
- February 18: Georg Achleitner , Austrian lawyer and politician († 1883)
- February 18: Eduard Heis , German mathematician and astronomer († 1877)
- February 20: Johannes von Kuhn , German theologian († 1887)
- February 21: Johann Georg Hiltensperger , German building contractor († 1890)
- February 23: Manfredo Fanti , Italian general († 1865)
- February 25: Friedrich Welwitsch , Austrian African explorer and botanist († 1872)
- February 26: Masanori Abe , Japanese nobleman († 1823)
- February 28: Gustav Eduard Benseler , German classical philologist and lexicographer († 1868)
- Emil Adolf Roßäßler , German naturalist and folk writer († 1867) March 3:
- Karl Theodor Albert Liebner , German Lutheran theologian, philologist and historian († 1871) March 3:
- Elizabeth Barrett Browning , English poet († 1861) March 6:
- Wilhelm Lindenschmit the Elder , German (history) painter († 1848) March 9:
- March 10: Eduard Friedrich Weber , German physiologist and doctor († 1871)
- March 11th: Louis Boulanger , French painter († 1867)
- March 20: Désiré Nisard , French literary historian († 1888)
- March 21: Johannes Carl , German Protestant theologian, consistorial councilor and poet († 1887)
- March 21: Benito Juárez , Mexican President († 1872)
- March 23: Hermann Ulrici , German philosopher († 1884)
- March 28: Karl Friedrich Nägelsbach , German classical philologist († 1859)
- March 28: Hans Victor von Unruh , Prussian politician and councilor († 1886)
- Friedrich Halm , Austrian poet and playwright († 1871) April 2:
- Gabriel Riesser , German lawyer and politician († 1863) April 2:
- Giacomo Antonelli , Roman Catholic Cardinal and State Secretary († 1876) April 2:
- Claiborne Fox Jackson , American politician († 1862) April 4:
- Friedrich Ritschl , German linguist († 1876) April 6:
- Johann Maximilian von und zu Arco auf Valley , German landowner and politician († 1875) April 8:
- Isambard Kingdom Brunel , British engineer († 1859) April 9:
- April 10: Leonidas Polk , Confederate General and Anglican Bishop († 1864)
- April 11: Alexander Graf von Auersperg , Austrian poet and politician († 1876)
- April 11: Friedrich Constantin von Beust , German geologist and lawyer († 1891)
- April 11: Pierre Guilleaume Fréderic Le Play , French engineer, economist, sociologist and social reformer († 1882)
- April 11: Joseph A. Woodward , American politician († 1885)
- April 15: Émile Souvestre , French novelist and stage poet († 1854)
- April 22: Moody Currier , American politician († 1898)
- April 23: Conrad Abée , Hessian politician and minister († 1873)
- April 23: Wilhelm Wackernagel , German writer and Germanist († 1869)
- April 25: Robert von Prittwitz and Gaffron , Prussian district president in Silesia († 1889)
- April 25: Wilhelm , Duke of Brunswick († 1884)
- April 28: Rudolf Christian Böttger , German chemist and physicist († 1881)
- April 29: Ernst von Feuchtersleben , Austrian popular philosopher († 1849)
- Charles Gleyre , Swiss painter († 1874) May 2:
- Felipe Santiago de Salaverry , Peruvian General and President of Peru († 1836) May 3:
- William Fothergill Cooke , English inventor († 1879) May 4:
- Georg von Stockau , Austrian politician and landowner († 1865) May 6:
- António José de Ávila , Portuguese politician († 1881) May 8:
- Johann Friedrich Kittl , Czech composer († 1868) May 8:
- May 12: Georg Adolf Erman , German physicist († 1877)
- May 15: Christopher Robinson , American politician († 1889)
- May 20: John Stuart Mill , English philosopher and economist († 1873)
- May 26: Louis-Marie-Joseph-Eusèbe Caverot , French cardinal and Archbishop of Lyon († 1887)
- May 26: Vinzenz Jakob von Zuccalmaglio , German writer and poet († 1876)
- May 29: Karl Bötticher , German architect, art historian and archaeologist († 1889)
- Samuel Arnold , American politician († 1869) June 1:
- Théodore Maunoir , co-founder of the International Committee of the Red Cross († 1869) June 1:
- Rudolf Anger , German theologian and philosopher († 1866) June 2:
- Domenico Consolini , Italian Curia Cardinal († 1884) June 7th:
- Ernst von Bibra , natural scientist and writer († 1878) June 9:
- Ludwig III. , Grand Duke of Hesse-Darmstadt († 1877) June 9:
- June 11: Julius Köbner , co-founder of the German Baptist congregations († 1884)
- June 12: John Augustus Roebling , German-American engineer († 1869)
- June 13: Bernard ter Haar , Dutch Reformed theologian, church historian and poet († 1880)
- June 18: Abijah Gilbert , American politician († 1881)
- June 22nd: Magnús Eiríksson , Icelandic theologian and religious writer († 1881)
- June 22nd: Émile de Girardin , French publisher († 1881)
- June 24: John Cummins Edwards , American politician († 1888)
- June 24: Julius von Leypold , German landscape painter († 1874)
- June 27: Augustus De Morgan , English mathematician († 1871)
- June 27: Carl August Dohrn , German entomologist († 1892)
- Charles J. Faulkner , American politician († 1884) July 6:
- Michele Amari , Italian historian and orientalist († 1889) July 7th:
- July 14: Benning W. Jenness , American politician († 1879)
- July 18: Erwin Speckter , German painter († 1835)
- July 19: Alexander Dallas Bache , American physicist († 1867)
- July 19: Lorenz Diefenbach , German national writer and linguist († 1883)
- July 22nd: Johann Kaspar Zeuss , German philologist († 1856)
- July 23: Charles Stoddart , British diplomat († 1842)
- July 28: Alexander Ivanov , Russian landscape painter († 1858)
- July 28: Fridolin Josef Landolt , Swiss lawyer († 1880)
- Alexander von Soiron , member of the Frankfurt National Assembly († 1855) August 2:
- August 10: Arunah Shepherdson Abell , American publisher († 1888)
- August 10: Carl Franz Wilhelm Edel , German lawyer and politician († 1890)
- August 10: Paul-Eugène Lequeux , French architect († 1873)
- August 10: Julius Weisbach , German mathematician and engineer († 1871)
- August 11: Willem Hendrik de Vriese , Dutch medic and botanist († 1862)
- August 17: Johann Kaspar Mertz , Slovak composer and guitarist († 1856)
- August 17: Karl von Schrenck von Notzing , Bavarian politician († 1884)
- August 20: Leopold Bornitz , German doctor and writer († 1853)
- August 21: Johannes Frederik Fröhlich , Danish composer († 1860)
- August 22: Thomas B. Butler , American politician († 1873)
- Louis Juchault de Lamoricière , French general and statesman († 1865) September 5:
- Christian August Friedrich Peters , German astronomer († 1880) September 7:
- September 13: Carl Anton Christian Agthe , German theologian and educator († 1876)
- September 16: Fyodor Fyodorowitsch Andresen , Russian painter († 1880)
- September 17: Guillaume-Benjamin Duchenne , French physiologist († 1875)
- September 18: Heinrich Laube , German writer and playwright († 1884)
- September 19: Fabre Geffrard , Haitian politician († 1879)
- September 27: Eberhard Anheuser , German entrepreneur and brewery owner († 1880)
- September 28: Francisco Malespín , President of El Salvador († 1846)
- September 29: Friedrich Feuerbach , philologist and philosopher († 1880)
- Oliver Cowdery , co-founder of the Mormon movement († 1850) October 3:
- Anton von Stabel , statesman and lawyer from Baden († 1880) October 9:
- October 13: Otto Unverdorben , businessman and pharmacist († 1873)
- October 14: Alexander Carl Friedrich von Arentschildt , Hanoverian and Prussian lieutenant general († 1881)
- October 14: Preston King , American politician († 1865)
- October 16: William P. Fessenden , American politician († 1869)
- October 24: Friedrich Ludwig Niemann , industrialist in Essen-Horst († 1889)
- October 25: Max Stirner , German philosopher and journalist († 1856)
- October 30: Edward Junius Black , American politician († 1846)
- Herman Merivale , English civil servant and author († 1874) November 8:
- Emil Pfeifer was a German entrepreneur in the sugar and motor industry († 1889) November 8th:
- November 20: Jean Hippolyte Michon , French writer and founder of modern graphology († 1881)
- November 21: Adolf Harleß , German Protestant theologian († 1879)
- November 22: Lafayette S. Foster , American politician († 1880)
- November 23: Philipp Hoffmann , German architect and master builder († 1889)
- November 23: Francis Ormand Jonathan Smith , American politician († 1876)
- November 24th: William Webb Ellis , English clergyman, alleged inventor of rugby († 1872)
- November 24th: Omar Pascha , Turkish general and renegade († 1871)
- Portus Baxter , American politician († 1868) December 4:
- Wilhelm Meyer , Swiss officer and stage and architectural painter († 1848) December 4:
- Gilbert Duprez , French opera tenor and composer († 1896) December 6:
- December 11th: Hermann von Abich , German mineralogist, geologist and explorer († 1886)
- December 11: Heinrich Aemilius August Danz , German legal scholar († 1881)
- December 12: François Blanc , French mathematician and financier († 1877)
- December 12: Stand Watie , member of the Cherokee and general of the Confederate Army in the Civil War († 1871)
- December 14: Ernst Casimir II of Ysenburg and Büdingen , Prince of Ysenburg and Büdingen († 1861)
- December 16: Pierre Lachambeaudie , French fabulous poet († 1872)
- December 17: Johann Christian Friedrich Tuch , German orientalist († 1867)
- December 18: Thomas Davis , American politician († 1895)
- December 20: Joseph W. Chalmers , American politician and lawyer († 1853)
- December 23: Marie von Augustin , Austrian painter and writer († 1886)
- December 25th: Auguste Anicet-Bourgeois , French theater poet († 1871)
- December 26: Karl Ernst Georges , German classical philologist, teacher and lexicographer († 1895)
- December 27: Ramón Cabrera y Griño , military leader of the Spanish Carlist († 1877)
- December 27: Ferdinand Gustav Kühne , German writer and literary critic († 1888)
Exact date of birth unknown
- Alcée Louis la Branche , American politician († 1861)
January to March
- Johann Heinrich Riesener , cabinet maker and furniture artist of German descent (* 1734) January 6th:
- January 12: Manuel Abad y Lasierra , Spanish bishop (* 1729)
- January 16: Nicolas Leblanc , French doctor and chemist (* 1742)
- January 21: Henry Ellis , British researcher, author and colonial governor of the Province of Georgia (* 1721)
- January 23: William Pitt the Younger , Prime Minister of Great Britain (* 1759)
- January 26: Richard Law , American lawyer and politician (* 1733)
- January 26th: Jean-Joseph Mounier , French politician (* 1758)
- January 26: Johann Christoph Friedrich Schulz , German Protestant theologian (* 1774)
- January 30th: Ernst Ludwig Wilhelm von Dacheröden , German civil servant (* 1764)
- Daniel Rogers , American politician (* 1754) February 2:
- Nicolas Edme Restif de la Bretonne , French writer (* 1734) February 3:
- Abiel Foster , American politician (* 1735) February 6:
- February 11: Vincente Martín y Soler , Spanish composer (* 1750/54)
- February 12: Andreas Stütz , Austrian geologist and mineralogist (* 1747)
- February 13: Sámuel Ambrózy , Hungarian theologian (* 1748)
- February 18: Brigida Banti , Italian opera singer (* 1755)
- February 19: Elizabeth Carter , English poet, classical scholar, author and translator (* 1717)
- February 24: Carl Friedrich Hagemann , Austrian sculptor (* 1772)
- February 24th: Collin d'Harleville , French playwright (* 1755)
- February 25: Heinrich Christian Boie , German writer and editor (* 1744)
- February 26th: Thomas Alexandre Dumas , French general, father of Alexandre Dumas the Elder and grandfather of Alexandre Dumas the Younger (* 1762)
- March 10: François Denis Tronchet , French lawyer (* 1726)
- March 13: James McLene , American politician (* 1730)
- March 16: Johann Clemens Tode , German-Danish physician, university professor and writer (* 1736)
- March 19: James Jackson , American politician (* 1757)
- March 23: George Frederick Pinto , English composer (* 1785)
- March 30th: Georgiana Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire , English noblewoman (* 1757)
April to June
- Werner Marx , Vicar General in Cologne (* 1746) April 2:
- Karl Heinrich Seibt , German educator and Catholic theologian (* 1735) April 2:
- Carlo Gozzi , Italian author and playwright (* 1720) April 4:
- Franz Anton von Blanc , Austrian civil servant (* 1734) April 6:
- Robert Barker , Irish painter (* 1739) April 8:
- Wilhelm V , governor of the Netherlands (* 1748) April 9:
- Johann Ernst Schulz , German Protestant theologian (* 1742) April 9:
- April 10: Horatio Gates , American general in the War of Independence (* 1727)
- April 26: Wenzel Bernard Ambrozy , Bohemian history painter (* 1723)
- April 27th: Amalie von Gallitzin , co-founder of "romantic" Catholicism (* 1748)
- April 30th: Onogawa Kisaburo , sumo wrestler and fifth yokozuna (* 1758)
- Heinrich Wilhelm von Huth , Danish general of the artillery (* 1717/1712?) May 7th:
- Robert Morris , British-American entrepreneur and one of the founding fathers of the USA (* 1734) May 8:
- Eiler Christopher von Ahlefeldt , German-Danish bailiff (* 1736) May 9:
- May 15: James Watson , American politician (* 1750)
- May 31: Urban Bruun Aaskow , Danish medic (* 1742)
- May 31: George Macartney , British statesman, colonial administrator and diplomat (* 1737)
- May 31: Michael von Melas , Austrian general (* 1729)
- May: John Jordan Crittenden Sen. , American officer and politician (* 1754)
- Gabriel François Doyen , French painter (* 1726) June 5:
- Johann La Roche , Austrian actor (* 1745) June 8:
- George Wythe , signatory of the US Declaration of Independence (* 1726) June 8:
- June 21: Johann Ignaz Schiffermüller , Austrian author and zoologist (* 1727)
- June 21: Xaver , Saxon and Polish prince (* 1730)
- June 23: Mathurin-Jacques Brisson , French zoologist and natural philosopher (* 1723)
- June 23: Adolf Friedrich Harper , German painter (* 1725)
July to September
- Karl Ernst von Dobschütz , Silesian landowner, counterfeiter, state criminal (* 1753) July 4th:
- Isaak Daniel Itzig , royal Prussian court factor and banker (* 1750) July 7th:
- July 11th: James Smith , signatory of the US Declaration of Independence (* around 1719)
- July 25: Justus Arnemann , German medical professor and surgeon (* 1763)
- July 25: Friedrich Gustav Arvelius , Estonian-Baltic German writer and enlightener (* 1753)
- July 26: Karoline von Günderrode , German writer (* 1780)
- Johann Heinrich Vincent Nölting , German theologian and philosopher (* 1736) August 2:
- Michel Adanson , French botanist (* 1727) August 3:
- Johann Gottfried Hagemeister , German actor, poet, publicist and teacher (* 1762) August 4th:
- August 10: Michael Haydn , Austrian composer (* 1737)
- August 18: Johann August Arens , German architect, landscape designer and painter (* 1757)
- August 20: Karl Ludwig , Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym and Dutch general (* 1723)
- August 22: Jean-Honoré Fragonard , French painter (* 1732)
- August 23: Charles Augustin de Coulomb , French physicist (* 1736)
- August 26th: Johann Philipp Palm , Nuremberg book dealer (* 1766)
- Johann Wilhelm Christian Brühl , German physician and university professor (* 1757) September 6th:
- William Paterson , American statesman, Supreme Court Justice (* 1745) September 9:
- September 10th: Johann Christoph Adelung , German librarian and linguist (* 1732)
- September 10: Johann Anton Leisewitz , German author, lawyer and writer (* 1752)
- September 13: Charles James Fox , British statesman and orator (born 1749)
- September 19: Franz Samuel Karpe , Slovenian-Austrian philosopher and university lecturer (* 1747)
- September 27th: Wolfgang Heribert von Dalberg , director of the National Theater in Mannheim (* 1750)
- September 28: August of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg , Prince of the Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg line (* 1747)
October to December
- Friedrich August Brand , Austrian painter and engraver (* 1735) October 9:
- October 10: Louis Ferdinand of Prussia , son of Prince Ferdinand of Prussia (* 1772)
- October 10: Theresa Concordia Maron , German painter (* 1725)
- October 17: Jean-Jacques Dessalines , as Jacques I, Emperor of Haiti (* 1758)
- October 18: Friedrich Wilhelm Carl von Schmettau , German cartographer (* 1743)
- October 25: Henry Knox , first US Secretary of War (* 1750)
- October 26: John Graves Simcoe , Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada (* 1752)
- October 27: Helwig Bernhard Jaup , German lawyer and university professor (* 1750)
- October 28: Charlotte Turner Smith , English poet, writer and translator (* 1749)
- October 30: Friedrich Gabriel Resewitz , German abbot, educator and educational politician (* 1729)
- October 31: Sophie Mereau , German writer of the German Romantic era (* 1770)
- Johann Gottfried Kletschke , German Protestant clergyman (* 1748) November 1:
- Ludwig Zöschinger , German clergyman, composer and organist (* 1731) November 1:
- Franz Novotny , Romanian-German church musician and composer (* 1748) November 5:
- November 10: Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand , Prussian Field Marshal (* 1735)
- November 11th: Fra Diavolo , actually Michele Pezza , southern Italian mugger and resistance fighter against French domination (* 1771)
- November 11th: Joseph Gottlieb Kölreuter , German botanist and professor (* 1733)
- November 18: Claude-Nicolas Ledoux , French architect (* 1736)
- Johann August Urlsperger , German theologian and preacher (Pietist) (* 1728) December 1:
- Franz , Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (* 1750) December 9th:
- December 14th: John Breckinridge , American politician (* 1760)
- December 29th: Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond , British field marshal and politician (* 1735)
Exact date of death unknown
- Martin Lampe , long-time servant of Immanuel Kant (* 1734)
- Sakurada Jisuke I. , Japanese Kabukia author (* 1734)
- Mungo Park , British traveler to Africa (* 1771)
- Kitagawa Utamaro , Japanese woodblock print artist (* 1753)
- Burgdorf, Wolfgang : A world view loses its world. The fall of the old empire and the generation 1806, Munich 2006.
- Fesser, Gerd: 1806. The double battle near Jena and Auerstedt, Jena / Quedlinburg 2006.
- Hartmann, Peter C .; Schuller, Florian (ed.): The Holy Roman Empire and its end in 1806. Caesura in German and European history, Regensburg 2006.
- Kraus, Hans-Christof: The end of old Germany. Crisis and dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, Berlin 2006.
- Mazohl-Wallnig, Brigitte, Turn of the Times 1806: The Holy Roman Empire and the Birth of Modern Europe, Vienna 2006.
- Schmettger, Matthias / Rolle, Christine (eds.): Epoch year 1806? The end of the Old Kingdom in contemporary perspectives and interpretations , Zabern, Mainz 2008.
- Taddey, Gerhard (Ed.): 1806 - Sovereignty for Baden and Württemberg, Stuttgart 2007.
- Katharina Weigand: Review by: Christine Roll / Matthias Schnettger (eds.): Epoch year 1806? The end of the Old Kingdom in contemporary perspectives and interpretations , Mainz: Philipp von Zabern 2008, in: sehepunkte 9 (2009), No. 9 of September 15, 2009.
- Conference report: Historikertag 2006: Epoch year 1806? The end of the Old Kingdom in contemporary perspectives and interpretations , September 19, 2006 to September 22, 2006 Konstanz, in: H-Soz-Kult, October 18, 2006.
- Walter Demel: Reich, reforms and social change 1763-1806 , Stuttgart 2005 (Gebhardt. Handbuch der deutschen Geschichte, Vol. 12), p. 77.
- Bettina Braun: The empire did not remain silent and cold. The fall of the Old Kingdom from the perspective of contemporaries , in: Christine Roll, Matthias Schnettger (ed.): Epoch year 1806? The end of the Old Kingdom in contemporary perspectives and interpretations , Mainz 2008, pp. 7–30, here p. 29.