Friedrich Ludwig (Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen-Öhringen)
The son of Heinrich August Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen and Wilhelmine Eleonora Countess of Hohenlohe-Öhringen (* February 20, 1717; † July 30, 1794) came into the possession of the Slawentzitz rule in Upper Silesia in 1782 through his marriage to Amalie Countess von Hoym . Between 1796 and 1806 he was Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen, from 1805–1806 Prince of Hohenlohe-Öhringen. In 1804 he acquired the Landsberg and Koschentin lords .
In the Seven Years' War he fought in the ranks of the Imperial Army against Prussia. On 31 October 1766, the Prince entered as Major in the Prussian army , and came a year later as a company commander for Infantry Regiment "Tauentzien" . In November 1778 he became a colonel in command of the regiment and took part in the potato war. On March 1, 1786, the king appointed Friedrich Ludwig chief of the "Alt-Rothkirch" infantry regiment and at the same time promoted him to major general . In September 1790 he was made Knight of the Black Eagle Order.
During the First Coalition War , Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen commanded a detachment of coalition troops in the Second Battle of Weissenburg and two years later a troop contingent, which moved to its headquarters in Frankfurt am Main on March 28, 1795 , around the demarcation line between the French and the French, which was agreed in the Peace of Basel Prussian troops to monitor. Due to the presence of Prussian troops, the Free Imperial City of Frankfurt was spared from being reoccupied by the French army after 1792, while the war between France and Austria continued. The situation came to a head in September 1795 when French and imperial troops gathered in front of the city. With the support of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen, the Senate rejected French and Austrian demands to open the city. After the victory of the Austrians under Field Marshal Karl von Clerfayt over the French under Marshal Jourdan in the Battle of Höchst on October 10, 1795, the danger for the city was averted for the time being.
The Senate wanted to reward Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen for his services to the city with a gift of money. When he refused, the Senate made him the first honorary citizen of Frankfurt on November 10, 1795 . On November 11th he left the city to take up a command in Wroclaw . From August 1804 he was governor of Ansbach and Bayreuth as well as inspector general of the newly established troops in Thuringia. The Russian Emperor Alexander I awarded him the Order of St. Andrew on November 13, 1805 in Dresden . In the battle of Jena , the Prussian- Saxon corps he led suffered a heavy defeat against the main French army under Napoléon Bonaparte on October 14, 1806 . When the soldiers fleeing en masse in the night near Buttelstädt met the main Prussian army retreating from the battle of Auerstedt, their retreat turned into a flight. On October 16, King Friedrich Wilhelm III. Hohenlohe assumed command of the troops fleeing to the northeast. Displaced from the line of retreat to Berlin , Hohenlohe tried to reach the Oder in a wide arc via Magdeburg and Neuruppin , where Prussia wanted to build a line of defense .
Shortly before reaching the goal, Hohenlohe surrendered on October 28, 1806 near Prenzlau as a result of the incorrect assessment of the situation by his Quartermaster General Colonel Christian von Massenbach with 10,000 men in front of an inferior enemy in the open field. The news discouraged a number of still intact Prussian associations and fortresses and led to their surrender. Hohenlohe remained in French captivity until 1808.
After he had already transferred the title of prince to his son in August 1806, Hohenlohe withdrew to his estates in Upper Silesia and died a bitter man in Slawentzitz. A massive cast iron tomb was erected in his honor in the castle park, which was decorated with the motto of those of Hohenlohe Ex flammis orior (German: "I came into being from flames").
Friedrich Ludwig married on April 8, 1782 in Glaina Amalie Charlotte Marianne Louise Christiane Countess von Hoym (born October 6, 1763 in Mainz, † April 20, 1840 in Marienhof). The couple divorced in 1799. It had the following children:
- Friedrich August II. Carl (1784–1853) ⚭ September 28, 1811 Luise von Württemberg (* June 4, 1789; † June 16, 1851)
- Adelheid Charlotte Wilhelmine (* January 20, 1787 in Breslau; † August 20, 1858) ⚭ July 9, 1812 Ludwig zu Hohenlohe-Kirchberg (* September 16, 1786; † December 25, 1836)
- Luise Sophie Emilie (born November 20, 1788 in Breslau; † October 1, 1859) ⚭ June 26, 1810 Albrecht zu Erbach-Fürstenau (* May 18, 1787; † July 28, 1851)
- Auguste Charlotte Friederike Sophie Amalie (born November 16, 1793 in Walluf ; † June 8, 1821) ⚭ July 19, 1816 Karl von Hessen-Philippsthal-Barchfeld (* June 27, 1784; † July 17, 1854)
- Ludwig Karl (born November 16, 1794 in Ingelfingen ; † December 14, 1794)
- Adolf Karl Friedrich Ludwig (1797–1873), Prussian Prime Minister and General of the Cavalry ⚭ April 19, 1819 Luise zu Hohenlohe-Langenburg (* August 22, 1799; † January 17, 1881)
- Alexander Ludwig Karl Heinrich (born June 3, 1798 in Altscheidnig ; † March 23, 1829)
- Wolfgang Klötzer (Hrsg.): Frankfurter Biographie . Personal history lexicon . First volume. A – L (= publications of the Frankfurt Historical Commission . Volume XIX , no. 1 ). Waldemar Kramer, Frankfurt am Main 1994, ISBN 3-7829-0444-3 .
- Richard von Meerheimb : Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen, Friedrich Ludwig Prince of . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 12, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1880, p. 685 f.
- Kurt von Priesdorff : Soldier leadership . Volume 2, Hanseatische Verlagsanstalt Hamburg, [Hamburg], , , pp. 211-217, no. 721.
- Günter Richter: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 9, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1972, ISBN 3-428-00190-7 , p. 489 f. ( ). In:
- Friedrich Buchholz, Christian Karl August Ludwig von Massenbach, Johann Wilhelm Lombard: Gallery of Prussian characters: translated from the French manuscript , p. 42 ff.
- Memorial for Friedrich Ludwig (today destroyed)
- "Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen, Friedrich Ludwig Hereditary Prince to". Hessian biography (as of October 7, 2016). In: Landesgeschichtliches Informationssystem Hessen (LAGIS). Hessian State Office for Historical Cultural Studies (HLGL), accessed on August 20, 2017 .
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen, Friedrich Ludwig Prince to|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen and Hohenlohe-Öhringen, Prussian general of the infantry|
|DATE OF BIRTH||January 31, 1746|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Ingelfingen|
|DATE OF DEATH||February 15, 1818|
|Place of death||Slaventzitz|