|Federation of Migros Cooperatives
|Seat||Zurich , Switzerland|
|Number of employees||106,119 / 75,606 FTE (2019)|
|sales||28.7 billion CHF (2019)|
The Migros [ miɡro ] (short form of Migros Cooperatives ) is one of the largest retail company of Switzerland . The company is represented in all cantons , in Liechtenstein as well as in the French departments of Ain and Haute-Savoie bordering in southwestern Switzerland .
Name and logo
Migros was founded by Gottlieb Duttweiler in Zurich in 1925 and entered in the Zurich commercial register as a stock corporation on August 15, 1925. How this name came about, however, can no longer be determined exactly, since even Gottlieb Duttweiler - who always claimed to have invented it himself - explained different versions. For example, that the name stands for the original positioning of the company, that is, in terms of price in the middle between en-wholesale ( wholesale ) and en-détail ( retail ), i.e. “mi-gros” (“medium -sized trade ”), and thus alludes to the fact that the prices are almost the same as for wholesale products. The explanation that the name is composed of the French "demi" and "en gros" is therefore also possible. Both variants have a similar background. The fact is that the name can be understood and pronounced in all four national languages.
The orange logo shows the name Migros in capital letters . The representation is often reduced to a capitalized "M". The company is often referred to as the “orange giant” because of its corporate color.
Migros is a conglomerate of various cooperatives, stock corporations and foundations, which are collectively referred to as the “Migros Community”. The group is represented externally by the Migros-Genossenschafts-Bund (MGB) based in Zurich . The FMC is legally a cooperative society that qualifies as a cooperative association in accordance with Articles 921–925 of the Swiss Code of Obligations .
The regional cooperatives form the core of Migros. Ten cooperatives have existed since 1998 (each with headquarters and a share in the cooperative capital of the MGB):
- Migros Cooperative Zurich based in Zurich , 32.3%
- Migros Aare cooperative based in Moosseedorf , 19.8%
- Migros Cooperative Eastern Switzerland based in Gossau SG , 11.4%
- Migros Basel cooperative based in Basel , 10.0%
- Société coopérative Migros Genève , based in Carouge , 7.2%
- Société coopérative Migros Vaud based in Ecublens VD , 4.8%
- Migros Cooperative Lucerne based in Dierikon , 4.6%
- Société coopérative Migros Neuchâtel-Friborg based in Marin-Epagnier , 4.4%
- Cooperativa Migros Ticino , based in Sant'Antonino , 3.8%
- Migros Wallis cooperative based in Martigny , 1.7%
Traditionally the largest (in terms of number of members and sales) of the former 13 cooperatives was Zurich. In several mergers between 1967 and 1998, the number of cooperatives was reduced to the current ten, resulting in the two large cooperatives Migros Aare and Migros Ostschweiz . Five cooperatives in their old form have disappeared as a result:
- Migros Cooperative Aargau / Solothurn, Suhr - part of Migros Aare (1998)
- Migros Cooperative Bern, Moosseedorf - new Migros Aare (1998)
- Migros Glarus Cooperative, Glarus - part of Migros Zurich (1967)
- Migros Cooperative Winterthur / Schaffhausen, Winterthur - part of Migros Ostschweiz (1998)
- Migros Cooperative St. Gallen, Gossau SG - new Migros Eastern Switzerland (1998)
The Federation of Migros Cooperatives was founded in 1941 by the regional cooperatives as a subsidiary. Today's ten cooperatives are the sole owners of the MGB, whose share certificates they own. The cooperatives are autonomous, prepare their own annual financial statements and have unrestricted land and staff sovereignty in the core business, the retail trade under the name Migros .
The regional cooperatives are owned by the members residing in the area of activity. Since every natural person or household can become a member of the cooperative and thus formally co-owner of a Migros cooperative, the company has broad support among the population.
Assembly of delegates
As the highest body, the delegates' assembly of the FMC forms the "parliament" of Migros.
The 111-member assembly of delegates decides, among other things, on the fundamental definition and change of business policy as well as changes to the statutes. It decides on the annual report of the administration, the annual accounts, the use of the FMC's balance sheet profit and the discharge of the administration and the general management. The assembly of delegates is also responsible for electing and dismissing members of the administration and their president as well as the auditors. It confirms the President of the DG in his capacity as a member of the administration. The tasks and competencies of the assembly of delegates are described in the statutes.
The administration determines the goals of the entire group, elects the general management, which embodies the operational management, and is the highest authority with regard to the organization of the FMC.
The administration, which has at least 21 members, consists of internal members who are employed within the Migros community and seven to nine external members. The members are usually proposed for election by the existing administration; however, the delegates have, at least formally, the right to propose candidates themselves. The administration is then elected by the assembly of delegates for a generally fixed term of four years. The maximum term of office was set at four terms.
The highest position is the president of the administration, the president of the general management, who represents the FMC on the board of directors, as well as one representative each of the ten regional cooperatives have a permanent seat in the administration; As a rule, the manager of the respective cooperative takes over this seat, which is formally open to a member of the administration or the cooperative council. Two members are elected as employee representatives, one of whom must be employed by the MGB.
The administration consists of 23 people and was elected for a term of office from 2016 to 2020. The then incumbent president of the administration resigned in 2019. At the assembly of delegates on March 23, 2019, the replacement election was made and Ursula Nold was elected as the first woman as president. She had prevailed against the candidate Jeannine Pilloud .
The general management forms the operational management of the FMC. It is the top management level of all Migros subsidiaries and the directly subordinate foundations, but not of the ten cooperatives that have autonomous management structures at the cooperative level. The general management can only exert an indirect influence in these, as a pure coordination point between the cooperatives, which have to make decisions by consensus.
The highest position in the management is classically referred to as the “President of the General Management”, although the English-language term Chief Executive Officer (CEO), which is perceived as universal, is now often portrayed in the media . The GD President is appointed by the Board of Directors and must be confirmed as a member of the Board of Directors by the Assembly of Delegates.
The other six members of the executive board are also formally appointed by the board of directors, but the board of directors usually gives the general director a free hand in filling vacancies and in fact only confirms existing members with his consent. The members of the General Management are appointed as heads of a department. The latter form functional units of the group as a whole, which support the cooperatives internally as service providers (marketing, suppliers).
The Executive Board is currently composed as follows:
|Fabrice Zumbrunnen||President of the General Management||since 2018|
|Sarah Kreienbühl||Department I (Human Resources, Communication, Culture, Leisure)||since 2018|
|Matthias Wunderlin||Department II (Marketing)||since 2019|
|Rainer Baumann||Department III (Technology, IT & Logistics)||since 2019|
|Armando Santacesaria||Department IV (Industry)||since 2019|
|Joerg feed||Department V (Finance)||since 1999|
|Beat Zahnd||Department VI (Commerce)||since 2016|
The Vice President of the General Management is the head of the Finance Department. The six department heads also usually hold the position of chairman of the board of directors of the FMC stock corporations that report directly to them.
Previous Presidents of the General Management
- Gottlieb Duttweiler (Managing Director of Migros AG 1925–1941, President of the Managing Administration of the FMC 1941–1957, President of the Managing Administration Delegation 1957–1962)
- Rudolf Suter (1962–1976)
- Pierre Arnold (1976-1984)
- Jules Kyburz (1984-1992)
- Eugen Hunziker (1992–1997)
- Peter Everts (1997-2001)
- Anton Scherrer (President of the Executive Administrative Delegation 2001–2002, President of the General Management 2002–2005)
- Herbert Bolliger (2005-2017)
At Migros, the Economic Policy Directorate is responsible for lobbying and public affairs , which, in addition to economic policy, also includes M-Infoline customer service . It reports to the President of the General Management. From 2003 to 2018, Martin Schläpfer was the head of management . He and his deputy, Jürg Maurer, are members of the Swiss Public Affairs Society (SPAG) . They received the access badge for the Federal Palace from National Councilor Corinna Eichenberger and National Councilor Stefan Müller-Altermatt. Gabi Buchwalder represents Migros in the Federal Commission for Consumer Questions (EKK). Migros is also a member of the Swiss retail trade interest group (IG DHS) and the Swiss agricultural sector interest group (IGAS).
Women at Migros
Women have played a central role in Migros history from the very beginning. They were seen as customers and allies. An example of this is that Gottlieb Duttweiler, in his newspaper text advertisements in the newspaper, had already called for women to vote in the 1930s . The Migros founder Gottlieb Duttweiler also wrote in his fifteen theses from 1950 : "The woman's heart is the safest place to keep our ideas - there it has to be preserved and increased."
Women, like the economist Elsa Gasser, were also involved early on in managerial positions and important company decisions . For years she was a close advisor to Duttweiler and later active as a manager at Migros. Among other things, the introduction of self-service shops, the expansion of the range to include household and everyday items, the purchase of Ex Libris and the inclusion of records in the Ex Libris range were decisions that were largely influenced by Gasser.
Seventy percent of Migros customers and sixty percent of employees are currently women. In the squad it is only 30 percent. A large number of the women employed by Migros work in positions with little managerial responsibility, although there have been constant improvements in the recent past. Gisèle Girgis was a member of the Migros General Management for a long time and then ran for president, but lost the election. There has never been a female president at Migros. Many women also work part-time at Migros, as in other companies, in order to be able to combine their work with raising children. Here in particular, the wages that Migros pays are relatively low and it is difficult to move up from a part-time position to the management team. However, Migros is also committed to improving the compatibility of family and work for women. Women are granted 18 weeks of maternity leave with full pay, which exceeds the legal requirements. Migros also grants care leave in the event of illness of children or relatives. Family allowances are also paid and crèche places are organized. Migros has been running a women's organization since 1957, which was called the Swiss Federation of Migros Cooperatives when it was founded. The aim at that time was to stand up for the interests of the family. Today the organization is called forum Elle and has over 10,000 members in 16 Swiss cantons. The organization not only offers a wide range of offers for members of the cooperative, but also for Migros customers.
At the moment (2018), Sarah Kreinbühl, as the head of the Human Resources and Communication department, is the only woman in the Migros general management with seven members. Four of the 23 members of the administration are female, which means that the proportion of women on this body is 17%.
Foundation as Migros AG
Gottlieb Duttweiler , through the stimulus of the First World War came to power, lost it again in the postwar years. His attempt to emigrate to Brazil with his wife also failed. Back in Switzerland, Duttweiler built up - analogous to the ideas of Taylorism and Fordism - a retail business that is to be regarded as a discounter by today's standards : efficiency through quantity, high turnover, little profit. In order to keep costs down, sales from moving trucks were organized. On 25 August 1925, the first five drove Ford T - mobile shop Migros in Zurich from. Migros has also been producing its own products since 1928, the first being a sweet cider from the newly acquired " alcohol-free Weine AG ".
Established grocers felt attacked. So they tried together with parties, politicians and trade unions to ruin Migros. The consumers, however, recognized the value of Migros and it became more and more successful. Shortly afterwards, Migros expanded into other cantons and opened shops as well as sales vehicles.
In some cantons, Migros was then banned for years or decades by political resolutions. It was also affected by the branch ban that came into force in 1933 . However, that did not slow the success of Migros. In 1935 Migros founded the travel agency Hotelplan and in 1937 a giro service. In 1936 Gottlieb Duttweiler founded his own political party, the State Ring of Independents (LdU). The party was nicknamed the Migros Party .
Early years of the Federation of Migros Cooperatives
In accordance with his social attitude, Gottlieb Duttweiler and his wife Adele bequeathed Migros to their customers in 1941 when the company became a cooperative. In 1942 the Migros magazine Wir Brückenbauer was launched; since 2004 the magazine has been called Migros-Magazin . Today this is one of the highest-circulation journals in Switzerland. Every member of the cooperative - whose membership is free of charge - receives the sheet free of charge. The Migros Club Schools were founded in 1944 with the aim of enabling further education for the people on favorable terms. Today the club schools are one of the most successful institutions in adult education; over 600 different courses are offered and are attended by around 380,000 people.
In 1948, Migros pioneered self-service shops based on the idea of Elsa Gasser , a Polish émigré who advised Duttweiler with a doctorate in economics. At the beginning of the 1950s, Migros introduced its own restaurants, also offered non-food items, and founded the bookstore Ex Libris . In 1952, Gottlieb Duttweiler initiated the construction of the cargo ship Adele and her sister ship Amelia . Duttweiler was the founder and president of Reederei Zürich AG; The shipping company was owned by the Federation of Migros Cooperatives until it was dissolved in 2000. Migros has had its own chain of petrol stations called Migrol since 1954 . This offered gasoline cheaper than the competition. In 1957 the Migros Culture Percentage was launched; since then, Migros has been investing 1% of sales in culture and training. In 1957, Migros entered the banking business with Migros Bank . The subsidiary Migros Türk , which later became independent, was founded in 1954. A year later, Migros had its own insurance company , Secura . This was sold to Generali in 1999 , which in 2000 merged with “Schweizer Union” and Fortuna to form “Generali Schweiz”. In times of administrative power were at Micarna also forced laborers employed.
After the Duttweiler era
The Gottlieb Duttweiler Institute was founded in 1963 and is still an innovative think tank today. In 1979 the then deputy director and head of the institute, Hans A. Pestalozzi , was dismissed without notice by the then boss Pierre Arnold because of radical ideas . In 1980 Pestalozzi forced the M-Spring movement to temporarily open Migros and free elections .
An important point was the introduction of the product declaration and the indication of the expiry date in 1967, which happened under the term migros-data . In 1974 Migros introduced its first line of environmental protection, the M-Sano program. At that time, criteria were defined under the concept of integrated production , which made production, processing and storage less chemical and more environmentally friendly. In 1975 the Glattzentrum and the Shoppyland Schönbühl were opened. In 1978 Migros was the first Swiss company to publish a social balance sheet . In 1985, with the environmental model, ecological factors were included in the Migros model for the first time.
In 1986 Migros opened the first leisure center, the Säntispark in Abtwil SG . In 1987 Migros introduced 16 weeks of maternity leave . In 1990 Migros was involved in the founding of the PET-Recycling Schweiz association to recycle PET beverage bottles; plastic bottles have also been recycled since 2013.
Expansion since the 1990s
In 1993 , Migros expanded to foreign countries close to the border to Austria (was discontinued after four years) and France . The first branch in Germany was opened in 1995 by the Migros Basel cooperative in Lörrach .
In 1997, Migros took over the Globus Group, consisting of the eponymous department store chain “ Magazine zum Globus ”, the department store chain “ ABM Au Bon Marché ”, which has since been discontinued , the “Herren Globus” clothing stores, the Interio furniture stores and the Office World office specialist stores. In 2006, Migros took over the online retailer LeShop.ch . On January 12, 2007, the Federation of Migros Cooperatives announced the takeover of 70% of Denner's share capital. The takeover was approved on September 4, 2007 by the Competition Commission under various conditions.
In 2007, Migros was the first major Swiss company to introduce two-week paternity leave . In the same year, Migros Aare launched the new local supply concept VOI. In 2009, Migros launched Migrolino, a new convenience shop format for train stations and petrol stations across Switzerland.
In 2010, Migros launched migipedia.ch. The platform offers customers the opportunity to rate products and submit comments. In 2011, Migros Zurich opened the first Migros-Alnatura Switzerland branch together with the German organic supermarket Alnatura .
In 2013, the organizational merger of Scana Lebensmittel and Cash + Carry Angehrn to form Saviva AG was completed. CCA and Scana will remain operationally independent business units and will continue to appear on the market under their brands. The Mérat & Cie. AG is also integrated into the umbrella brand. In the same year, Migros Zurich took over the German retailer Tegut and announced that the four Migros branches in Germany will be sold to the REWE Group on October 1st of that year .
In 2015 Saviva took over the Lüchinger + Schmid Group.
The sale of Cash + Carry Angehrn to Demaurex & Cie was announced in September 2017 . In October, Migros announced that it would sell the Office World Group (OWiba) to the Austrian MTH Retail Group (MTH). The transaction is subject to approval by the Austrian competition authorities .
On January 2, 2018, Zumbrunnen's first day of work as the new Migros boss, he started a tightening program. It is called “Fast forward”. The aim of the exercise, which is accompanied by the Düsseldorf-based management consultancy Batten & Company : Cut off fat. With this, the boss tackles a topic that many cooperative heads have long warned: The headquarters on Zurich's Limmatplatz work sluggishly, often multi-lane and is organizationally inefficient. “Fast forward” calls into question the functions of the headquarters. In June 2018, the FMC first announced that it would cut 290 jobs at its headquarters in Zurich . As a result, Migros Ostschweiz announced in June 2019 that it would cut 90 positions. In July it became known that Migros Zurich will cut almost 40 jobs. In September, Migros Aare announced that it would cut around 300 jobs within the next 24 months.
At the end of June 2019, the MGB announced that moderately profitable subsidiaries of the Commerce department were up for sale, namely Globus, Interio, Depot and M-Way:
- The sale of M-Way to the Swiss E-Mobility Group was announced on September 27, 2019.
- A partial sale to XXXLutz was announced for Interio on November 29, 2019 . Six of the eleven branches will be taken over in the course of 2020 and converted into Mömax locations, with 200 of the 300 employees expected to be able to be taken over.
- The resale of Depot and Gries Deco Holding to Christian Gries was announced on December 13, 2019. The transaction is likely to result in a book loss on loans granted for MGB of around CHF 400 million in 2019 .
- On February 4, 2020, Migros announced that a joint venture between Signa and Central Group would take over the magazine zum Globus and eight properties belonging to it. The transaction is expected to be completed by mid-2020, subject to the approval of the European competition authorities.
In addition, Migros announced at the end of January 2020 that it wanted to sell the Glattzentrum .
The core business of Migros is the «cooperative retail trade». In addition to this business segment, which generates a good 60% of group sales, Migros also includes various specialist stores and restaurants.
Migros prides itself on not selling either alcohol or tobacco products . This is intended to follow the principle formulated by Duttweiler under the designation “ Public Health ” that the sale of luxury foods should not be promoted in terms of price. As early as the 1990s, Migros' statutes were amended so that the ban only affects actual M branches. All other subsidiaries are allowed to sell alcohol and tobacco. Up until 2010, for example, you received Cumulus points when you buy alcohol at a Migrolino petrol station . In addition, you still receive Cumulus points in every VOI branch.
After the drought and heat in Europe in 2018 , Migros Aare announced shortly before New Year's Eve that it would immediately and permanently stop selling fireworks . In July 2019, it was announced that the Eastern Switzerland and Lucerne cooperatives would also cease sales with immediate effect and the Basel and Zurich cooperatives after August 1st . However, environmentalists dismiss this as greenwashing , as Migros would have much more effective options, such as more organic food and fewer imports, etc. to do something for the environment.
Migros also advertises its own brand policy. According to its own account, Migros achieves over 90 percent of its sales with its own brands - a significant part of which is produced by M-Industry.
The first year when Migros consisted only of sales vehicles, the first serviced shop in Zurich followed in 1926 . The latter form of distribution was finally completely replaced by the self-service shops launched in 1948 . In the 1960s, the construction of shopping centers began in Switzerland , in which Migros was also actively involved.
As an indirect consequence of this, Migros developed a simple naming system for the branches of the cooperatives, which indicates the size of the location and the scope of the range. An M- Migros (810 m² on average) is a rather small grocery store that sells everyday goods (groceries, hygiene products) as a local supplier ; An MM Migros (an average of 2292 m²) has a larger selection of food and a wide range of non-food products and often also includes a bakery , a restaurant , a take-away or a specialist market . An MMM- Migros (on average 7720 m²) offers practically the entire product range of Migros and is usually found in shopping centers in good traffic areas.
In order to increase the attractiveness of the “orange” branches, the group's own locations (properties, shopping centers) began leasing sales areas to smaller retailers with a highly complementary range of luxury goods - namely tobacco products and alcohol. Previously preferred to rent to Pick Pay , these locations were "inherited" by Denner at the beginning of 2006 - since 2007 a subsidiary of the MGB.
In 2015, Migros opened its first energy-plus branch in Zuzwil SG .
In 1984 the first scanner registers were put into operation. The “Subito” self-service checkout system has been gradually introduced since September 6, 2011 . At the beginning of 2018, 337 branches were equipped with self-checkouts. Of the more than 10,000 cash registers that are in operation, 2,200 are now Subito cash registers. At the end of 2018, 400 branches were equipped with self-checkouts and every third person there paid with Subito. Extrapolated to all branches, around 25% used the offer. A staff reduction is not sought by the introduction of self-checkout.
Migros specialist stores
The first Migros specialty stores emerged as somewhat separate departments within the large supermarket locations (MM and MMM), which were quickly followed by completely separate sales outlets due to the space requirements. Launched as departments of the supermarkets, the specialist markets will continue to be run by the regional cooperatives; this also applies to the new launches Obi and SportXX , which, contrary to initial intentions, are not managed by separate specialist store subsidiaries.
- Do it + Garden Migros ( DIY store ; 43 branches)
- melectronics (electronics store; 102 branches)
- Micasa (furniture retailer ; 35 branches)
- Obi (building market, Swiss Obi - licensee ; 11 branches)
- SportXX (sporting goods and clothing; 62 branches)
Migros has numerous catering establishments which, depending on their size and location, are connected to Migros shops. These include the self -service Migros restaurants , the Migros Gourmessa and Migros Take Away stalls and the Migros Party Service as a delivery service. In addition, the formats Cha chà (franchising operations; 5 branches), Coffee & Time ( café ; 2 branches) and Chickeria (chicken fast food; 15 branches operated by Migros Ostschweiz ) are also available. The Sessibon format (restaurant and take away) was dissolved in 2010. In August 2015 the first my way branch was opened in Bern , which was closed again in 2017.
In addition, Migros is also active in community catering , such as B. for ABB , Huber + Suhner , Pilatus Aircraft , Rheinmetall Air Defense or the Gewerblich Industrielle Berufsschule Bern . In 2014, Migros was the largest restaurateur in Switzerland. The bottom line is that Migros operates 310 restaurants and take-aways with a total (including communal catering) sales of CHF 676 million.
Gottlieb Duttweiler developed his first activities abroad. In 1932 he bought an agricultural business in Berlin , founded Migros-Vertriebs-GmbH and built up a fleet of 85 vans that stopped at up to 2,000 stops in the greater Berlin area. However, the new competition met with a lot of resistance from local retailers and branded goods manufacturers. After the National Socialists came to power in government and administration in Germany, the pressure increased. In March 1933 Migros Berlin was on lists for the so-called spring boycotts of the NSDAP, was dubbed a "Jewish company" and harassed, SA men harassed customers. In December 1933, Migros announced the dissolution of the Berlin subsidiary.
From 1937 to 1969 there was a ban on department stores in Liechtenstein . Today Migros operates a branch there, and there are also two Migros partners there.
Since 1954, with an interruption from 1974 to 1992, Migros has again been active abroad. In 1954, Migros founded the Migros Türk subsidiary . The Turkish subsidiary has been independent since 1974, but was allowed to continue the corporate identity of Migros Switzerland at that time. Migros has had several locations in France and Germany since 1992. The locations managed by Migros France are two hypermarkets (supermarkets with various specialist electronics stores, among others) in Thoiry and Étrembières and a supermarket with the neighboring Vitam leisure center in Neydens , all of which are close to the border near Geneva .
The German business under its own name is managed by the Migros Basel cooperative through the subsidiary Migros Deutschland GmbH based in Lörrach . In addition to the location opened there in 1995, branches were opened in Bad Säckingen (2001–2008), Freiburg im Breisgau (2002), Reutlingen (2008–2012), Ludwigshafen am Rhein (2010) and Ludwigsburg (2011).
On October 11, 2012, the Migros Zurich cooperative announced the purchase of the German food retailer tegut ... based in Fulda , but which continues to operate under this name.
However, the four branches managed by Migros Basel under its own name, including two in-house bakeries, were sold to the Rewe Group with effect from October 1, 2013 , and the restaurant and take-away in Freiburg, which are attached to the Loerrach branch, were closed. On September 28, 2013, the last Migros store in Germany closed with the Freiburg branch.
A commitment by Migros in Austria that started in 1993 was discontinued after four years (see Consumption Austria ). In 2013, Migros Ostschweiz opened its first supermarket in the Principality of Liechtenstein; until now, Migros products have only been sold through partners.
Chocolat Frey AG operates the online shop migros-shop.de to ship the products worldwide . The products are also offered via the amazon.de platform .
In 2017, M-Industry entered into a cooperation with the Chinese online trading platform NetEase Kaola . M-Industrie sells a selected range of Migros products, such as coffee, snacks and drinks, under the name “Orange Garten” on Kaola. An expansion of the range to include Kaola as well as sales via other Chinese online channels are planned. In December, M-Industry entered into a cooperation with China's largest consumer platform Tmall. The online marketplace belongs to the Alibaba group . In 2019 the online shop “Orange Garden” on Tmall was closed and “Orange Garden” will no longer be used as an umbrella brand.
On November 1, 2018, the online shop galaxus.de started selling in Germany. In March 2019 it was announced that Chocolat Frey is now also supplying the US chain Walgreens Boots Alliance .
While in the early years of Migros the sale of own-brand products happened out of necessity, there is now the opposite case, that independent entrepreneurs - in different degrees of cooperation with Migros - run a limited Migros range. These shops are supplied either by the respective cooperative or by the Migros distribution centers.
- migrolino (migrolino AG) - Delivered from the Migros distribution center in Suhr. (325 branches)
- Retailer with Migros products (MP) Migros Partner (50 locations)
- VOI - Migros Partner (small shops; 57 branches)
The oldest variants are the «MP», which work as independent retailers. You are legally and financially independent. In addition to Migros articles, they also carry supplementary products such as wines, spirits and tobacco products.
As the actual franchising , avec was finally launched together with Valora and the SBB ; the joint venture Cevanova concluded franchise agreements with private tenants who operate shops at train stations and petrol stations. The joint venture was dissolved in mid-2008 and the Cevanova locations were split up between Valora and Migros; while Valora was able to continue to use the name avec , Migros locations very quickly emerged from migrolino locations. One consequence of this separation was the discontinuation of the Migros product ranges for the avec. Chain after a transition period of two years. Migros continues to expand under the name migrolino AG and entered into a partnership for petrol station shops with Royal Dutch Shell in 2008 and with the State Oil Company of Azerbaijan Republic (SOCAR) in 2012 .
The VOI store concept originally introduced by the Migros Aare cooperative in 2007 is also a franchise operation; Particularly small-scale M-branches, which serve to supply districts or villages, are to be taken over by the existing workforce as franchisees and operated on their own account. This corresponds closely to the MP concept, but with a uniform regional appearance under the common franchise brand. The VOI employees are not subject to the collective employment contract (GAV) of the Migros Group. The franchisees are not bound by the minimum wages stipulated there , nor do the staff benefit from the annual wage negotiations between unions and Migros. That saves personnel costs . Some of the focuses at VOI are products from the region as well as alcohol and tobacco products. The 30th VOI branch was opened at the end of 2017 .
Migros runs an Alnatura chain with 13 branches in Switzerland . In addition, there are 24 Migros Outlet branches in which food and non-food promotions can be found. Migros is the general tenant of the Welle7 shopping center at Bern train station.
In contrast to the cooperative Migros specialist stores, a number of independently operating MGB subsidiaries were combined in the new Department VI (retail) in 2008. What these companies have in common is that they appear on the market as - mostly bought-in - independent brands; accordingly, Duttweiler's principle of “public health” (renouncing the sale of alcohol and tobacco) does not apply to these companies.
- Denner (majority since 2007, 100% since 2009)
- Migrol ( petrol stations & heating oil)
- Magazine zum Globus (100% since 1997)
- Digitec Galaxus (since 2012 30%, since 2015 70%)
- Migrolino ( convenience shops )
- LeShop.ch ( online supermarket , 80% since 2006)
- Ex Libris (media, since 1950, 100% since 1956)
On April 27, 2014, Migros announced that it would reduce its share of almost 25% in Charles Vögele to 19.7%. At the beginning of 2016, the Federation of Migros Cooperatives and the Migros Pension Fund together only had a share of around 10%. The stake in Charles Vögele is said to have resulted in a loss of more than CHF 20 million for Migros. On March 16, 2020 it was announced that Sharoo would be fully taken over by the AMAG Group . Migros has held a 19.9% stake in Sharoo since 2017 and previously with 59.1%.
The Migros Industry Group , also known as M-Industry , comprises the production companies of the Migros Association. 23 companies in Switzerland and their nine abroad manufacture over 20,000 different products. Due to the politically motivated refusal of delivery by various manufacturers in the early years of Migros, the company was forced to set up its own manufacturer network. The first company was alcohol-free Weine AG Meilen , which is now called Midor . Some food factories were also bought up by Migros.
This enabled Migros to manufacture its own range of products cheaply. A larger selection of branded products has only recently become available. Migros industry products are also exported abroad, often under different brand names. Since 2018 z. B. produces various own brands for Amazon.com .
The following are among the most important production companies. The 2015 sales in CHF million for the individual business areas are shown in brackets .
Meat, poultry, fish (1'531):
Dairy products & cheese (1,038):
Mifroma SA, Ursy , several locations
- Cheese aging and distribution
Estavayer Lait SA (ELSA), Estavayer-le-Lac
- Milk, dairy products, convenience products (salad dressings, vinegars, tofu)
Bread, baked goods & pasta, ice cream products (1,015):
Jowa AG, Volketswil , several locations
- Baked goods, confectionery products, freshly baked products, pasta
Midor AG, Miles
- Biscuits, pastries, ice cream, "party snacks"
Chocolate & Chewing Gum, Coffee, Rice (797):
Chocolat Frey AG, Buchs AG
- Chocolate, confectionery products, chewing gum, confectionery
Delica AG, Birsfelden
- Coffee roastery, packaging line, dry products; formerly Migros Betriebe Birsfelden AG (MBB)
Riseria Taverne SA, Torricella tavern (since 1957)
- Rice processing
Convenience products & beverages (662):
Bischofszell Nahrungsmittel AG (BINA), Bischofszell
- Preserves, fruit juices, potato products, convenience products
Aproz Sources Minérales SA, Nendaz
- Mineral water, beverages
Mibelle AG, Buchs AG (Mibelle Group)
- Cosmetics, care products
Mifa AG , Frenkendorf (Mibelle Group)
- Detergents, cleaning agents, liquid fats, spreads
Migros industry products for export are sold by Swiss Delice AG in Suhr . In particular, dairy products, chocolate, pastries and potato products are exported under the label of the same name.
In addition, Migros has entered into close partnerships with several companies. They are mostly small or medium-sized family businesses that exclusively supply Migros with their own brands for the retail trade in Switzerland, and continue to operate independently and under their own name in other areas (wholesale, abroad). These include, for example, the watch manufacturer Mondaine (until 2010), cough drop manufacturer F. Hunziker + Co AG in Dietikon and Haco AG in Gümligen , which produces the Farmer Stems. In order to be able to offer laboratory meat in the future , M-Industry acquired a stake in the Israeli start-up Aleph Farms in 2019.
The Migros Group is active in the wholesale business with Saviva AG . This is made up of formerly independent companies that, with the exception of Scana, continue to operate under their traditional names:
Scana Lebensmittel AG, Regensdorf
- Delivery wholesaling for catering establishments
Lüchinger + Schmid AG, Kloten
- Trading and manufacturing company for eggs
- Mérat & Cie. AG, Bern
- Trading and manufacturing company for meat
Migros Group has with the Migros Bank has its own bank and with the Migros Pension Fund over one of the largest pension funds in Switzerland and is an important property owner . Migros' portfolio includes B. more than 13,000 apartments, including luxury apartments . The latter are criticized by Natalie Imboden , general secretary of the Swiss Tenants Association , as not cooperative, but totally profit-driven.
Logistics & IT
Department III of the FMC includes the development, implementation, operation and maintenance of group logistics. The IT area and the data center are integrated in the MGB, the national logistics centers are operated by two legally independent subsidiaries.
Migros distribution company Neuendorf AG, Neuendorf
- Logistics platform for non-food , near-food , frozen and textile products
Migros distribution center Suhr AG, Suhr
- Distribution center for food products
culture and education
As the largest adult education institution in Switzerland, the Migros Club School forms the core . The club school carries out naturalization tests for the canton of Bern on behalf of municipalities . In addition, the area of culture and education includes the language travel company Eurocentres and the Migros Museum for Contemporary Art . These activities are financed by the “Migros Culture Percentage ” from group income . This was launched in 1957; Migros invests one percent of sales in culture and training every year.
The most important publication is the weekly Migros magazine , which is published in German, French and Italian ( Azione ). Migros also publishes the cooking magazine Migusto , which appears ten times a year, in the three national languages. Migros also publishes the well-being and sustainability magazine Vivai, which is also trilingual, six times a year . Vivai appears with a circulation of 248,067 copies (WEMF 2017) and reaches 1,020,000 readers (Publicom 2017). The last edition of Vivai is planned for October 1, 2018. As a family club, Famigros has been accompanying its customers from pregnancy onwards since 2012. The advertising budget Migros is (according to an estimate) about 260 million francs per year.
freetime and sports
The Migros cooperatives perform various leisure and sports companies, this includes the fitness and wellness chain Fitness Park , six golf courses under the name Golf Park , three water parks Aqua Park , two Sportpark -Locations, as well as the so-called sports and adventure park "Milandia" the tennis courts and has a climbing center. The Migros Club School offers a variety of courses from the fields of sport and leisure as part of the exercise & health and culture & creativity areas .
In addition to the fitness park locations, the acquired fitness centers of the cooperatives are summarized under the name "Migros Fitness" , including Activ Fitness (Migros Zurich), Flower Power (Migros Aare), Migros Fitnesscenter (Migros Basel), ONE Training Center (Migros Luzern) and the Only Fitness discount offer (Migros Aare). In May 2017, Silhouette Wellness was taken over by Migros Zurich and integrated into Activ Fitness by mid-2018 . As of 2020, MFit will also be integrated into Activ Fitness . In addition, Migros Zurich has been represented in Germany with fitness and wellness centers under the Elements brand since November 2012 .
The leisure facilities also include the “ Park im Grünen ” parks financed by the culture percentage. The Zurich “Im Grüene” foundation from 1946 comes from Gottlieb and Adele Duttweiler, who donated their “Zur Langhalden” country estate in Rüschlikon, which became the first park in Grüene . The 1970 Pré Vert du Signal de Bougy Foundation in Vaud donated the second “Parc Pré Vert” on the Signal de Bougy , which opened in 1977. The Basel-Landschaft Foundation “Im Grünen” from 1978 donated the third park in the green, in Münchenstein on the site of the Grün 80 . The fourth Gurten Foundation - Park im Grünen from 1995 donated the fourth Park im Grünen on the Gurten , which was opened in 1999.
The online shops in the specialist stores continued to gain in importance in 2017 (see digital transformation ), which is reflected in sales growth of 25.0%. PickMup, the collection and return network for online orders that has existed since June 2015, gained numerous new partners in the past year. Purchases from 14 different online shops can be picked up and returned at over 746 PickMup / branch locations in Switzerland. In addition, 3 automatic PickMup boxes have been put into operation so far, which work in a similar way to the postal parcel machines .
Swiss Post parcels can be picked up and posted in 15 branches so far (including Denner and Migrolino) . In May 2019, the business was expanded to 300 Migros branches and a further 91 so-called service points were added in October 2019.
Medbase AG, which was founded in 2001 and has been part of Migros since 2010, offers various services in the healthcare sector . The company operates 55 medical centers in eleven cantons. The services fall into the categories of therapy , medical massage , check-ups , performance diagnostics , complementary medicine , courses , online counseling, occupational medicine , prevention and rehabilitation . The Topwell pharmacies have also been part of the Medbase group since 2019 . There is a cooperation with the Zur Rose pharmacy . There is currently one shop-in-shop pharmacy in Basel , Bern and Zurich . The Zur Rose pharmacies are to be rolled out further from 2020 and an online shop is to be opened.
Other services of the Migros Group are the Gottlieb Duttweiler Institute as a think tank , as well as in the area of quality assurance , the Swiss Quality Testing Services . The Limmatdruck AG was the competence center for media and packaging, it was the 2011 rlc packaging group sold.
M-Way was founded in 2010 as a subsidiary of Migros with the aim of specializing in electromobility with its own specialist stores at an early stage (see traffic turnaround ) . M-Way offers its customers, among other things, a range of electric vehicles such as e-bikes , e-cargo bikes and electric scooters as well as infrastructure solutions, accessories and a service. At the end of September 2019, M-Way was sold to the E-Mobility Group. carvelo2go was launched in 2015 as part of the Swiss cargo bike initiative carvelo of the TCS mobility academy and the Engagement Migros development fund . The aim is to anchor the shared use of cargo bikes among the general public in everyday life and to integrate it into the mobility networks. The cooperation with Engagement Migros expired in December 2019 as agreed.
facts and figures
The facts and figures of the Migros Group for 2019 (the change compared to the previous year in brackets):
- Sales: CHF 28,683 million (+ 0.8%)
- Profit: CHF 335 million (−29.6%)
- Salaried employees: 106,119 people (−0.5%) 75,606 FTE (+0.1%)
- Equity: CHF 18,781 million or 27.5% of total assets (+ 2%)
- Branch network Switzerland: 737 locations (including specialist stores) (+1.4%)
Distribution of Migros grocery stores in Switzerland by store format in 2019:
- 363 M-Migros (average 821 m²)
- 205 MM-Migros (average 2342 m²)
- 50 MMM-Migros (average 7614 m²)
- 50 specialist market centers, M-Parcs and Obi
- 43 specialty shops (including outlets and Alnatura markets)
- 26 catering establishments (independent)
- 159 M-restaurants (integrated in retail stores)
Product lines, labels and programs
"M-Budget", "M-Classic" and "Migros Sélection"
In 1996 Migros launched the M-Budget line . In the beginning there were 70 products. By 2006 (shortly after the market entry of Aldi Suisse in Switzerland), the range 500 is M-Budget products expanded. "The M-Budget products should look as cheap as possible," was the order given to the packaging designer. However, the range of M-Budget products is currently being reduced again, as many products cannot be sold at a profit. Migros concentrates on a core range that achieves good sales figures.
Swisscom has been selling the M-Budget Mobile brand through Migros since 2005 . It is a prepaid and subscription offer for mobile phones . The service runs on the Swisscom network.
In autumn 2006, Migros launched an M-Budget credit card in collaboration with Mastercard and GE Money Bank . In 2010 it was renamed Cumulus Mastercard . With around 700,000 customers, it is the most widely used credit card in Switzerland and is now issued by the Cembra Money Bank .
On November 1, 2018 , the first M-Budget hotel room was opened in the Hotel Säntispark, which is owned by the Migros Ostschweiz Cooperative. On February 1, 2019, a second room with M-Budget equipment went into operation.
As a counterpart to the cheap M-Budget line, Migros launched the new Migros Sélection product line in September 2005 as a “luxury brand” . The Budget and Sélection lines are heavily priced. They form the two poles of the range, the classic range is in between. Migros Sélection offers are much more expensive, but behind them there are often banal mass products or sham packaging , as the Kassensturz has repeatedly proven.
At the end of March 2009, Migros began uniformly positioning the entire classic range under the new M-Classic brand .
In 2004, the “Heidi” brand was launched for milk and dairy products, which is used to identify products made from mountain milk from conventional agriculture . The mountain farmers benefit from a sales channel for their products, but are not paid better. The costs for transport, processing and marketing are higher for Heidi mountain milk than for normal milk. The mountain areas in which mountain milk can be produced are determined by the federal government and cover most of Switzerland. Heidi meat is now also available.
In 2008, Migros, in partnership with IP-Suisse, launched the “TerraSuisse” label, which is used to identify products from integrated production . This label generated sales of 729 million francs in 2019. In the 2015 Label Ranking , the label was rated “Recommended” with 117 out of 200 points .
Organic food that at least complies with the EU organic regulation is sold under the “Migros Bio” label . In the 2015 label ranking , the label was rated as “highly recommended” with 141 out of 200 points , with imported products and raw materials generally only complying with the EU organic regulation (in the 2015 ranking with 83 points, it came in the very last place among conditionally recommendable ) correspond. In 2017, sales of organic products at Migros rose by around 10%. With a market share of 32.8%, it positioned itself right behind the market leader Coop (44.3%) in second place in the Swiss organic market .
There is a big difference between Migros Bio and Coop Naturaplan. B. in the processing of the products. For example, organic whole milk is filtered at Migros, but Coop voluntarily dispenses with this additional processing step. In principle, Migros products are processed in accordance with the federal organic guidelines and Coop in accordance with the stricter Bio Suisse guidelines . Coloring elderberry juice and natural flavors - such as those used in Migros' organic raspberry yoghurt, for example, are not found in Coop's counterparts - for this, Coop uses 0.5 percent more raspberries.
In addition, Migros was confronted with the criticism that it would disregard the Fairtrade rules in the tenders .
In August 2019, the Migros Cooperative Lucerne began adding Demeter products to its range in some branches .
Migros also tries to use a little less pesticides for products from conventional agriculture . The peels of all the lemons and oranges available over the counter are no longer treated with pesticides after the harvest. B. with beeswax or shellac . In the case of Swiss eggs (excluding imported goods), it was announced that free-range farming would be replaced by free-range farming by 2020 . The cooperatives Aare, Geneva, Lucerne and Zurich have already converted. In the future, Migros also wants to rely entirely on free-range husbandry for imported eggs.
Monte Generoso cake , biscuit with a cream filling and cocoa glaze, has been produced since the late 1950s and was sold more than seven million times between 1997 and 2009. Tourist chocolate has been produced since around 1970 and was sold over 50 million times between 1998 and 2009. 28.3 million pieces of the ice cream sticks introduced in 1975 were purchased in 2009. Handy dishwashing detergent, which has been on the market since the early 1960s , is sometimes used as a generic term and is sold over four million times a year.
In the area of Customer Loyalty Management , Migros 1997, the customer loyalty program introduced "M-Cumulus", which is based on a bonus point system. With the customer card , points can be collected with every purchase, which are paid out in the form of value coupons when sufficient. In addition to the bank statement sent every two months, participants also receive a range of discount coupons and advertising brochures . The data collected from the purchases are also evaluated internally for statistics and marketing.
In 2012, Migros launched “Generation M”, a sustainability program by the Jung von Matt advertising agency , in which binding sustainability promises are made. For example:
- We promise to only use sustainably grown palm oil by 2015 .
- We promise that by the end of 2017 all of our bananas will be sustainable.
- We promise that by 2020 our fish supply will come from sustainable sources .
In order to reduce food waste, the Migros Cooperative Lucerne has been testing the Too Good To Go app in three branches since October 2018 . Three Alnatura markets were added at the end of November. In December, the Migros Basel cooperative also joined the test. In March 2019, the Migros Cooperative Lucerne announced that the offer had been expanded to all branches. In January 2020 it was announced that Too Good To Go would be offered throughout Switzerland. Surplus food is also given to organizations such as Tischlein deck dich or the Schweizer Tafel . However, most of it is still fermented, including packaging, in biogas plants , which unfortunately further promotes the emission of microplastics into the environment.
The Migros app has already recorded over a million installations on Google Play . With the app, u. a. the Cumulus card can be digitized. In the area of mobile payment , a. Credit cards that PostFinance Card and Twint support as payment methods. Other apps were also published, such as the Amigos social shopping app launched in April 2018 as a pilot project in the Bern and Zurich area. Another pilot project in the area of online shopping followed in August with myMigros in the Bern area. The first pilot project ended in December 2019, before being put back into operation in March 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic and in collaboration with Pro Senectute . A rolling supermarket has been tested in Bern since October 2018. Products from the Denner and Migros range are offered via the Miacar app and orders are delivered by electric delivery van . Miacar is the first concrete project of Migros Digital Solutions AG, which was founded in August 2018 and which also acts as Sparrow Ventures. As a further venture activity, Migros has been operating its own online flower delivery service under the name SayFlowers since October 2019.
Criticism and controversy
Criticism of the "Bern Declaration"
In June 2012, Migros announced that it would enter into a collaboration with the Caucasian petrol station operator SOCAR . The Berne Declaration (today Public Eye ) criticizes this, as Socar is a regime-oriented company that is closely linked to the Azerbaijani President Ilham Aliyev . Again and again there were human rights violations on the part of the group, such as forced relocation.
Criticism of leadership policy
Some critics, such as the Sorgim association, claim that Migros no longer corresponds to the ideals of its founder. It is criticized that the cooperative is not run democratically, as it would once have been wanted by Duttweiler and instead only the management decides on all important business strategies.
Alleged anti-Israel political campaign
In 2012 the company was criticized by the Israeli government after it had been announced that it would declare products from the Israeli- occupied Palestinian territories accordingly. The Israeli embassy in Switzerland accused Migros of participating in an "anti-Israel political campaign" aimed at "blackening Israel and determining the future status of the disputed areas in advance."
Bee protection - Generation M
"We promise Noah that from the end of 2014 we will only offer insect and pesticides that do not endanger bees ." This sentence from an advertisement by Migros is misleading in the opinion of the Swiss Fairness Commission . Since insecticides that are considered dangerous to bees were still on offer despite the promise , Migros decided to delete the promise to Noah from the website and to keep the pesticides criticized in the range. They contain the active ingredient lambda cyhalothrin .
Sustainable palm oil
Migros is a founding member of the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) association founded on the initiative of the WWF . The RSPO is criticized for the fact that sustainability goals and social goals are not achieved through certification. Numerous environmental organizations such as Greenpeace or Rettet den Regenwald accuse the RSPO of greenwashing.
With the promise to Generation M that by the end of 2017 only bananas from sustainable cultivation will be offered, Migros has replaced the Bananas from Chiquita certified by the Rainforest Alliance with bananas from Dole certified by the WWF . However, experts from the University of Zurich do not see any improvement in sustainability in the new partnership with the WWF, but they have also been refused a request to visit a Colombian plantation.
The meat processor Micarna and Migros are accused of the fact that the so-called “particularly animal-friendly stables” of Optigal advertising does not even come close to reality (→ Micarna # criticism ).
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- Early documents and newspaper articles on Migros in the 20th century press kit of the ZBW - Leibniz Information Center for Economics .
- ↑ Federation of Migros Cooperatives in the Zefix
- ↑ Personnel indicators . In: report.migros.ch. Retrieved March 24, 2020 .
- ↑ a b Migros Annual Report 2019. In: report.migros.ch. Retrieved March 24, 2020 .
- ↑ a b mw / cpm / sda : Another failed Migros commitment abroad. In: Tages-Anzeiger . June 18, 2013, accessed March 1, 2016 .
- ↑ Karl Lüönd Gottlieb Duttweiler (1888–1962) An Idea with a Future, Volume 72 of the Swiss Pioneers in Business and Technology series , ISBN 3-909059-20-1 , page 28
- ↑ a b c administration. In: migros.ch. Retrieved October 5, 2018 .
- ↑ Sergio Aiolfi and Dieter Bachmann: "I will resign in 2019": Why Migros President Andrea Broggini is leaving the company earlier than planned. In: nzz.ch. October 4, 2018, accessed October 5, 2018 .
- ↑ Battle for Migros top: Is the retail giant getting a president for the first time? In: aargauerzeitung.ch . January 5, 2019, accessed January 5, 2019 .
- ↑ Jeannine Pilloud takes over operational management of Ascom. Retrieved September 8, 2019 .
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- ↑ a b Economic Policy. In: migros.ch. Retrieved December 25, 2018 .
- ↑ Philipp Albrecht: Why Migros gives up lobbying in Bern. In: bilanz.ch . December 22, 2018, accessed December 25, 2018 .
- ↑ a b c Anita Huge: F-Budget. In: The weekly newspaper. February 26, 2004, accessed April 14, 2018 .
- ↑ a b Migros: M16 - Migros Annual Report 2016. (PDF) Migros, 2016, accessed on April 14, 2018 .
- ↑ Migros: Woman, Family & Work. In: Migros. Migros, accessed on April 14, 2018 .
- ^ Forum elle: Forum elle - an eventful story. forum elle, accessed April 14, 2018 .
- ↑ Sergio Aiolfi: «Helpers of the consumers». Gottlieb Duttweiler was born 125 years ago. In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung . August 15, 2013, accessed March 1, 2016 .
- ↑ a b c Migros is a pioneer: yesterday, today and tomorrow. Migros Magazin, Zurich October 3, 2016, cover pages
- ^ Journal of Wir Brückenbauer , Volume 6, No. 37, Issue of April 9, 1948, p. 4 f.
- ↑ Tobias Marti: In Switzerland there was forced labor. Migros also took part. In: blick.ch . June 29, 2019, accessed July 1, 2019 .
- ↑ Competition Commission (September 4, 2007): Conditions for the merger Migros / Denner (excerpt) (PDF; 21 kB)
- ↑ Competition Commission (September 4, 2007): Weko imposes conditions on the Migros / Denner merger.
- ↑ Migros partners in the area with a large range and low prices
- ↑ Smartive develops modular community solution for Migros. In: werbewoche.ch. December 10, 2019, accessed December 11, 2019 .
- ↑ Press release Saviva (PDF). In: cca-angehrn.ch, February 19, 2013, accessed on November 23, 2013.
- ↑ a b Migros closes branches in Freiburg and Lörrach , Badische Zeitung, June 18, 2013.
- ↑ Migros takes over egg specialist Lüchinger + Schmid . In: nzz.ch, January 30, 2015, accessed on November 23, 2017.
- ↑ Saviva focuses on the wholesale delivery business . In: presseportal.ch, September 29, 2017, accessed on November 23, 2017.
- ↑ Migros hands OWiba over to new hands . In: migros.ch, October 16, 2017, accessed on October 16, 2017.
- ↑ New Migros boss: A harder than expected . In: handelszeitung.ch , March 22, 2018, accessed on March 25, 2018.
- ↑ Sergio Aiolfi: Migros is shedding 290 jobs. In: nzz.ch . June 29, 2019, accessed September 17, 2019 .
- ↑ Migros Ostschweiz cuts 90 positions. In: 20min.ch . June 24, 2019, accessed June 24, 2019 .
- ↑ Adi Kälin: Migros is cutting almost forty jobs in Zurich. In: nzz.ch . July 10, 2019, accessed July 13, 2019 .
- ↑ Ulrich Rotzinger, Julia Fritsche: Migros Aare saves and cuts 300 jobs. In: blick.ch . September 17, 2019, accessed September 17, 2019 .
- ↑ Migros is selling Globus, Depot, Interio and M-Way. In: handelszeitung.ch . June 27, 2019, accessed June 27, 2019 .
- ↑ Migros sells E-Bike subsidiary M-Way to a private equity company. In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung . September 27, 2019, accessed December 13, 2019 .
- ↑ m-way is now part of the Swiss E-Mobility Group. September 27, 2019, accessed December 13, 2019 .
- ↑ Migros relies on Micasa and hands over Interio branches. November 29, 2019, accessed December 13, 2019 .
- ↑ Migros sells Gries Deco and Depot back to Christian Gries. Aargauer Zeitung , December 13, 2019, accessed on December 13, 2019 .
- ↑ Christian Gries takes over the Gries Deco Group. December 13, 2019, accessed December 13, 2019 .
- ↑ Owners of the KaDeWe group buy Globus. In: migros.ch. February 4, 2020, accessed February 9, 2020 .
- ↑ Migros puts Glattzentrum up for sale with immediate effect. In: blick.ch . January 31, 2020, accessed January 31, 2020 .
- ↑ Frequently asked questions In: migros.ch , accessed on December 26, 2017
- ↑ Tobias Marti: Migros is hypocritical because it sells alcohol and tobacco In: blick.ch , February 22, 2020, accessed on February 24, 2020
- ^ Benjamin Weinmann: No cumulus points for alcohol. (No longer available online.) In: Schweiz am Sonntag . November 20, 2010, archived from the original on March 4, 2016 ; accessed on March 1, 2016 .
- ↑ a b Migros, which sells alcohol In: tagesanzeiger.ch, December 14, 2017, accessed on December 26, 2017
- ↑ Hans Ulrich Schaad: Migros Aare doesn't let it rip anymore. In: bernerzeitung.ch . December 29, 2018, accessed December 30, 2018 .
- ↑ Fireworks sale at Migros stopped due to drought. In: blick.ch . July 4, 2019, accessed July 4, 2019 .
- ↑ Cornelia Bisch: An alibi exercise for climate protection? In: luzernerzeitung.ch . July 31, 2019, accessed July 31, 2019 .
- ↑ «Own brands remain our foundation». (No longer available online.) In: MigrosMagazin. July 9, 2012, archived from the original on March 4, 2016 ; accessed on March 1, 2016 .
- ↑ Sergio Aiolfi: The retailers have the brand manufacturers firmly under control. In: nzz.ch . January 7, 2020, accessed January 8, 2020 .
- ↑ Orange giant as green pioneer: Migros Zuzwil is the first plus-energy branch in Switzerland. In: tagblatt.ch . January 5, 2019, accessed January 5, 2019 .
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- ↑ a b Migros: Self-Scanning and Self-Checkout in nine pilot branches ( Memento from January 23, 2018 in the Internet Archive ) In: migros.ch, September 2, 2011, accessed on January 22, 2018.
- ↑ Once customers were kings, today they are employees In: watson.ch , January 21, 2018, accessed on January 22, 2018.
- ↑ Laura Frommberg: Every fourth Migros customer pays at the self-check-out. In: tagesanzeiger.ch . December 23, 2018, accessed January 13, 2019 .
- ↑ Claudia Laube: A giant bike moves into the transformer - it makes smaller dealers sweat. In: badenertagblatt.ch . September 27, 2019, accessed September 29, 2019 .
- ↑ Migros: Annual Report 2009 ( Memento of October 27, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) of March 30, 2010, accessed on October 27, 2017.
- ↑ My Way restaurant business - pilot test is ended In: migros.ch, March 10, 2017, accessed on December 3, 2017.
- ↑ Markus Ehinger: Migros takes over the Gibb canteen In: bernerzeitung.ch , November 19, 2015, accessed on October 7, 2018.
- ↑ Thomas Schlittler: For the first time, Migros has more restaurant visitors than McDonald's In: aargauerzeitung.ch , April 1, 2015, accessed on October 7, 2018.
- ↑ Coop and Migros are behind these restaurants In: nau.ch , April 6, 2018, accessed on April 6, 2018.
- ↑ Migros is not just going astray abroad. NZZ , April 9, 2013
- ↑ The Migros Cosmos (book review)
- ^ Roger Flury: The Migros distribution company mbH Berlin 1932–1933: the failure of an attempt to expand . Diss., Zurich 2002
- ↑ When the Liechtensteiners resisted Migros In: nzz.ch, August 21, 2017, accessed on December 26, 2017
- ↑ Marcel Speiser: The troubles of Migros abroad. In: handelszeitung.ch . June 18, 2013, accessed October 27, 2018 .
- ↑ Schwäbisches Tagblatt : Migros gives up in Reutlingen (October 19, 2012)
- ↑ migros.de: Opening Ludwigshafen / RP ( Memento from May 21, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
- ↑ migros.de: Ludwigsburg opening ( Memento from July 8, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
- ↑ Fuldaer Zeitung: Migros / Tegut press conference ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) (October 11, 2012)
- ↑ Osthessen-News: SO DO YOU! TEGUT is negotiating a sale with Swiss MIGROS (October 5, 2012)
- ^ Migros Basel withdraws from Germany , Neue Zürcher Zeitung, June 18, 2013
- ↑ The Migros store is now the REWE Center , Badische Zeitung, 29 September 2013
- ↑ Migros in Lörrach is history. Badische Zeitung , September 29, 2013
- ↑ Migros takes the Schaan branch into its own hands In: vaterland.li, January 23, 2013, accessed on December 23, 2017
- ↑ M-Industry enters the online business in China In: migros.ch, September 15, 2017, accessed on December 3, 2017.
- ↑ Migros cooperates with the Chinese In: schweizerbauer.ch, December 23, 2017, accessed on December 23, 2017.
- ↑ Migros: “Orange Garden” is no more. In: persoenlich.com . December 22, 2019, accessed December 22, 2019 .
- ↑ Benjamin Weinmann ( CH Media ): Chocolat Frey: Migros subsidiary is now in 1900 Walgreens shops in the USA In: watson.ch , March 4, 2019, accessed on March 4, 2019
- ↑ Migrolino optimizes logistics system In: EHI Retail Institute , November 24, 2017, accessed on November 25, 2017.
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- ↑ Sayflowers homepage
- ↑ Tages-Anzeiger : Criticism of Migros deal with oil multi from Azerbaijan , from June 5, 2013
- ↑ Aargauer Zeitung : Does Migros still correspond to Duttweiler's ideals? , dated August 15, 2013
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- ↑ regenwald.org
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