Calendar overview 1712
Toggenburg War ended the predominance
of Catholic places in the Confederation .
Sweden defeats Denmark
in the Battle of Gadebusch
in the Great Northern War .
|Thomas Newcomen develops an " atmospheric steam engine ".|
|1712 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1160/61 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1704/05 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1117/18 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2255/56 (southern Buddhism); 2254/55 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||73rd (74th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1074/75 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4045/46 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1123/24 (turn of the year February 8/9)|
|Jewish calendar||5472/73 (September 1st and 2nd)|
|Coptic calendar||1428/29 (10/11 September)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2022/23 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2023/24 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1768/69 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
War of the Spanish Succession
- January 29th : A congress of European powers begins in Utrecht with the aim of ending the War of the Spanish Succession . The Peace of Utrecht is concluded as a result on April 11 of the following year, but by Emperor Charles VI. not accepted.
- July 24th : In the Battle of Denain , the French army led by Claude-Louis-Hector de Villars wins a great victory over Allied troops under the command of Arnold van Keppel, 1st Earl of Albemarle , and Prince Eugens . After this severe defeat, the Dutch refused to agree to a field battle and Villars managed to retake the fortresses of Marchiennes , Douai , Le Quesnoy and Bouchain .
- November 5 : Spain's regent Philip V renounces claims to the throne in France for himself and his descendants . This enables an armistice with England and the Republic of the Seven United Provinces in the War of the Spanish Succession .
Great Northern War
- July: King Frederick IV of Denmark-Norway begins his campaign against the two duchies of Verden and Bremen . With an army of 16,000 men he crossed the border and marched against the Swedish defenders. The latter withdraw from the Danes, because the Swedish occupation of the duchies is very small. Around 1200 men are stationed in the only large fortress, Stade . Another 1000 horsemen under the command of Colonel Ulrich Karl von Bassewitz are available to Major General Mauritz Vellingk to defend the duchies.
- August 7. bis 7. September : The Siege of Stade by Danish troops under King . Frederick IV and Jobst Scholten ends with the surrender of the Swedish crew with Carl Adam von Stackelberg .
- September 3 : The Swedish war fleet leaves Karlskrona with 24 ships of the line, three frigates and 130 transport ships with 10,000 men. The destination is the north German coast. At the end of September, 10,000 Swedes will be landed on Rügen . A large part of the transport fleet was destroyed by the Danish war fleet in a sea battle off Rügen on September 29 , so that further landings could no longer take place and the Swedish army had to break out to Mecklenburg due to supply shortages .
- Autumn: The siege of Stralsund by Danish-Russian units is canceled after more than a year after the landing of Swedish troops under Magnus Stenbock .
- December 20 : The Battle of Gadebusch sees the Swedes in the Great Northern War as victorious over allied Danish-Saxon troops.
- April 13 : Bern and Zurich publish a manifesto against the prince abbot of St. Gallen , thereby revealing their support for the Toggenburgers . On the other hand, the five inner cities of Lucerne , Schwyz , Uri , Zug and Unterwalden publish a counter manifesto and prepare for war. Bern and Zurich find support in Geneva and Neuchâtel as well as in its allies in the Principality of Basel , Biel , Moutier and La Neuveville . The five locations are supported in Valais and in their bailiwicks in Ticino as well as in the free offices . The other places remain neutral.
- April 26th : Berne opens the Toggenburg War when it crosses the Aare at Stilli to support Zurich in the occupation of Thurgau and in the attack on the territories of the princes.
- Mid-May: Berner, Zürcher, Toggenburger and Thurgauer move into the Fürstenland . They conquer Wil on May 22nd . The allies then penetrated to St. Gallen and occupied the monastery and the bailiwick of the Rhine Valley . The abbot flees to Neuravensburg . In return, the five Catholic towns occupied Rapperswil , but left the abbot without support for the time being.
- May 26th : The battle near Fischbach south of Fischbach-Göslikon in Aargau between Reformed Bernese and Catholic Central Switzerland ends in the Second Villmerger War with a victory for the Bernese , who then occupy Bremgarten .
- June 1 : Baden surrenders to the reformed troops.
- June 3 : The warring parties start peace negotiations. On July 18, a peace treaty is signed between Bern, Zurich, Lucerne and Uri. Schwyz, Zug and Unterwalden reject peace, however, and the people in Lucerne and Uri are also forcing the government to raise their arms again.
- July 25 : The Second Battle of Villmergen is won by the units of the Reformed towns of Bern and Zurich. The battle is considered crucial that the Swiss Confederation , the confessional parity is possible.
- August 11th : In the Peace of Aarau , after the Toggenburg War, the Protestant cantons, namely Zurich and Bern , instead of the Catholic towns, gain the upper hand in the common rule .
Other events in Europe
- March 9 : At its meeting in Zagreb, the Sabor adopts the Croatian Pragmatic Sanction , which recognizes the female right of succession to the Habsburg dynasty . The Croatian estates are the first to support the efforts of Charles VI. meet, and thus also oppose the Hungarian estates.
- Johann Adam I. Andreas from the House of Liechtenstein acquires the County of Vaduz with the capital of the same name for 290,000 guilders from the Lords of Hohenems . After his death on June 16, he was followed by his distant relative Josef Wenzel as Prince of Liechtenstein .
- August 10th : The General Prussian Postal Code threatens every postal clerk with a breach of the confidentiality of the correspondence with dismissal and criminal punishment as a perjurer .
- Petrine reforms : Saint Petersburg is officially declared the Russian capital under Peter the Great . The Moscow court then moved to St. Petersburg.
- April 6 : The New York slave revolt in 1712 is bloodily suppressed. After the uprising, laws are passed that severely restrict the lives of blacks in New York.
- In South Carolina , a law is passed for the first time that regulates the release of slaves. The law is later supplemented with a requirement that released slaves must leave South Carolina within six months. If they do not obey this rule, they can be enslaved again or sold at auction.
- February 27 : After the death of Bahadur Shah I , his sons dispute over the throne in the Mughal Empire . Jahandar Shah finally prevails against his brother Azim ush Shan .
- November 12th : Tokugawa Ienobu , 6th Shogun of the Edo period in Japan , dies. He is succeeded by his three-year-old son Tokugawa Ietsugu under the tutelage of advisor Arai Hakuseki .
- February 15 : Tsar Peter I issued a decree to build a factory in Tula , which, as Tulski Oruscheiny Sawod, has outlasted the times with the manufacture of weapons .
science and technology
The Swedish calendar
- Sweden has a February 30th this year , since King Charles XII. after the unsuccessful attempt to gradually switch to the Gregorian calendar since 1700 , returns to the Julian calendar .
- The literary magazine Deutsche Acta Eruditorum is published for the first time in Leipzig by the publisher Johann Friedrich Gleditschs . The editors are Justus Gotthard Rabener , Johann Christian Schöttgen and Johann Georg Walch . The journal is primarily devoted to the review of scientific literature.
- Edmond Halley and Isaac Newton publish his astronomical work Historia coelestis Britannica without the consent of John Flamsteed . Among other things, it contains the Flamsteed designation for the systematic naming of stars.
- Thomas Newcomen develops what is known as an atmospheric steam engine . It will be installed to lift water in a coal mine in Staffordshire. Without a crankshaft and flywheel, it acts on the pumps to be driven via a balancer . The connection between the piston and the balancer is made via a chain. However, the efficiency of the machine is only 0.5 percent.
- Christian Gottlieb Hertel develops a microscope in which an illuminating mirror is located below the object for the first time .
- May: Alexander Pope publishes the pseudo-heroic historical poem The Rape of the Lock in two Cantos . In it he mocks the tradition of classical epics .
- The Persian-speaking Indian poet Bidil published his most extensive work 'Irfān ( Gnosis or mysticism ).
- The Georgian national epic The Warrior in the Tiger Skin is commissioned by Watchtang VI. printed in Tbilisi for the first time.
Music and theater
- Barthold Heinrich Brockes publishes the Brockes Passion , which Reinhard Keizer set to music for the first time in the same year . The world premiere takes place during the Passion in the large house of the librettist in Hamburg.
- April: The baroque opera Der avenging Cupid by Reinhard Keizer based on the libretto by Johann Ulrich König under the names Die discovered Verstellung or Die Secret Liebe der Diana (Diana 's Secret Love) is premiered at the opera on Gänsemarkt .
- November 22nd : The world premiere of the opera Il pastor fido ( The Faithful Shepherd ) by Georg Friedrich Handel takes place at the Queen's Theater in London . The play fails in its first version and is canceled after seven performances.
- September 24 : The sculptor François Dumont is accepted into the circle of the Académie Royale with his recording work Titan foudroyé - Titan shattered by lightning .
- Ernst Casimir zu Ysenburg and Büdingen issued the Büdinger Tolerance Edict for the county of Isenburg-Büdingen . This not only promises freedom of conscience for members of the three Christian denominations recognized in the Peace of Westphalia of 1648 , Catholics , Lutherans and Reformed , but it also promises “everyone complete freedom of conscience ..., even those who are out of conscience scruples not to adhere to any outward religion ”. In addition, there is freedom from trade, education and school fees, a modern asylum policy for religious refugees and “ sectarians ” and emancipation for Jews.
- The monastery of the Annunciation in Würzburg is founded.
- A measles epidemic in France killed many people. Among the dead are the French heir to the throne Louis de Bourbon, dauphin de Viennois, duc de Bourgogne , and his wife Maria Adelaide of Savoy .
Historical maps and views
First half of the year
- January 5 : Ludwig van Beethoven , German singer, grandfather of the composer of the same name († 1773 )
- January 17 : Charles John Stanley , English composer and organist († 1786 )
- January 24th : Frederick the Great , King of Prussia († 1786 )
- January 24 : Georg Friedrich Schmidt , German engraver, etcher and painter († 1775 )
- January 26 : Giacomo Puccini , Italian composer and organist, great-great-grandfather of the composer of the same name († 1781 )
- January 28th : Tokugawa Ieshige , Japanese Shogun († 1761 )
- February 1 : Konrad Ernst Ackermann , German actor; Co-founder of the German Schaubühne († 1771 )
- February 14 : Christian Ludwig von Hagedorn , German art theorist and collector († 1780 )
- February 23 : Johann Gottfried Brendel , German medic († 1758 )
- February 28 : Louis-Joseph de Montcalm , French general († 1759 )
- March 22nd : Edward Moore , English playwright and writer († 1757 )
- March 23 : Christoph Friedrich Geiger , German lawyer and university professor († 1767 )
- March 27 : Claude Bourgelat , French hippologist and author, founder of the first veterinary school († 1779 )
- April 8 : Georg Sigismund Green the Younger , German Protestant theologian († 1754 )
- April 23 : Devasahayam Pillai , Indian convert to Catholicism and martyr, blessed of the Catholic Church († 1752 )
- June 14 : Sayat Nova , Armenian clergyman, singer, poet and composer († 1795 )
- June 26th : Johann Andreas Silbermann , Alsatian organ builder († 1783 )
Second half of the year
- July 2nd : Johann Rudolph von Ahlefeldt , master of the Damp and Saxdorf estates († 1770 )
- August 15 : Joseph Karl Truchseß von Waldburg-Zeil-Wurzach , Provost in Cologne († 1786 )
- August 29 : Adolf Jasper von Ahlefeldt , canon of the cathedral chapter of Lübeck Cathedral († 1761 )
- September 1 : Carlo Vittorio Amedeo delle Lanze , Italian cardinal († 1784 )
- September 2 : Max Heinrich von Geyr , priest and canon in Cologne († 1789 )
- September 5 : Johann Gottfried Weller , German Protestant clergyman and historian († 1780 )
- October 5 : Francesco Guardi , Italian vedute and landscape painter († 1793 )
- October 14 : George Grenville , British politician and statesman († 1770 )
- October 22nd : Johann Gottfried Heinitz , German teacher and hymn poet († 1790 )
- October 24 : Johanna Elisabeth of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf , princess and regent of Anhalt-Zerbst († 1760 )
- October 28 : Jacques Mathon de La Cour , French mathematician and mechanic († 1777 )
- October 30 : Christian Wilhelm Ernst Dietrich , German painter, etcher and engraver († 1774 )
- October 31 : Moritz von Anhalt-Dessau , Prussian military leader († 1760 )
- November 14 : Karl August , Margrave of Baden-Durlach († 1786 )
- November 15 : Maria Theresia Isabella von Blumenthal , Prussian philanthropist and chief stewardess († 1782 )
- November 25th : Charles-Michel de l'Epée , French educator, founder of the world's first school for the deaf († 1789 )
- December 5 : Fernando de Sousa e Silva , Patriarch of Lisbon († 1786 )
- December 11 : Francesco Algarotti , Italian writer, art critic and art dealer († 1764 )
- December 12 : Karl Alexander von Lothringen , Grand Master of the Teutonic Order († 1780 )
- December 20 : Sawwa Jakowlew , Russian entrepreneur, industrialist and patron († 1784 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Pauline Félicité de Mailly-Nesle , French noblewoman, mistress of Louis XV. († 1741 )
- Marie-Angélique Memmie LeBlanc , French "wolf child" († 1775 )
- Sō Shiseki , Japanese painter († 1786 )
- Johann Jakob Joseph Sündermahler , German lawyer and university lecturer († 1775),
- Takenouchi Shikibu , Japanese Confucianist and Shintoist († 1767 )
Born around 1712
January to April
- January 10 : John Houblon , Governor of the Bank of England and Lord Mayor of London (* 1632 )
- January 17 : Theresa Katharina Lubomirska , Polish noblewoman (* 1685 )
- January 21 : Johann Georg Hocheisen , German orientalist (* 1677 )
- February 7th : Matthias Alban , Tyrolean violin and lute maker (* 1634 )
- February 7 : Rupert Ignaz Mayr , Bavarian violinist, composer and court music director (* 1646 )
- February 8 : Nicola Ammirato , Neapolitan painter (* unknown)
- February 12 : Maria Adelaide of Savoy , Duchess of Burgundy and Dauphine of France, mother of Louis XV. (* 1685 )
- February 18 : Louis de Bourbon, duc de Bourgogne , French heir to the throne, father of Louis XV. (* 1682 )
- February 25 : Nicolas de Catinat , French general, Marshal of France (* 1637 )
- February 27 : Bahadur Shah I , Mughal Mughal of India (* 1643 )
- March 2 : Lorenzo Magalotti , Italian scholar, poet and diplomat (* 1637 )
- March 16 : Johann Georg , Duke of Saxony-Weißenfels and Prince of Saxony-Querfurt (* 1677 )
- March 25th : Nehemiah Grew , English botanist, physicist and physiologist (* 1641 )
- March 28 : Jan van der Heyden , Dutch painter and inventor (* 1637 )
- March 30 : Johann Friedrich Mayer , German Lutheran theologian (* 1650 )
- April 5 : Jan Luyken , Dutch poet, graphic artist and illustrator (* 1649 )
- April 9 : Giuseppe Archinto , Italian cardinal (* 1651 )
- April 18 : Louisa Maria Theresa Stuart , English nobleman in exile (* 1692 )
- April 19 : Benedikt von Ahlefeldt , Lord on Osterrade, Kluvensiek, Sehestedt, Kronsburg and bearer of the Danebrog Order (* 1650 )
- April 21 : Christian Crusius , Mayor of Chemnitz (* 1636 )
- April 23 : Lambert Chaumont , a composer, organist and clergyman working in the Principality of Liège (* 1645 )
- April 25 : Dudleya North , British orientalist (* 1675 )
- April 29th : Juan Bautista José Cabanilles , Spanish organist and baroque composer (* 1644 )
May to August
- May 8 : Gatien de Courtilz de Sandras , French musketeer and writer (* 1644 )
- May 10 : Christian Ernst , Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth (* 1644 )
- May 12 : Adrian Beier the Younger , German jurist (* 1634 )
- May 27 : Johann Baptist Röschel , Hungarian physicist and Lutheran theologian (* 1652 )
- June 2 : Joseph II , Chaldean Catholic Patriarch of Diyarbakir (* 1667 )
- June 6th : Henri d'Escoubleau, comte de Montluc , French nobleman and general
- June 10 : Christian Franz Paullini , German doctor, polymath and writer in German and Latin (* 1643 )
- June 11th : Louis II. Joseph de Bourbon , Duke of Vendôme, French marshal (* 1654 )
- June 16 : Johann Adam I. Andreas , Prince of Liechtenstein (* 1657 )
- June 24th : Simon van der Stel , the first governor of the Cape Colony (* 1639 )
- July 1st : Melchior Schweling , Mayor of Bremen (* 1629 )
- July 4th : Johann Kasimir Kolbe von Wartenberg , Prussian Minister (* 1643 )
- July 12th : Richard Cromwell , English politician, Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland (* 1626 )
- July 30th : Paul Tallemant the Younger , French cleric and writer (* 1642 )
- July: Baltaji Mehmed Pascha , Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire (* 1662 )
- August 4th : Johann Jacob de Neufville , German composer and organist (* 1684 )
- August 4th : Georg Winckler , Mayor of Leipzig (* 1650 )
- August 7th : Friedrich Wilhelm Zachow , Saxon composer (* 1663 )
- August 11th : Magdalena Sibylla von Hessen-Darmstadt , regent of the Duchy of Württemberg and hymn poet (* 1652 )
- August 21 : Anton Hülse , German architect (* 1637 )
- August 22nd : Sophie Marie of Hessen-Darmstadt , Duchess of Saxony-Eisenberg (* 1661 )
- August 23 : Johann Christoph Lischka , Bohemian painter (* around 1650 )
- August 26th : Sebastian Anton Scherer , German organist at Ulm Minster and German composer (* 1631 )
September to December
- September 7th : Troels Arnkiel , German pastor and archaeologist (* 1638 )
- September 9 : Johann Georg Heinsch , Bohemian Baroque painter (* around 1647 )
- September 13 : Hermann Sibrand , Mayor of Stettin (* 1645 )
- September 14th : Giovanni Domenico Cassini , Italian-French astronomer and geographer (* 1625 )
- September 15 : Sidney Godolphin, 1st Earl of Godolphin , British politician (* 1645 )
- September 25 : Johann Jacob Gundling , German painter (* around 1666 )
- October 4 : Philipp Reinhard , Count of Hanau-Münzenberg (* 1664 )
- October 30 : Daniel Erich , German organist and composer (* 1649 )
- October 30th : Johann Philipp von Lamberg , Prince-Bishop of Passau (* 1651 )
- November 2 : Alexis Hubert Jaillot , French cartographer and publisher (* around 1632 )
- November 8th : Rosamunde Juliane von der Asseburg , German religious visionary (* 1672 )
- November 12th : Tokugawa Ienobu , Japanese Shogun of the Edo period (* 1662 )
- November 15 : James Douglas-Hamilton, 4th Duke of Hamilton , English nobleman (* 1658 )
- November 19 : Wolfgang Carl Briegel , German composer (* 1626 )
- December 6th : Gio Paolo Bombarda , Italian musician and financial advisor (* around 1650 )
- December 9 : Johann Achamer , Austrian metal and bell founder (* 1650 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Juan de Araujo , Peruvian composer (* 1646 )
- Catherine Bernard , French writer and playwright (* 1662 )
- Andrea Celesti , Italian painter (* 1637 )
- Charles Auguste de La Fare , French poet (* 1644 )
- Francisco Ibáñez de Peralta , Spanish officer, colonial administrator and governor of Chile (* 1644 )
- Jakow Permjakow , Russian navigator, trader and explorer
- Merkuri Wagin , Russian navigator and polar explorer