|AG is the abbreviation for the canton of Aargau in Switzerland and is used to avoid confusion with other entries of the name Bremgarten .|
|Canton :||Aargau (AG)|
|BFS no. :||4063|
|Postal code :||5620 Bremgarten AG
|UN / LOCODE :||CH BMG|
|Height range :||357–475 m above sea level M.|
|Area :||11.36 km²|
|Residents:||8218 (December 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||723 inhabitants per km²|
Proportion of foreigners :
|21.7% (December 31, 2019)|
Bremgarten old town
|Location of the municipality|
Bremgarten ( Swiss German : ˈbræŋˌgɑrtə ) is a small town and municipality in the canton of Aargau in Switzerland and the capital of the Bremgarten district . It is located in the lower Reuss valley , around 16 km west of Zurich , 23 km east of the canton capital Aarau and 35 km north of Lucerne . With a little more than 8,000 inhabitants, Bremgarten is the second most populous municipality in the Freiamt region after Wohlen .
The small town founded by the Habsburgs was from 1415 to 1798 part of the County of Baden , a common rule of the Confederates . In 1443, during the Old Zurich War , Bremgarten turned down the offer to join the Confederation as an equal member. From 1798 to 1803 the town belonged to the canton of Baden , since then to the canton of Aargau.
The traffic-calmed old town, enclosed on three sides by the Reuss, is a cultural monument of national importance. The four annual markets, especially the Christchindlimärt during Advent, have a supraregional charisma and make Bremgarten the tourist center of southeast Aargau. Bremgarten is also the location of an engineering troop barracks for the Swiss Army .
The main part of the municipality of Bremgarten is characterized by the natural area of the Reuss valley . The valley, which is oriented almost in a south-north direction, is around two kilometers wide. It is filled with a thick layer of ice-age gravel deposits and also shows the remains of a former terminal moraine that was piled up during a prolonged period of stagnation when the Reuss Glacier retreated .
The Reuss emerges from the Flachsee at the south-eastern boundary of the municipality, near the Hermetschwil-Staffeln district on a molasse hill . After the river has passed Hermetschwil Monastery , it begins to meander strongly . First it flows around the Zopfhau and Isenlauf peninsulas before the water is dammed at the Bremgarten-Zufikon power plant . The old town stands on a moraine up to 30 meters high and protruding into the valley level at the narrowest point of the almost completely built-up Au peninsula. The Reuss initially flows to the north-west on the south side of the old town, describes a wide 270 ° curve and then flows in a south-easterly direction past the north side of the old town; the bottleneck is no wider than 250 meters. Immediately afterwards, the river bends north again around the Kesselboden peninsula. About two kilometers north of the old town, across from the neighboring village of Eggenwil , the last loop of the river circles the Hegnau peninsula.
The eastern border of the municipality is at the foot of the slope to Mutschellen , the transition to the Limmat Valley . To the west of the Au peninsula, the extensive areas of Fohlenweid and Oberebene spread out to an average of off. The western edge of the Reuss valley is marked by a 40 meter high step leading to the adjacent Bremgarterwald. This is located on a back made of molasse sandstone, which is covered by a ground moraine layer. The Bremgarterwald is one of the largest contiguous forest areas in the Aargauer Mittelland and covers the Wagenrain ridge between the Reuss and Bünztal valleys . The western municipal boundary runs roughly in the middle of this forest area, parallel to the Reuss valley.
The area of the municipality is 1136 hectares , of which 535 hectares are forested and 286 hectares are built over. The highest point is at west of Staffeln, the deepest point is on the Hegnau river loop. Neighboring communities are Fischbach-Göslikon and Eggenwil in the north, Zufikon in the east, Widen in the northeast, Waltenschwil in the southwest and Wohlen in the west. The settlement area has almost completely merged with that of Zufikon, Berikon , Widen and Rudolfstetten and forms an urban area with around 23,000 inhabitants.
Before the city was founded
The oldest archaeological finds in today's urban area date from the 11th century. At that time, two small settlements were built around 200 meters apart; Villingen on the rock spur at the narrowest point of the river loop (today's upper town) and Bremgarten southwest of it on both sides of the river (partly today's lower town). The Habsburgs moved the administration of their properties in the Reuss Valley from Eggenwil to Villingen and had a castle complex with two residential towers built for their ministerials . Bremgarten was first mentioned in a document around 1135/40, when Count Albrecht II donated the 11th century church and his land around Eggenwil to the Muri monastery. Around 1200, the two settlements gradually grew together to form a fortified city, following a given development plan.
The earliest reliable evidence of the city's name appears as Premegartorn in the 12th century . Its origin is not entirely clear; it is likely to be a combination of the Old High German word garto ("garden"). The brëm for “edge, shore, construction”, which is attested in Middle High German , would most likely come into question as the foreground . When previously proposed BRAMO / Brama "bramble" the presupposed to explain the traditional form of the name remains umlaut unexplained. A theory put forward in the early 1990s, according to which Bremgarten can be traced back to a hypothetical Celtic name such as Ver (g) -mago-dūnon ("large fortified structure in the open field"), is now considered unlikely.
Rule of the Habsburgs
For a long time, the city charter, dated around 1250 (the exact date is not known), was considered a city privilege granted by Count Rudolf I of Habsburg. Recent research excludes this and is based on a copy of a text that goes back to the Zähring tradition and the city law of Freiburg im Breisgau . The first mayor known by name was Burkart von Barro, a Habsburg servant, in 1242. Around the same time, the previous ferry was replaced by a bridge on the south side of the lower town, where the river was at its narrowest. So that the city could finance their maintenance, King Rudolf, who had stayed several times in Bremgarten to carry out legal transactions before his coronation, relinquished the bridge toll in 1287.
As subjects of the Habsburgs, the Bremgartens repeatedly went to war for their sovereigns, for example in the Regensberg feud against the barons of Regensberg (1267) as well as in the Battle of Morgarten (1315), in the Battle of Dättwil (1351) and in the battle at Sempach (1386) against the Confederates . Compared to the other cities in Aargau, the proportion of the lower nobility in Bremgarten was significant. Little by little, the ordinary townspeople gained co-determination rights in the filling and exercise of offices. The important market town had close economic and social relationships with Zurich, around 20 kilometers away . In 1382 a fire destroyed a large part of the city.
Several mendicant congregations settled down early on, but none of them lasted . The Dominicans , Augustinians and Franciscans were represented . There were also several beguinages , which organizationally merged in 1377. The newly formed community accepted the rules of the Franciscans in 1406 under pressure from the Bishop of Constance . Probably on the initiative of the various orders, a Latin school was established in the second half of the 13th century , which subsequently produced numerous important scholars. From the late 14th century , the Muri monastery owned a building for the administration of its fiefs , the Muri-Amthof .
In 1379 Bremgarten was awarded its own court, connected with blood jurisdiction in the city and an adjacent Friedkreis. From the late 14th century onwards, Bremgarten created a judicial system for itself and acquired lower jurisdiction in the villages to the east from impoverished nobles . It all started in Berikon in 1374 . In 1410 Arni (with Islisberg ), Jonen , Oberlunkhofen , Unterlunkhofen and two thirds of Werd followed (the last third belonged to the Muri monastery). In order to protect themselves from the expanding Confederation, the cities in Aargau , Thurgau and Swabia, as well as the Aargau nobility, formed a defensive alliance in 1410. Bremgarten was in a particularly exposed location, as the federal towns of Lucerne , Zug and Zurich were in the immediate vicinity .
Conquest by the Confederates
After Duke Friedrich IV fell out of favor at the Council of Constance in 1415 , King Sigismund asked the Confederates to conquer Aargau in the name of the empire. When troops from Zurich and Lucerne took the small town of Mellingen further downstream on April 21, they advanced towards Bremgarten and besieged the town together with Schwyzers , Unterwaldners , Glarnern and Zugers. Bremgarten finally surrendered on April 24th.
In order to secure the conquered territories for the empire, King Sigismund had already given Bremgarten the status of a free imperial city on April 15th . But the confederates enforced their own claims and on July 22, 1415 the conquered areas in the east of the Aargau were pledged to Zurich, which shortly afterwards accepted its allies in the pledge. The imperial immediacy thus became meaningless and Bremgarten now legally belonged to the County of Baden , a common rule . The church patronage reached in 1420 by the Habsburgs to the municipal hospital, which in turn the patronage of the neighboring villages later Eggenwil and Zufikon took over. On March 20, 1434, the lower town burned.
In 1415 Bremgarten had signed a castle rights treaty with Zurich and therefore stood on the side of the Zurich and Habsburgs during the Old Zurich War . At the beginning of June 1443 , the towns in central Switzerland occupied the city and the aristocratic residents fled to Zurich. The Central Swiss made Bremgarten the offer to join the Confederation as an equal member. The Bremgartners refused because the majority of them still supported the Habsburgs and were not convinced of the durability of the Confederation. With the unfavorable outcome of the conflict for Zurich and the Habsburgs, the supremacy of the Confederates continued. The traditional rights and freedoms were confirmed in 1450 and in 1474 the Habsburgs waived all claims in the Eternal Direction .
Bremgarten also extended its jurisdiction under the Confederates. Oberwil was added in 1429, Rudolfstetten in 1438 , Zufikon in 1450 and the Huserhof near Unterlunkhofen in 1482. The village Lieli formed the end in 1522 . Two judicial districts were created: The cellar office comprised Ober- and Unterlunkhofen, Arni, Islisberg, Jonen, Werd and the Huserhof, the Niederamt was made up of Berikon, Lieli, Oberwil, Rudolfstetten and Zufikon. The cellar office was headed annually by the mayor, who was not chairman, as senior bailiff; in the Niederamt, a council member elected for six years took on this task.
The craft shaped the urban economy, but no branch of the profession achieved an economically or politically leading position; the regional movement of goods was too low and the competition from Zurich was too strong. The various craft brotherhoods that arose in the 15th century served not political, but professional, religious and social purposes. The St. Michaels Brotherhood united blacksmiths, locksmiths, wagons, carpenters, table makers, cooper, weavers, furriers and rope makers. In the Brotherhood of Our Lady , dressmakers, cloth clippers and tailors were united. The Sebastian Brotherhood trained the citizens in firearms and organized rifle festivals. In addition to the usual weekly market, there were six annual markets .
Reformation and Counter Reformation
In 1512, Pope Julius II gave the city a valuable " Julius banner " for the services rendered in the Great Pavier Campaign in 1508–1510 to expel the French. After the Reformation finally prevailed in Zurich in 1519, Huldrych Zwingli and like-minded people began to extend their influence to the County of Baden. The same year banned Tagsatzung the Papal Indulgence Priest Bernard Samson preaching in Bremgarten. When the Reformation was introduced in 1528 in Aargau in the west of Bern , the area around Bremgarten became the focus of religious and political tensions between the Reformed cities and the towns in central Switzerland that had remained Catholic.
In February 1529 Heinrich Bullinger the Elder, Dean of the parish of Bremgarten, publicly announced his conversion to the new faith. A few days later he was deposed by the council and replaced by Johannes Aal . But only three months later the Reformed side finally prevailed, elected Heinrich Bullinger the Younger as the new pastor and had the images of saints burned. After the bloodless First Kappel War , both denominations were initially given equal rights.
Two years later, tensions rose again. After the defeat of the Reformed towns in the Second Kappel War , the common lords were forced to return to the old faith. Bremgarten had to pay a fine of 1000 guilders and from now on was only allowed to vote for the mayor with the approval of the daily statutes. Bullinger went into exile in Zurich and succeeded Zwingli, who had died in the battle of Kappel am Albis .
Early modern age
There was no central administration in the adjacent free offices . The only assistants of the annually changing federal bailiff were the local subordinates, the Bremgarten town clerk did some paperwork. In 1562 the clerk of the Muri monastery was employed as a part-time land clerk. He resided in Bremgarten from 1576, although the city was just outside his area of activity. At the end of the 16th century, a second place of execution for the free offices was built near the municipal execution site in the Bremgarterwald.
Bremgarten regulated its internal affairs largely autonomously, the bailiff in Baden exercised little influence. At the head of the city was the Small Council with twelve members (including the two mayors, who changed the chair every year). The small councils were elected from among the ranks of the Grand Council , to which 28 people belonged. The citizens' assembly elected the grand councils, but had no influence on the administration of the city, as this was a matter for the small council. The Small Council was also the first court instance, together with the Grand Council the second.
After the brief interlude of the Reformation, Bremgarten changed into a spiritual center of the Roman Catholic Church . In 1617 a Capuchin monastery was opened in the lower suburbs , and in 1623 the Franciscan Beguines also received their own building, the Klarakloster . In 1653 the remains of the catacomb saint Synesius were transferred from Rome to the city church as relics . An ensemble of several chapels and clergy houses formed around the church. In the course of the 17th century, the medieval wooden buildings were gradually replaced by baroque stone buildings.
The city largely stayed out of the internal federal conflicts. However, in 1656 it served as the base of operations for the Catholic troops during the First Villmerger War . During the Second Villmerger War , on May 26, 1712, the neighboring village of Fischbach staged the Staudenschlacht that killed around 500 people. On the same day Bremgarten surrendered to the advancing Bern and Zurich troops. As a result of this war, the Catholic places lost their influence in the county of Baden. Only the Reformed towns of Bern, Zurich and Glarus provided the governor. The city had to hand over all weapons and lost its sovereignty in military matters.
The French Revolution and the events that followed made themselves felt in Bremgarten. From June 1794 to February 1795, the future French King Louis-Philippe lived in exile under the pseudonym Corby in house 14 Antonigasse, his sister Adélaïde found shelter in the Klarakloster. In March 1798 the French conquered Switzerland and proclaimed the Helvetic Republic ; Bremgarten became the district capital in the short-lived canton of Baden . A few days before the conquest, the city had renounced all sovereign rights in the basement and Niederamt. In the same year the Swiss authorities dissolved the Klarakloster. The French Marshal André Masséna had his headquarters in Bremgarten in June 1799, before his troops defeated the armies of the Russians and Austrians in the Second Battle of Zurich .
In 1802 the square tower collapsed, part of the medieval castle complex and one of the town's landmarks. In the following year, when the canton of Aargau was founded, Bremgarten was given the status of district capital and gave the district its name. In the early 19th century, parts of the city wall were demolished in order to enable the city to expand in future. In place of the river-side walls, a promenade and a promenade were created. The medieval town hall gave way in 1817 to a representative new classical building.
In 1829 the cantonal government planned a new straight road from Dottikon via Wagenrain to Bremgarten. The city completed the section of the Drissgerstross (Dreissigerstrasse, named after the year of construction in 1830) that ran on its territory , but the surrounding communities refused to do any work because they did not want to be cut off from through traffic. Above all, Wohlen , an important center of the straw industry , feared massive economic disadvantages. The road was never completed and turned into a forest path. In September and October 1831, by order of the Diet, the four most important leaders of the Basel uprising , among them Stephan Gutzwiller , were held in Bremgarten for five weeks («Bremgarten arrest»). In the course of the Aargau monastery dispute, the cantonal government abolished all of the canton's monasteries in January 1841. The Capuchin Monastery in Bremgarten was also affected by this measure.
The expansion of the road over the Mutschellen to Zurich between 1837 and 1842 resulted in radical structural changes in the old town. In order to create a straight access to the new Obertor, the city hospital and some other houses were torn down in 1843/1845 so that the carts no longer had to pass the narrow gate of the Spittelturm. The Marktgasse was lowered to compensate for the steep slope towards the Reuss Bridge . In 1867/1869 the road to Lenzburg was finally completed, compared to 1830 with a significantly changed route, which also opened up the neighboring village of Wohlen.
In economic terms, crafts and trades continued to dominate in Bremgarten. Among other things, Franziska Dosenbach sold factory-made shoes in her husband's saddlery from 1865. The Dosenbach shoe store developed from this . Although some factories settled in Bremgarten that used the hydropower of the Reuss, the industry was initially only able to gain a foothold. The reason for this was the late connection of Bremgarten to the railway network . In 1895, the municipal power station in the Bruggmühle on the southern bridgehead was put into operation. The year before, the Zufikon hydropower plant was connected to the grid one kilometer upstream on the Isenlauf .
In the 1860s, two railway lines were under discussion; From Brugg via Birmenstorf and Bremgarten to Cham and from Lenzburg via Wohlen and Bremgarten to Hedingen . Instead, the Aargau Southern Railway from Rupperswil via Wohlen to Arth-Goldau was implemented in 1874/75 , which ran far past Bremgarten. On September 1, 1876, the Wohlen-Bremgarten Railway was opened , a 7 km long branch line that connected Wohlen to the rest of the rail network. The Bremgarten train station was around one kilometer west of the city center. In order to improve the connection to Zurich, the tram- like Bremgarten-Dietikon-Bahn was created , which began operating on May 1, 1902. The gap between the two lines was not completed until September 8, 1912, when the railway bridge over the Reuss went into operation .
20th and 21st centuries
After the failure of the Reformation, no representatives of the Reformed denomination lived in Bremgarten for almost 300 years. Only the implementation of religious freedom at the beginning of the 19th century made it possible for the Reformed to settle here again. The Reformed parish of Bremgarten, founded in 1845, inaugurated its own church on Zugerstrasse in September 1900. Around 1900, the small Jewish community established a synagogue in the same house where Prince Louis-Philippe had once lived . This was dissolved in the 1990s.
The economic upswing after the Second World War was accompanied by a profound structural change. Agriculture disappeared completely from the old town and the craft and commercial activities also partially shifted. New residential and industrial zones, new school buildings, a wastewater treatment plant as well as an outdoor pool and an indoor pool were built. Since 1958 there has been a barracks for the engineering troops of the Swiss Army in the Fohlenweid . In 1974 the old Zufikon power station was demolished and replaced by a new one with a higher output. The new power plant has dammed the Flachsee since 1975 .
On March 28, 1984 the city church burned down during restoration work. When sawing off a protruding screw, vapors had ignited because the entablature of the choir had recently been injected with a solvent. Thanks to donations and government contributions, the church was able to be rebuilt almost true to the original, as exact plans had been made before the restoration began. The church was rededicated on December 6, 1987.
Motorized through traffic had increased steadily since the early 1950s. Bremgarten is located on the national main road 1 Bern – Lenzburg – Zurich, which was the busiest road in Switzerland before the motorway network was built. All traffic squeezed over the wooden bridge and through the narrow streets of the old town. But even after the opening of the A1 motorway in the 1970s, traffic continued to increase, which significantly reduced the quality of life. For this reason, a five-kilometer bypass road was built north of the city. Since it opened in 1994, the old town has been closed to motorized through traffic.
With the expansion of the agglomeration of Zurich, Bremgarten gained increasing importance as a residential community. In the first few years of the 21st century alone, the population increased by more than a fifth. On December 15, 2011, the community assembly approved the merger agreement with the neighboring community of Hermetschwil-Staffeln. The voters confirmed this decision on March 11, 2012 in a vote with 1140 to 427 votes. The two communities merged on January 1, 2014.
Cityscape and architecture
The well-preserved, traffic-calmed old town at the narrow point of the Au peninsula is well worth seeing . It has numerous listed houses, most of which are built in the Gothic and Baroque styles. The almost trapezoidal old town is divided into two areas: On the east side, on the raised plateau of an advanced moraine , is the upper town ( emerged from the Villingen settlement in the High Middle Ages ). The lower town on the west side is clearly delimited by a steep slope and about 30 meters lower down directly on the river. The medieval city wall with battlements has been partially preserved.
The Spittelturm (built in 1556/59) is the most important remnant of the fortifications and is the symbol of the Upper Town. It has a steep roof with spitzbehelmtem roof skylights , city outward loopholes and two clocks (which directed towards the city center is an astronomical clock ). The 44 meter high tower got its name from the former adjoining hospital, which was demolished in 1843. Immediately next to it, directly leaning against the railway bridge , is the Katzenturm, first mentioned in 1415, on the river bank. Together with the rifle house (1570) it formed the south-eastern boundary of the city fortifications.
At the highest point of the upper town is the Schlössli (first mentioned in 1238 as turn ze Bremgarten ), in the substructure of which remains of the medieval keep have been preserved. Hospital master Johann Balthasar Honegger acquired the building in 1641 and had it completely converted into a town house in the late Gothic-early Baroque style. An attached pentagonal stair tower characterizes the south facade. The neighboring Schellenhaus was built in 1635 as a tithe barn for the city hospital. It served as a prison and temporarily Trotte , since 1973 as a theater. Opposite the Schellenhaus is the armory (1640/41), which today houses the city library.
The town hall , located away from the main streets on the north-western edge of the upper town, is the seat of the municipal and district authorities as well as the district court. The medieval complex (first mentioned in 1429) remained largely unchanged until 1817. According to plans by the architect Fidel Leimbacher from Sins , a classicist building was built by 1819 , which was raised by one floor in 1912 and expanded in 1973. The only remnant of the previous building is a dome-shaped meeting room from the 17th century.
The Muri-Amthof on Antonigasse is the former feudal administration of the Muri monastery . The building originally dates from the 14th century. It received its current late Gothic appearance in 1546/48 under Abbot Laurentius von Heidegg . In 1583/84 an entrance hall was added to the eastern gable front, which was raised by one floor in 1640/41. After the abolition of the monastery in 1841, the Muri-Amthof went into private ownership. To the east of the Amtshof, a winter garden in neo-Gothic style and a historicizing defense - style lookout tower were built in 1900 .
Lower town with church district
Compared to the upper town, the lower town is less densely built, it also has fewer representative houses. In addition to a section of the city wall, the 32 m high Hermannsturm (1407) in the northwest and the 39 m high Witches Tower in the southwest have been preserved from the city fortifications . The granary , built in 1687, served as a municipal warehouse. During the Second World War it was used as accommodation for the troops, from 1952 to 1968 as a barracks building, and since then as a civil defense training center and school.
The covered wooden bridge (first mentioned in 1281) burned down in 1434 and was then rebuilt. In 1544–1549, the wooden pile yokes were replaced by four brick pillars . In 1672 it had to be extensively renovated due to severe flood damage. In order to be able to cope with the steadily increasing traffic, the bridge had to be demolished in 1953. By 1957 it was widened and given a concrete roadway. On the third pillar there are two small baroque chapels, which are dedicated to the bridge saints Agatha and Nepomuk.
The Bremgarten church district , a closed ensemble with several sacred buildings, forms the center of the lower town. The former Klarakloster with the Klarakapelle, the Mother of God chapel, the Anna chapel, the parish and the parish helpers, the honor chaplain, the old Pfrund, the organist house and the Sigristenhaus are grouped around the town church .
The current church was built from 1343 after a smaller previous building had burned down, and was subsequently expanded step by step. The exterior is Gothic, while the interior is largely Baroque. The relics of the church are the relics of the catacomb saint Synesius, which were transferred from the Calepodius catacomb in Rome to Bremgarten in 1653 . On March 28, 1984, the church burned to the ground during renovation work. It was rebuilt almost true to the original and reopened on December 6, 1987.
Outside the old town
The lower suburb, opposite the old town on the south bank of the Reuss, was once the location of important municipal institutions. The Bruggmühle , which has existed since at least 1281, supplied the hydropower for several businesses and has been used as a hydropower plant since 1895. The original mill building was demolished in 1939 and replaced by a historicizing new building. The Wälismühle has existed in its current form since 1621. In the 17th century, the house belonged to the influential Zug family, the Zurlauben, and until 1736 was the seat of the land registry of the Free Offices.
The Capuchin monastery by the wooden bridge was built in 1618/22 and expanded in 1760. The baroque monastery church is attached to the convent building. The rules of the Capuchin order were strictly followed when they were designed ; the altars, for example, remained unpainted. During the renovation of the town church in the 1980s, the monastery church served as a replacement for the Catholic parish. The reformed church was built on Zugerstrasse in the Upper Suburb in 1899/1900 , based on plans by the architect Julius Kelterborn. It is built in neo-Gothic style and modeled on country churches in England . There is a bust of the reformer Heinrich Bullinger next to the entrance portal .
The town had had an artificial water supply at least since the early 14th century. The water was drawn into springs on the Mutschellen slope and on the left bank of the Reuss and led to wooden wells . In 1560, foreman Hans Murer was commissioned to replace them with ones made from Mägenwil shell limestone . By 1570 Murer had built seven wells, five of which have been preserved. The fountains at the Kornhaus, at the town hall, in the Schulgasse and at the armory consist of a large hexagonal trough with pre-tensioned iron straps, the outflow tubes on the well stick out of the mouths of bronze lion masks. A baluster column with acanthus ornaments is placed on each of the wells . The fountain opposite the Capuchin monastery, however, has a long rectangular trough.
The two fountains in Marktgasse were demolished in 1843 to make room for the new street layout. The upper fountain was decorated with a sign holder lion, the lower one with the fountain hans , the statue of a city banner bearer. According to a legend, the well master from Lucerne was killed in an accident while erecting it. Augustin Keller wrote a poem about it.
coat of arms
The blazon of the city coat of arms reads: "Red lion soaring in white." Bremgarten received the right from Count Rudolf I to use the Habsburg family coat of arms. However, the red lion did not appear on a yellow, but on a white background. The oldest known depiction dates from 1302 and is depicted on the city seal used at that time. Since Bremgarten continued to regard itself as a free imperial city even after the conquest by the Swiss Confederation, the coat of arms was elevated by the imperial eagle until 1798 . The city colors are red and white. The city coat of arms remains unchanged as the district coat of arms.
The population developed as follows:
On December 31, 2019, 8,218 people lived in Bremgarten, the proportion of foreigners was 21.7%. In the 2015 census, 39.9% described themselves as Roman Catholic and 18.0% as Reformed ; 42.1% were non-denominational or of another faith. In the 2000 census, 86.2% stated German as their main language, 3.0% Albanian , 1.9% Italian , 1.7% Serbo-Croatian , 1.3% Turkish and 1.2% each Portuguese and Spanish .
Politics and law
The assembly of those entitled to vote, the municipal assembly , exercises legislative power. The executing authority is the five-member city council . He is elected by the people in the majority procedure, his term of office is four years. The city council leads and represents the community. To this end, it implements the resolutions of the municipal assembly and the tasks assigned to it by the canton. The Bremgarten District Court is primarily responsible for legal disputes . Bremgarten is the seat of the Friedensrichterkreis VII, which covers the eastern part of the district.
According to the company structure statistics (STATENT) collected in 2015, there are over 600 companies in Bremgarten with a total of over 4,300 jobs. Of these, 1.3% are in agriculture and forestry, 22.9% in industry and 75.8% in the service sector. Almost 60% of the employed people living in the municipality are commuters. The number of commuters from other municipalities working in Bremgarten is around 65%. This high fluctuation is due to the fact that Bremgarten belongs on the one hand to the economic catchment area of the city of Zurich , on the other hand it functions as a sub-center within this agglomeration .
In contrast to the surrounding communities, agriculture never played a major role in Bremgarten. Only a horse breeding business on the foal pasture is of greater importance . The forest, which is largely owned by the local community and covers more than half of the community area, is managed in a joint venture with Wohlen and Waltenschwil .
The town has a large variety of small and medium-sized companies, but the service sector is increasingly displacing industry. Many of these companies have joined forces in the Bremgarten Trade and Industry Association. Bremgarten is the seat of several companies of national importance: The online grocery retailer LeShop , which belongs to the Migros group, has its distribution center in Bremgarten. The world's largest cement company LafargeHolcim is represented in Bremgarten with a gravel and concrete plant. Georg Utz AG also operates internationally, producing storage and transport containers, workpiece carriers and pallets made of plastic. PUAG AG specializes in handicraft accessories, while JELD-WEN Schweiz AG specializes in the manufacture of doors and frames.
The barracks of the Swiss Army on the Fohlenweid, which has a capacity of 700 soldiers, are also of economic importance . NCO and officer courses as well as recruit training for the engineering troops are carried out , but no recruit schools .
Bremgarten lies at the intersection of four major roads: Hauptstrasse 1 from Wohlen via Mutschellen to Zurich , Kantonsstrasse 281 to Mellingen , Kantonsstrasse 262 to Affoltern am Albis and Kantonsstrasse 296 in the direction of Zug . Since 1994, through traffic has been routed over a five-kilometer bypass road with two short tunnels. The upper town and parts of the lower town are car-free, access with motorized vehicles is severely restricted.
Five stations and stops of from Wohlen to Dietikon leading Bremgarten-Dietikon railway open up the urban area. From west to east these are Bremgarten West , Isenlauf , Obertor , Bremgarten and Bibenlos-Sonnenhof . Trains that run at least every half hour allow connections to Aarau and Zurich. The operational center of the meter- gauge narrow - gauge railway is the Bremgarten station on Zürcherstrasse, which has been in existence since 1958, with the depot and administration of the railway company. From Bremgarten West station, the former terminus of the Wohlen-Bremgarten railway , a three -rail track for standard-gauge freight trains ran in the direction of Wohlen . At the end of 2016 it was removed as part of the revision of the route between Bremgarten West and Wohlen. The Obertor stop has existed since 1994 and was the location of the old train station from 1902 to 1958. The Isenlauf stop was opened in 1986, and Bibenlos-Sonnenhof was added in 2007.
Five PostBus lines operate from Obertorplatz and Bremgarten train station : To Baden (via Mellingen or Stetten ), Hermetschwil-Staffeln , Jonen and Zufikon . A Limmat Bus express bus line runs from Bremgarten via Oberwil-Lieli and the Uetliberg tunnel to Zurich-Enge train station . On weekends, night buses run from Dietikon via Bremgarten and Wohlen to Sarmenstorf and from Baden via Mellingen or Stetten to Bremgarten.
In Bremgarten all compulsory school levels are offered ( kindergarten , primary school , secondary school , secondary school and district school ), which are run by the central school management of the municipality. There are five kindergartens and six school houses. The closest grammar schools are the Wohlen Cantonal School and the Baden Cantonal School .
The private St. Josef Foundation , founded in 1889, runs a special education school , a technical school for socio-educational professions and residential groups for the severely disabled in the former Capuchin monastery and in adjacent buildings . There is also a music school, a community college and the city library.
The city's range of schools developed from the Latin school that had existed since the second half of the 13th century . A so-called German school was added before 1600, but its social prestige was low. Girls were educated in the monastery of St. Clare . It was not until the canton of Aargau was founded in 1803 that the prerequisites for developing an organized school system were created. The district school was created in 1835 and moved into the newly built town school on Obertorplatz in 1895. The promenade schoolhouse was opened in 1963, the garden schoolhouse in 1971 and the Isenlauf schoolhouse in 1974.
sport and freetime
Two weirs in the Reuss generate standing waves that attract hundreds of water sports enthusiasts in the summer months. The upper weir (called "Fällbaum") at the wooden bridge (Upper Wave) is suitable for kayakers , the lower weir at the former Bleiche ( Honeggerwehr or Lower Wave ) is the only ideal wave for surfers in Switzerland and one of the best in Switzerland Europe.
From 2001 to 2003 the Rad-Classique Bremgarten was held, an international cycling criterion on a narrow circuit in the old town. The winners were Martin Elmiger , Markus Zberg and Beat Zberg . In the absence of sponsors the event was discontinued. Instead, the SwissCycling City-Sprint has been held since 2005 , an elimination race for mountain bikers that also leads through the old town streets . Another important sporting event is the Reuss run , which has been held in February since 1983, with around 3500 participants; the 10.5 km running route leads along the Reuss to Fischbach-Göslikon and back.
The sports clubs with the largest number of members include FC Bremgarten ( football ), TV Bremgarten ( gymnastics ) and SC Region Bremgarten ( swimming ). The most successful are the UHC Bremgarten ( floorball , a Swiss women's championship title), the WSC Bremgarten ( water driving , Swiss championship 2007) and the TTC Bremgarten with many Swiss championship titles in single categories, in doubles and in mixed categories. There is a swimming pool and an indoor swimming pool in the Isenlauf district .
Bremgarten is known for its four large markets , which attract tens of thousands of visitors and are of great importance for tourism . The Easter market on Easter Monday (including the agricultural machinery market) and the Pentecost market on Whit Monday have a more than 750-year tradition. The old town market takes place on two days at the end of October and is all about handicrafts. The Christchindlimärt has been held on four days at the beginning of December since 1995 . With over 100,000 visitors and more than 300 market stalls, it is now the largest Christmas market in Switzerland and has achieved international appeal. In addition, weekly markets are held every Wednesday and Saturday from March to November.
Theater, music and film
The Bremgarten Operettenbühne performs well-known operettas every two years , each with around 30 performances. In the intervening years the association organizes classical concerts. The Bremgarten cellar theater in the Schellenhaus is a nationally known institution in the field of cabaret and is financially supported by the municipality and the canton. With the Arabas Cirque Jeunesse , Bremgarten has had a children's and youth circus since 1996. In the Bremgarten-Dietikon-Bahn depot , the transport company BDWM Transport organizes the Kultur im Depot event every two years .
The water wheels of the Bruggmühle, first mentioned in 1281, located on a small island on the western bridgehead, drove, among other things, a grain mill, a sawmill and a spinning mill in earlier centuries. The Bruggmühle has served as a hydropower plant since 1895 . In 2005 the Reusskraftwerk Bremgarten museum was opened in the mill building . The old, listed facilities of the hydropower plant and changing exhibitions on the history of the mill are shown.
The city museum is located in the lower town on Kornhausplatz, in the premises of a former art gallery. It was opened in 1997 and shows objects and pictures from the past and present of the city of Bremgarten.
In June 1990 young people occupied a clothing factory that had been empty for 16 years. In the following year, the Bremgarten Cultural Center Association (KuZeB) was founded with the aim of creating a small version of Wohlgroth in Zurich. The association has had a tenancy agreement with the owner of the factory building since 1992. The cultural offerings of the KuZeB range from concerts of the alternative and subculture of international format to readings and political lectures. In parts of the population, the appearance of the building leads to rejection.
The following personalities were born in Bremgarten. They are listed chronologically according to the year of birth.
- Niklas von Wyle (around 1410 – after 1478), early humanist writer and translator
- Johannes Feierabend (1440–1508), Abbot of Muri
- Werner Schodoler (1490–1541), chronicler
- Johannes Aal (around 1500–1551), theologian, composer and playwright
- Heinrich Bullinger (1504–1575), reformer
- Hanns Wagner (1522–1590), playwright
- Paul Widerkehr (1580–1649), artist
- Gerhard Bürgisser (1608–1670), Abbot of Wettingen
- Bonaventura Honegger (1609–1657), Abbot of Muri
- Marian Ryser (1620–1680), Abbot of Wettingen
- Johann Melchior Gletle (1626–1683), organist, conductor and composer
- Plazidus Zurlauben (1646–1723), Prince Abbot of Muri
- Bonaventura Bucher (1719–1776), prince abbot of Muri
- Joseph Anton Weißenbach (1734–1801), theologian and clergyman
- Ludwig Fidel Weissenbach (1750–1814), councilor and judge
- Benedikt Geygis (1752–1818), abbot of the Wettingen monastery
- Heinrich Johann Nepomuk Weber (1767–1847), member of the government
- Franz Sinesius Weissenbach (1782–1848), politician and judge
- Franz Waller (1803–1879), politician and saltworks director
- Plazid Weissenbach sr. (1814–1858), Council of States and judge
- John Moses Brunswick (1819–1886), entrepreneur
- Elisabeth Weissenbach (1833–1884), educator
- Jakob Stammler (1840–1925), art historian and Roman Catholic bishop
- Plazid Weissenbach jr. (1841–1914), National Councilor and SBB General Director
- Hans Bader (1875–1935), Protestant pastor in Zurich
- Hans Burger (1889–1973), forest scientist
- Paul Hausherr (1901–1987), lawyer, politician, author of the Code of Criminal Procedure
- Silvio Blatter (* 1946), writer
- Stephan Joho (* 1963), racing cyclist
- Arno Küttel (* 1963), racing cyclist
- Anton Wohler: Bremgarten (AG). In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland .
- Walther Benz: Bremgarter Chronicle . Ed .: Kulturkommission Bremgarten, Historical Society Freiamt. Bremgarten 1998.
- Eugen Bürgisser, Karl Grundler: Bremgarten home leader . Ed .: City Council and Culture Commission Bremgarten. Bremgarten 1990.
- Peter Felder: The art monuments of the canton of Aargau . Ed .: Society for Swiss Art History . Volume IV: Bremgarten district. Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel 1967, ISBN 3-906131-07-6 .
- Cantonal population statistics 2019. Department of Finance and Resources, Statistics Aargau, March 30, 2020, accessed on April 2, 2019 .
- Cantonal population statistics 2019. Department of Finance and Resources, Statistics Aargau, March 30, 2020, accessed on April 2, 2019 .
- Beat Zehnder: The community names of the canton of Aargau . In: Historical Society of the Canton of Aargau (Ed.): Argovia . tape 100 . Verlag Sauerländer, Aarau 1991, ISBN 3-7941-3122-3 , p. 107-109 .
- National map of Switzerland, sheet 1090, Swisstopo.
- Standard area statistics - municipalities according to 4 main areas. Federal Statistical Office , November 26, 2018, accessed on May 12, 2019 .
- Benz, Bremgarter Chronik, pp. 15-19
- Andres Kristol: Lexicon of Swiss community names . Ed .: Center de dialectologie, Université de Neuchâtel. Verlag Huber, Frauenfeld 2005, ISBN 3-7193-1308-5 , p. 182 f .
- Marita Blattmann: The Freiburg city rights at the time of the Zähringer. Reconstruction of lost documents and records from the 12th and 13th centuries . Plötz, Freiburg i. Br. 1991, ISBN 3-87640-429-0 , pp. 269-275 .
- Benz, Bremgarter Chronik, pp. 31–32
- Felder, Kunstdenkmäler des Kantons Aargau, pp. 32–36
- Benz, Bremgarter Chronik, p. 42
- Benz, Bremgarter Chronik, pp. 29–31
- Benz, Bremgarter Chronik, pp. 39–40
- Benz, Bremgarter Chronik, pp. 73–76
- Benz, Bremgarter Chronik, pp. 61–64
- Benz, Bremgarter Chronik, pp. 65–66
- Arnold Nüscheler : Houses of God in Switzerland - historical and antiquarian research , fourth volume, Gebr. Karl & Nikolaus Benziger, Einsiedeln, 1884
- Benz, Bremgarter Chronik, pp. 67–69
- Benz, Bremgarter Chronik, pp. 97–98
- Winfried Hecht: The Julius banner of the town facing Rottweil. In: Der Geschichtsfreund: Messages from the Central Switzerland Historical Association . 126/7 (1973/4). doi : 10.5169 / seals-118647
- Benz. Bremgarter Chronik, p. 115
- Benz, Bremgarter Chronik, pp. 117–120
- Benz, Bremgarter Chronik, pp. 121–123
- Benz, Bremgarter Chronik, pp. 123–129
- Benz, Bremgarter Chronik, pp. 90–91
- Benz, Bremgarter Chronik, pp. 234–245
- Benz, Bremgarter Chronik, pp. 250–256
- Benz, Bremgarter Chronik, pp. 257-259
- City tour: Hirschen. City of Bremgarten, accessed on May 12, 2019 .
- Felder, p. 24
- The Unfinished. (PDF; 3.0 MB) In: Historic traffic routes in the canton of Aargau. Federal Roads Office, 2007, p. 30 , archived from the original on April 27, 2016 ; accessed on May 1, 2016 .
- Fridolin Kurmann: The Bremgarten arrest. Office for Forests in Basel, March 1996, archived from the original on October 18, 2007 ; accessed on May 12, 2019 .
- Florian Inäbnit, Jürg Aeschlimann: Bremgarten – Dietikon-Bahn - From the overland tram to the S-Bahn. Prellbock Druck & Verlag, Leissigen 2002, ISBN 3-907579-22-4 .
- History: A Reformed Parish emerges. City of Bremgarten, accessed on May 12, 2019 .
- History: The Jewish community in Bremgarten. City of Bremgarten, accessed on May 12, 2019 .
- History: The town church is on fire. City of Bremgarten, accessed on May 12, 2019 .
- History: The Latest Time (since 1950). City of Bremgarten, accessed on May 12, 2019 .
- Community merger sealed: Bremgarten and Hermetschwil-Staffeln say yes. Aargauer Zeitung , March 11, 2012, accessed on March 11, 2012 .
- Felder, Kunstdenkmäler des Kantons Aargau, pp. 26–30
- Felder, Kunstdenkmäler des Kantons Aargau, p. 30
- Felder, Kunstdenkmäler des Kantons Aargau, pp. 150–153
- Felder, Kunstdenkmäler des Kantons Aargau, pp. 115–126
- Felder, Kunstdenkmäler des Kantons Aargau, pp. 140–150
- Felder, Kunstdenkmäler des Kantons Aargau, pp. 41–58
- Felder, Kunstdenkmäler des Kantons Aargau, pp. 36–38
- Felder, Kunstdenkmäler des Kantons Aargau, pp. 104–114
- Felder, Kunstdenkmäler des Kantons Aargau, pp. 38–41
- A poem about the Brunnenhans. (PDF, 78 kB) City of Bremgarten, accessed on May 12, 2019 .
- Joseph Galliker, Marcel Giger: Municipal coat of arms of the Canton of Aargau . Lehrmittelverlag des Kantons Aargau, book 2004, ISBN 3-906738-07-8 , p. 130 .
- Population development in the municipalities of the Canton of Aargau since 1850. (Excel) In: Eidg. Volkszählung 2000. Statistics Aargau, 2001, archived from the original on October 8, 2018 ; accessed on May 12, 2019 .
- Resident population by religious affiliation, 2015. (Excel) In: Population and Households, Community Tables 2015. Statistics Aargau, accessed on May 10, 2019 .
- Swiss Federal Census 2000: Economic resident population by main language as well as by districts and municipalities. (Excel) Statistics Aargau, archived from the original on August 10, 2018 ; accessed on May 8, 2019 .
- justice of the peace. Canton of Aargau, accessed on June 20, 2019 .
- Statistics of the corporate structure (STATENT). (Excel, 157 kB) Statistics Aargau, 2016, accessed on May 12, 2019 .
- Bremgarten genius arsenal
- St. Josef Foundation
- chronicle on the website of the district school ( Memento from June 8, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
- Standing waves and surf tourism (p. 20; PDF file; 6.6 MB)
- TTC Bremgarten
- UHC Bremgarten
- WSC Bremgarten
- Weekly markets in Bremgarten
- Bremgarten Operetta Stage
- Bremgarten cellar theater
- Culture in the depot
- Lukas Schumacher: The enchanting charm of Bremgarten. Aargauer Zeitung , September 22, 2009, accessed on May 12, 2019 .
- Museum of the Bremgarten hydropower plant
- Bremgarten City Museum
- KuZeB club Cultural Bremgarten
- An autonomous playground in the middle of the town. WOZ Die Wochenzeitung , March 15, 2012, accessed on May 12, 2019 .