Military situation

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Military situation assessment using maps

The military situation is the situation of a military association in relation to its environment. It is an essential part of the military leadership process . Here, special attention is paid to the enemy situation . This applies in particular to the question of the location, type, strength, behavior and intent of hostile forces in the association's area of ​​interest.

From a military point of view, the enemy situation is divided into the combat zones close combat as immediately forward FLOT (Forward Line of Own Troops) and deep combat and rear combat as rearward troops . The combat zone close combat is defined up to the range of one's own means, especially artillery.

The own situation refers to the question of location, type, strength, behavior and mandate of own and neighboring associations in their own area of ​​interest as well as requirements of the higher management level. See also: War Front

Position assessment

The situation is initially presented from individual reconnaissance results . In the situation assessment, this information about enemy and own forces is summarized, but without evaluating them.

Assessment of the situation

To carry out the assessment is in the Bundeswehr , the scheme of assessment applied.

Situation assessment scheme

The army service regulation "Troop leadership" defines the scheme of assessment and analysis as follows - points that are not required are omitted.

  1. Evaluation of the order
    • Intention of the superordinate leadership
    • Essential performance
    • Requirements for your own actions (specifications, restrictions)
    • Fundamental change of position
    • Action required (only in an ongoing operation)
    • Review questions ("how can you ensure that ...?")
  2. Assessment of the terrain and other environmental conditions
    • General characteristics of the site
    • Sectional assessment
    • Implications for
      • the actions of the enemy
      • one's own actions
  3. Assessment of the enemy situation
    • Options for action
    • presumed intention
    • suspected further combat
    • Conclusions for one's own actions
  4. Judgment on one's own situation
    • Combat strength (if necessary using a combat strength table)
    • Implications for
      • special skills
      • Restrictions on freedom of action
    • Opportunities for your own action
  5. Comparison of forces (total forces, possibly also individual groups)
    • Combat strength comparison
    • Combat value (taking into account terrain, environment, level of training, morale, ...)
    • Implications for
      • Law of Action - Ability to take initiative
      • Overall tactical intent
    • Possibilities of own action (use strengths, balance weaknesses)
  6. Options for action (after combat phases)
    • Identifying common elements
    • Combat strength comparison
    • Assess the advantages and disadvantages
    • Weighing up


The commander's decision is based on the assessment of the situation - with the advice of the relevant staff officers - and is recorded in writing and / or graphically in the operational plan (including the plan for the deployment ) and communicated to the subordinate forces in the issuing of orders. The execution and implementation is monitored in a suitable manner as part of a rolling control process. Further situation determinations and assessments can be derived from occurring “target” deviations when executing the command.

The decision should be formulated according to the scheme who does what, when and where, how and why , and can then be found both in the formulation of the general mandate of the own association and for the subordinate units in detail in the sub-item implementation. The own intention with the how and its justification with the why are essential for the subordinate in order to understand the intention and the own action expected from them in the sense of the mandate.

The situation or the situation picture arises from the situation reports of the units involved and is integrated into the overall situation of the higher management levels.

Individual evidence

  1. Army service regulation "Troop leadership" (HDv No. 100/100)