Bundeshaus (Bern)

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The north facade of the Federal Palace, in front of it the Bundesplatz
The south facade of the Federal Palace, seen from the Monbijou Bridge . In the middle the Marzili bath

As Federal Palace ( French Palais fédéral , Italian Palazzo federale , Romansh Chasa federala ) is the seat of government and parliament of the Swiss Confederation in the Swiss capital Bern referred.

The Bundeshaus is a listed symmetrical building complex of a little more than 300 meters in length. It is considered to be one of the most important historic buildings in the country and is listed in the Swiss inventory of cultural assets of national importance , KGS no. 615. It consists of three interconnected buildings in the south-west of Bern's old town . The focus is the parliament building on Bundesplatz . This is where the National Council and the Council of States , the two chambers of the Federal Assembly, meet . In addition, it serves as a meeting place for the political groups and other purposes related to parliamentary operations. The Bundeshaus West on Bundesgasse is the headquarters of two departments of the federal administration as well as the location of the Federal Chancellery and the Parliamentary Library (formerly the Federal Parliament and Central Library ); the Federal Council also holds its meetings here. Two other departments have their headquarters in the Bundeshaus Ost on Kochergasse .

The oldest part of the Bundeshaus is the Bundeshaus West, which was built from 1852 to 1857 (then called the Federal City Hall). Ferdinand Stadler had won the competition announced by the City of Bern, but withdrew due to various objections. The contract was finally awarded to Jakob Friedrich Studer . The building united the federal administration, government and parliament under one roof. The Bundeshaus Ost was built between 1884 and 1892 to solve urgent space problems. Alfred Friedrich Bluntschli emerged as the winner of the project competition, but the Federal Assembly ignored the decision of the jury and gave Hans Wilhelm Auer 's approval. The parliament building was built between 1894 and 1902, also under Auer's direction. At the beginning of the 21st century, the Federal Palace was completely renovated for the first time.

The Bundeshaus West and Bundeshaus Ost are built in a simple round arch style. Its sobriety corresponds to its main purpose as an administrative building. In contrast, the parliament building is a monumental representative building in the neo-renaissance style with a portico and a distinctive dome that is visible from afar . The rich artistic furnishings, the symbolism of which is based on the history, the constitutional principles and the cultural diversity of the country, as well as the building materials used from all parts of the country underline the character of the parliament building as a national monument of Switzerland in a particularly expressive way.

Location and urban classification

Location of the Federal Palace (marked in red) in the city center of Bern
Old Inselspital (1742), today the location of the East Federal Palace

The Bundeshaus is located on the south-western edge of the old town of Bern, which has been declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site , on a fortification of the slope to the Marziliquartier known as the federal terrace . The building complex extends over a length of a little more than 300 meters and consists of three parts: the Bundeshaus West on Bundesgasse , the Parliament building on Bundesplatz and the Bundeshaus Ost on Kochergasse . While the Bundeshaus is oriented east to west, the other two parts of the building are each angled slightly to the south-west.

Despite its size and its dominant position, the Federal Palace blends harmoniously into the cityscape. The use of Bernese sandstone for the facades contributes in particular to this . The other houses in the old town are also made of this building material, which is greenish-gray in color. In the west the Bundeshaus is flanked by the former Hotel Bernerhof , in the east by the Hotel Bellevue Palace , which is also the official residence for state guests. In addition to the Federal Palace, the cantonal bank building and the building of the Swiss National Bank line the Bundesplatz. The mountain station of the Marzilibahn , which leads down to the Marziliquartier, is located on the federal terrace between the Bundeshaus West and the Bernerhof .

The old Inselspital , built from 1718 to 1724 according to plans by the Vorarlberg baroque master builder Franz Beer , previously stood on the site of today's Bundeshaus Ost . When the hospital building was demolished in 1888, in addition to the remains of the wall of the medieval monastery “St. Michael zur Insel »a Jewish gravestone also emerged, another in 1901 when the Bundesplatz was being built. These tombstones belonged to a cemetery ("Judenkilchhof") that was expropriated and sold in 1294 after the expulsion of the Jews. Since September 2009 an information board at this location reminds of the Jewish prehistory.

Planning and construction history

Starting position

The Erlacherhof was the first seat of the Federal Council
The old casino, the first meeting place of the National Council (colored lithograph by Franz Niklaus König )

When the Federal Constitution came into force on September 12, 1848, the modern Swiss federal state came into being , but the capital issue initially remained unresolved. On November 28, 1848, in the first round of voting , the Federal Assembly decided in favor of Bern as the federal city and thus as the seat of the federal authorities ( de jure , Switzerland has not yet known a capital). There was still no suitable building in Bern to house the government, parliament and federal administration , which is why provisional solutions were required. The Federal Council received the Erlacherhof on Junkerngasse, the National Council met in the music hall built in 1821, known as the "Casino", and if necessary in the Bern town hall , while the Council of States met in the town hall on the external stand on Zeughausgasse. The federal court and administration moved into different houses in the old town.

The civic community of Bern , the corporation of the city citizens and the once powerful patriciate , was still the higher-level community type at that time. Their assembly decided with a narrow majority to accept the election of Bern as the federal city. However, it transferred the responsibility for the construction of the parliament and government building to the community of residents that had only been formed 15 years earlier , the corporation of all residents (at that time the federal government did not yet have the authority to build its own buildings). This decision accelerated the political disempowerment of the civic community aimed at by liberal forces, which came to an end in 1852 with the transfer of general authority to the community of residents and the separation of assets (division of assets).

In February 1849, the city authorities received an order from the Federal Council to find a suitable location for a central building. It should include the halls of both chambers of parliament, rooms for the Federal Council, 96 offices and the Chancellor's apartment . From several proposals, the Federal Council decided on the area of ​​the municipal woodworking yard next to the casino, on the southern edge of the old town and on the upper edge of the slope down to the Aare . On April 8, 1850, the local council announced an architectural competition for the “Federal City Hall”. The residents of Bern should not be burdened too much with bonds and special taxes, which is why the tender was characterized by a budgetary attitude. The building to be erected should be dignified, but still as functional and simple as possible. The “gentlemen's competitors” were asked to avoid “useless splendor and exaggerated dimensions” and to use Bernese sandstone as a building material, as the “surroundings of Bern were rich in the best and most beautiful sandstone”.

Modest start: The Federal City Hall

The official jury included the architects Melchior Berri , Ludwig Friedrich Osterrieth, Robert Roller and Gustav Albert Wegmann as well as the building inspector Bernhard Wyss. Ferdinand Stadler emerged victorious from 37 designs submitted . The jury awarded three further prizes: Second place went to Felix Wilhelm Kubly , the third to Johann Carl Dähler and the fourth to Jean Franel. A special jury set up by the Swiss Association of Engineers and Architects (SIA), but which had no influence on the project, assessed the three first-placed designs in reverse order.

In their drafts, the losing competitors assigned the central wing to the council chambers and the side wings to the administration. Dähler and Franel designed the larger National Council Chamber in the form of an amphitheater . While Dähler let it protrude from the building as the roof crown, Franel planned a semicircular bulge for the facade. Kubly recognized that, unlike the previous new European Parliament buildings, two equal councils had to be considered and therefore gave up the overly dominant semicircle in favor of two rectangular halls. What all three projects had in common was the placement of both halls on the central axis, which led to unfavorable proportions in the central wing. Stadler, on the other hand, was able to convince with a horseshoe-shaped system. He allocated the central wing to the Federal Council and the administration and referred the parliamentary chambers to the expansive side wings. In addition, he did not orient himself stylistically on classicism , but on the new round arch style of neo-Romanesque . The building on Ludwigstrasse in Munich , in particular the Bavarian State Library, served as a model .

View from the Christoffelturm to the Federal City Hall (Photo Adolphe Braun 1863/1864)
Bundeshaus, aquatint by Johann Rudolf Dikenmann
The «Federal City Hall» in 1857 (with a tower with a flag that was never built)

Some critics disliked the staggering of the building and the continuous round arches. Stadler let himself be unsettled by the objections and revised his design by adding classicistic elements. However, the revised draft received even less approval. The Bern municipal council decided on June 23, 1851 to commission the master builder Jakob Friedrich Studer to work out a new design. Studer, who did not take part in the competition, adopted Stadler's original design. He reintroduced staggering, reinforcing the arched style instead of weakening it. The revision was well received and Studer was awarded the building contract. After the terrace had first been filled up, the foundation stone was laid on September 21, 1852 . After almost five years of construction, the ceremonial handover took place on June 5, 1857.

In 1858 the Berna fountain was set up in the courtyard of the Federal City Hall and a statue was added five years later. The decoration of the council rooms was very sparse for reasons of cost. August Hövemeyer and his brother Ludwig made four allegorical murals in the National Council chamber , as well as ornamental patterns. In 1861 the cantons donated coats of arms for the Council of States chamber, which were removed ten years later due to poor lighting conditions. A commission headed by Federal Councilor Jakob Dubs proposed that the Federal City Hall be transformed into a kind of national museum with landscape and history paintings and busts of famous Swiss personalities. While the Council of States approved this proposal in 1865, the National Council rejected it twice in 1866.

A project by Frank Buchser was also not carried out : the victory of the northern states in the war of secession triggered a wave of sympathy rallies in Switzerland. At the end of 1865, Buchser planned a mural for the National Council Chamber with the most important American personalities of the time, which was intended to express Switzerland's ties to the USA . Although he was able to make portraits of numerous prominent people during his four-year stay in America, General Ulysses S. Grant refused to give his consent, as his adversary Robert Edward Lee had also been portrayed. For this reason, the group picture was not taken.

The client, the city of Bern, placed much more emphasis on properly functioning building services than on pomp. The steam heating from Sulzer guaranteed pleasant warmth in all rooms even in winter. The candelabras of the gas lighting were considered to be the most beautiful ornament in the otherwise sober building . The municipal gasworks was located below the federal terrace from 1841 to 1876, i.e. in the immediate vicinity.

Overcoming the shortage of space: The Bundeshaus Ost

When the total revision of the federal constitution came into force on May 29, 1874, this resulted in a significant shift in competencies from the cantons to the federal government. The rapidly growing federal administration soon complained of an acute shortage of space. The Federal Council asked the city to provide sufficient work space for the numerous new federal offices. However, Bern was unable to meet this requirement. In 1876, the city therefore ceded the federal city hall and responsibility for extensions and new buildings to the federal government. In 1861 the third floor of the middle wing was made available to the Bernese Art Society. The relocation of their collection to the new art museum in 1879 only temporarily alleviated the shortage of space.

Federal building design by Alfred Friedrich Bluntschli
Federal buildings west and east, in between the old casino (1896)

Also in 1876, the federal government acquired the Kleine Schanze west of the Hotel Bernerhof as a building plot. He announced a competition for an administration building that was to be used by the military, the railroad and the trade departments. Only a year later the project was abandoned; the Universal Post Memorial is located here today . In 1880 the federal government bought the Inselspital building , which was separated from the federal city hall by the casino. Initially the plan was to convert the Inselspital, but the National Council requested a new building. In the Federal Superstructure Inspectorate, the idea of ​​building a parliament building between the new building and the existing federal town hall (i.e. instead of the casino) in a second stage matured. In accordance with this resolution, the federal government announced an architectural competition on February 23, 1885. The judges were the architects Louis Bezencenet, James Édouard Collin, Johann Christoph Kunkler , Heinrich Viktor von Segesser and Arnold Geiser as well as Arnold Flückiger, Adjunct of the Superstructure Inspectorate.

Of 36 designs submitted, the one by Alfred Friedrich Bluntschli received the first prize and the one by Hans Wilhelm Auer the second prize. Bluntschli weighted the architecture according to the task of the building. The new Bundeshaus Ost should be a compact, modest administrative wing and the parliament building should have the shape of a strictly classical Greek round temple . Auer, on the other hand, did not make any hierarchical structure. He designed a symmetrical building complex that included the Federal City Hall as the west wing. For the east wing he adopted its round arch style, while he envisaged the neo-Renaissance style for the main building . In accordance with the architectural theory that prevailed at the time and was largely shaped by Gottfried Semper , the jury criticized Auer's symmetry as being functionally incomprehensible. It was particularly critical of the dome, which is not arranged above a dignified council chamber, but above the secular staircase. Auer had orientated himself on the Capitol in Washington, DC and argued that the dome crowns the parliament as a whole and does not favor either of the two equal councils.

The federal administration and parliamentarians took a liking to Auer's dome motif. In 1887 the Federal Assembly defied the decision of the jury and awarded the building contract for the Bundeshaus Ost to Auer. Bluntschli ignored it on the grounds that this competition was primarily about basic disposition; The design of the parliament building will only be decided at a later date. The Inselspital, which had stood empty since 1884, was demolished in 1887. Construction work on the Bundeshaus Ost began at the end of 1888 and was completed in May 1892. While marble was only sparsely used as decorative stone in the Federal City Hall (referred to as Bundeshaus West from 1895) , nine different types of stone were used inside the Bundeshaus Ost. The extensive construction project provided the opportunity to upgrade the Federal Superstructure Inspectorate to the Directorate for Federal Buildings, from which today's Federal Office for Buildings and Logistics developed.

National monument as a conclusion: the parliament building

In 1891 the architects Auer and Bluntschli received an invitation to another architectural competition. At the express request of the Federal Council, the jury was international. Its members were Léo Châtelain, Ernst Jung, Hans Konrad Pestalozzi (National Councilor and City President of Zurich), Heinrich Reese (Building Inspector of the Canton of Basel-Stadt), Friedrich Wüest (National Councilor and City President of Lucerne) and Arnold Flückiger (Director of Federal Buildings) as well the French Gaspard André and the German Paul Wallot (architect of the Berlin Reichstag building ).

Bluntschli was aware that the Bundeshaus Ost had created a fait accompli and that the parliament building without a dome would hardly be noticeable between the symmetrical structures. He gave up his architectural restraint and tried to outdo his competitor with a pompous dome that was reminiscent of the Palais du Trocadéro in Paris . In comparison, Auer's draft appeared moderate and reserved. Nonetheless, the jury was unable to come to a decision because it continued to find a dome over a vestibule to be "monstrous". On June 30, 1891, the Federal Council decided in favor of Auer. The National Council gave its approval to the relevant building resolution on March 24, 1893, and the Council of States followed on March 30, 1894.

Auer worked out the implementation plans and took into account the criticism of his colleagues. By extending the dome to a Greek cross , he took the character of a vestibule away. He designed the staircase as a free-standing, bridge-like structure based on the model of the Paris Opéra Garnier . He also took up the suggestion of the Schweizerische Bauzeitung to give the domed hall a higher consecration by setting up statues. The sculptor Anselmo Laurenti made a plaster model that was presented to the SIA in 1895 and exhibited at the National Exhibition in Geneva the following year .

Plaster model by Anselmo Laurenti
The parliament building during construction (1899)

It was Auer's intention to symbolically create all of Switzerland in the parliament building. In order to achieve this goal, he assigned building and decorative stones a central role in his planning. In this context, he intended a comprehensive national rock presentation, whereby all known and already used deposits of the country were to be introduced into the building in a representative manner using various types of rock. This goal could not be fully achieved, but all significant rocks in Switzerland were used. These embody the diversity of the country according to petrographic , geological and federal points of view. Particularly noteworthy is the almost complete use of stone, which has been used for exclusively exclusive purposes by the Funk workshops in Bern and Doret in Vevey since the 18th century . In addition, some decorative and sculptural stones from Belgium, France and Italy were used, including the stones Carrara marble and Savonnières limestone , which are indispensable for sculpting purposes. The limestone of the country dominates the architecture of the Bundeshaus. Other stone groups used from Swiss quarries are marbles , sandstones , gneiss , granite and serpentinite .

In total, no less than 30 types of stone from 13 different cantons and half-cantons were used in the construction of the building . Almost all of the tectonic structural units in Switzerland are represented that go back between five and a thousand million years in geological terms: the crystalline basement of the Aarmassiv and the Gotthard massif , the Helvetic and Penninic , the Southern Alps , the limestone of the Jura Mountains and the Molasse of the Central Plateau . The elaborate handling of these rocks is unique in Swiss architectural history.

Auer also planned the rest of the design of the Federal Palace. For the most part, he personally selected the 38 performing Swiss artists and obliged them to work according to his detailed specifications. His approach corresponded to that of his teacher Theophil von Hansen , who had also drawn up and rigorously implemented an iconographic program for the Vienna parliament building . However, when choosing artists, Auer did not have a free hand in all cases. Federal Councilor Adrien Lachenal , whose Department of the Interior was responsible for building and art, among other things, awarded some orders himself because, in his opinion, French-speaking Switzerland had been given too little attention. Only Swiss companies were involved in the construction work. With a rich and symbolic iconography, which shows the history, the constitutional basis and the activities of the inhabitants of the country, Auer created a Swiss national monument .

The federal government bought the casino property from the city, whereupon construction work on the parliament building began on September 5, 1894. The federal terrace on the south side was extended, but not extended to the Kirchenfeldbrücke as originally planned . On April 11, 1900, the topping of the large dome could be celebrated. On the morning of April 1, 1902, the parliament building was handed over to an official ceremony. The construction costs for the parliament building amounted to 7.2 million francs (according to today's value about 700 million). 16.2% of this was for artistic equipment.

Changes in use

The parliamentary library in the former National Council chamber

After the opening of the parliament building, the two council chambers in the Bundeshaus West were closed; the original use can only be guessed at. Instead of the Council of States hall, offices and a post office were created (in operation until 2005). The former National Council Chamber was reduced in size and further subdivided by an iron construction with stairs and walkways. A library has been housed here since 1904 and is available to employees of the federal administration and parliamentarians.

In the course of time, the use of space in the parliament building had to be repeatedly adapted to the changing, often short-term needs. In addition to necessary technical improvements, redesigns were made in line with the zeitgeist of the time, particularly in the 1960s. In numerous rooms, vaults, ceilings and wall structures were covered or torn off. By painting over the colored wallpaper with white paint and replacing the stucco with plasterboard , supposedly modern rooms were created. In 1965, radio and television started operating the Bundeshaus studio on the third floor above the Council of States hall, which required the installation of a massive, wide-span concrete ceiling. Since the roof spaces were also being used more and more intensively, it seemed appropriate to wall up the lunette windows facing the domed hall. As a result, no more natural light came in and the hall looked gloomy.

Conversions, restorations and renovations

In 1950, the architect Martin Risch presented a renovation project that should have overcome the space problems of the federal administration. According to his idea, the dome would have been removed and replaced with a square tower that would have housed offices. In 1991, Mario Botta planned an extension in the form of a citadel-like structure on the slope below the parliament building. Due to massive concerns about monument protection and urban planning, he dropped the proposal. In autumn 1993, the National Council Chamber underwent extensive restoration for the first time since its inauguration. For this reason, the councils in Geneva held a session outside of Bern for the first time ever ( session “extra muros” ). In 1999, at the suggestion of Councilor Dick Marty , the Federal Assembly decided to hold the 2001 spring session in Lugano . This made it possible to restore the Chamber of States.

Renovation work (August 2006)
One of the newly created parliamentary group meeting rooms on the third floor of the parliament building
Excavation of the Inselspital cellar (November 2012)
The visitor entrance, which was rebuilt in 2019

The different demands of parliamentarians, the media and administration when using the Federal Palace led to ever greater organizational problems. The parliamentary groups complained about the lack of rooms for meetings and secretariats, the individual workplaces of the parliamentarians were too far away from the council rooms in the attic of the Bundeshaus Ost. In addition, the complete renovation of the building technology was due. The parliament building should again mainly satisfy the needs of the council members, and the architectural and artistic concept of Hans Wilhelm Auer should again come into its own. The first stage was the outsourcing of jobs for media professionals. For this purpose, a new media center was built between October 2003 and May 2006 in the buildings at Bundesgasse 8–12 (opposite the Bundeshaus West); the construction and equipment costs amounted to 42.5 million francs. Work on the Bundeshaus West began in February 2005 and lasted a little over three years. The focus was on the renovation of the facade and the roof. In addition, there was the creation of new work rooms, a conversion of the top floor and various security and fire protection measures.

The first comprehensive renovation and restoration of the parliament building began in June 2006 under the direction of the architecture firm Aebi & Vincent. The National Council and Council of States approved a total of CHF 83 million for this in the context of the civil construction programs in 2004 and 2006. Including inflation and various additional costs, the costs came to 103 million francs.

On the third floor, workrooms for the parliamentarians, meeting rooms for the parliamentary groups and a multifunctional conference room were created. Opening the lunette windows ( illuminated on the back by skylights ), cleaning the interior walls of dirt, repairing cracks and removing recent furniture transformed the dome hall back into a bright daylight room with a representative effect. Extended spiral staircases and new lifts improved vertical access. A new visitor entrance was built under the National Council Chamber, including a new technical floor with a computer room. In general, the principle was to remove more modern fittings and bring out the original equipment. The building shell, including the sandstone facades, the cornices and figures, the roof and domes, the skylights and the lighting was extensively renovated. In the National Council Chamber, the building services, the voting system, the translation system and the surfaces were renewed. During the most intensive renovation phase, the National Council and Council of States held the 2006 autumn session in Flims . The official inauguration of the renovated parliament building took place on November 21, 2008 with a ceremony.

In the summer and autumn of 2011, the Council of States hall was refurbished, from September 2012 to March 2016 the refurbishment of the Bundeshaus Ost will be completed. In addition to a selective renovation of the building envelope, in particular the comprehensive renovation of the interior spaces with a clean-up of the room structure and the renewal of the building and security technology are planned. In connection with this renovation, construction workers uncovered the vaulted cellars of the former Inselspital in autumn 2012. In the massive rooms made of large sandstone blocks, the natural products used to finance the hospital and care for the patients were once stored.

In summer 2019, the visitor entrance on the federal terrace side was rebuilt due to safety considerations.

Parliament building

Federal Palace 1902 below.png
Federal Palace 1902 above.png

Floor plan of the parliament building (1902), left 1st floor, right 2nd floor

Hans Wilhelm Auer designed an image program for the parliament building that comprises three themes. First, national history is presented through founding myths , important institutions, people, places and dates. Second, the constitutional foundations are emphasized, as well as their protection and general state virtues. Thirdly, the architecture and furnishings present the cultural, material, political, geographical and economic diversity of Switzerland. As early as 1885, Auer had made his intention clear in the explanatory report of his first draft:

The aim is to create a work that will serve the country to everlasting glory, a symbol of Swiss unity and unity, the highest expression of the national sense of art ... Here, in view of the Alpine chain ... the Swiss Capitol rises ... a monument to its firmly established institutions, their secure ones Conditions, their blessed prosperity, the expression of the consciousness of their national strength and their state necessity. »

Facade and dome

The parliament building presents itself as a lengthwise building on which a drum with a distinctive dome is placed. A temple-like portico is in front of the north facade, while the south facade has two corner towers and a wide bulge in the middle. The building envelope consists for the most part of solid, flat blocks made of Bernese sandstone with wide joints , the plinths of limestone of different brightness and origin.

Detailed view of the portico and the dome

The copper- clad dome had a red hue in the first few years after its completion, but after about a quarter of a century the characteristic turquoise-green patina formed . The vault ribs are covered with gold leaf . A gold-plated Swiss cross is attached to the top of the dome, on the lantern at a height of around 60 meters . The dome is supported by a square drum with 22 windows (which corresponds to the number of cantons at the time). Above the windows are segment-shaped gable reliefs by Richard Kissling , which symbolize vigilance: on the west side there is a " high watch" with an eagle's nest, on the east side a "hill watch" with the wood of a beacon, on the north and south sides a "valley watch" with guards who store weapons around a pile.

The gable of the portico has the shape of an obtuse triangle. The words Curia Confoederationis Helveticae («City Hall of the Swiss Confederation») can be read underneath. Originally the gable field was supposed to be decorated with artistic decorations, but it has remained empty to this day. A group of statues by the sculptor Rodo stands on a pedestal at the top of the gable . The middle figure, named Political Independence , represents Helvetia , the female personification of the Swiss federal state. Standing upright, she grips a flagpole in her left hand while holding the waving flag with her right hand. It is flanked by two seated allegorical female figures. On the left this is the executive branch with quill pen and paper, on the right the legislative branch with a guide and a sign with the inscription Lex («Law»). Two griffins by Anselmo Laurenti on the corner pilasters of the pediment guard these foundations of the state; the left stands for strength, the right for intelligence.

Historian of the present

Four composite columns divide the portico into five fields. The round arched windows of the Council of States hall with rosettes can be found in the three middle fields . Their keystones , designed by Joseph Vetter, are shaped like helmeted warriors' heads, representing three ancient Swiss tribes; from left to right an Alemanne , a Burgundy and a Longobard . Two allegorical statues by James Vibert occupy the niches next to the windows. The female figure on the left, with two broken handcuffs on a chain, embodies freedom; In a field above, the year 1291 in golden letters reminds of the Rütli oath . The figure on the right holds a palm branch and a sword in her hands as the embodiment of peace; the golden year 1848 in the field above indicates the adoption of the federal constitution .

The entrance area is also made up of five parts. Three portals lead into the interior of the parliament building; statues by Maurice Reymond are placed in the two niches next to it . On the left, the historian of the past , an old man reading, holds out a history book to the MPs entering as a guide for their actions. On the right, a young man who writes, the historian of the present , reminds the same parliamentarians that their decisions will go down permanently in history. Reymond also created the keystones over the entrance gates. Men’s heads are supposed to remind those entering of virtues; on the left the head with wolf skin to courage, in the middle the head with ears of wheat and oak leaves in the hair to wisdom and on the right the head with a bull's cap to strength.

Detail view of the south facade

Six composite columns structure the rounded part of the south facade above a continuous balcony cornice. On pilasters on the attic there are six statues depicting various representatives of the people and their professions. From left to right these are a warrior, a craftsman, an artist, a scholar, a merchant and a farmer. Karl Alfred Lanz created the first three statues, the rest are by Natale Albisetti . The coats of arms of the 23 cantons adorn the cornice under the attic (the half cantons each share a coat of arms). Of Raimondo Pereda coming crowning of windows on two main floors of the corner towers. They represent trade, science, industry and art - the most important professions of the parliamentarians working here. Winged female figures by Rodo adorn the keystones of the arched windows; its symbolic task is to carry the parliamentary decisions out into the country.

Domed hall

The architectural centerpiece and most important room of the parliament building is the sacred-looking dome hall, which connects the entrance area with the rooms of the National Council and the Council of States. Here alone 15 different types of stone were processed; mainly limestone, but also marbles and granites . The floor plan of the hall has the shape of a Greek cross . Barrel vaults rise above the blunt ends of the cross. The hall is vaulted by a glass dome, above which the dome of the parliament building rises. Auer designed the free-standing stairs in such a way that he gave climbing stairs a ceremonial character. In his architectural staging he assigned the representatives of the people who walked through here to the role of priests, who with their parliamentary actions always have to found the nation anew.

Overview of the lower part of the domed hall

The small entrance hall in front is an emphatically sober ensemble of rocks with unobtrusive colors. This is intended to direct the view of the visitors to the domed hall behind. To the left and right of the landing are two bear statues by Urs Eggenschwyler . They hold a Swiss coat of arms in their paws and remind us that the generosity of Bern made it possible to build the Federal Palace. With their seated posture, the bears resemble those on the Erlach memorial . Two bowls by James Vibert are set up on the lowest post of the banister , which characterize Switzerland in the distinction between mountain and valley. The right bowl shows a shepherd on a rock blowing into an alphorn while mountain dwellers seek shelter in caves below. On the left, a fisherman casting a net represents a resident of the valley; below him two nymphs play the lyre in the waves .

The three confederates in the middle, the four mercenaries on the stairs

The main staircase made of light Aare granite from Wassen is deliberately designed to be solemn and oversized. It leads up to the platform in the middle of the hall, where it splits into two arms to the left and right. The podium on its south side is dominated by the monumental monument The Three Confederates by James Vibert. Framed by an arch, Werner Stauffacher , Walter Fürst and Arnold von Melchtal , the main participants in the Rütli oath , stand on a pedestal . With a serious expression and arms stretched out, they hold the Federal Letter in their hands. The figures are abstract, strictly symmetrical and block-like. Vibert deviated from the usual Rütli oath gestures with raised oath hands, so that from different angles no figure covers the other. The three figures are made of yellow Botticino limestone and together weigh 24 tons. Differences of opinion between the original competition winner and the jury resulted in the podium being empty when it opened in 1902. A second competition three years later did not produce a satisfactory result, as the submitted designs were judged to be “too theatrical”. Finally, in 1910, the Federal Council gave Vibert the job. The unveiling of the statue took place more than twelve years late on May 15, 1914 and coincided with the opening of the state exhibition in Bern .

Four bronze statues, also created by James Vibert, stand on the stair posts in front of the central monument. The four Landsknechte are life-size, realistically designed soldiers in armor from the 16th century, armed with lance , halberd or two-handed sword . They represent representatives of the four national languages ​​of Switzerland - on the left a German-speaking Swiss and a Rhaeto-Romanic , on the right a Romand and a Ticino . Together they form an honor guard for the three confederates. The stairs lead from the platform to the connecting corridors on the first floor. The segment gables above the staircases are decorated with figure reliefs by Luigi Vassalli , which are arranged around an inscription. Above the west rise it reads Salus publica suprema lex esto (“The public good is the supreme law”), above the east rise In legibus salus civitatis posita est (“The good of the state is based on laws”). The keystones above the arcades on the main floor depict women in various Swiss traditional costumes .

On the first floor, above the arch between the entrance hall and the domed hall, there is a narrow balcony with a gate of honor. It is crowned with a gable and has a purely decorative function. Arched niches with statues by Hugo Siegwart can be found on both sides of this portal . The left embodies Arnold Winkelried as a symbol of sacrifice. In contrast to the Winkelried monument in Stans , for example , the hero of the Battle of Sempach cannot be seen in a kneeling or lying position, but in an upright position. The lances piercing his chest are only indicated by their tips. On the right is Niklaus von Flüe , the patron saint of Switzerland. Dressed in a long robe, he makes an admonishing gesture with his right hand and a soothing gesture with his left hand. A 15 meter long relief frieze by Adolf Meyer is located above the honor gate and the statues . It refers to the second act of the second act of Friedrich Schiller's drama Wilhelm Tell , more precisely to the arrival of the ancestors, the founding of Schwyz and the later move of some of the residents to Altdorf and Stans. Above this, an architrave extends around the entire hall; the metopes (decorative fields) show attributes of war and peace.

Dome vaults, all cantons as stained glass, Jura made of stucco (right)

At the zenith of the domed hall, the Swiss coat of arms forms the center of the glass dome. The coat of arms, executed as a mosaic , comes from Clement Heaton's studio . It is entwined with oak leaves and is carried by two female figures of freedom. The motto is on two banners: Unus pro omnibus / omnes pro uno («One for all / All for one»). The coats of arms of the then 22 cantons are grouped radially around the mosaic (the half cantons each share a coat of arms). These stained glass by Albert Lüthi , in conjunction with the mosaic, symbolize the centralizing function of the Confederation on the one hand and the mutual dependence of the Confederation and the cantons on the other. After the canton of Jura was founded in 1978 there was no space for an additional coat of arms. For this reason, the Jura canton's coat of arms was modeled from colored stucco three years later and placed in the middle of the southern belt arch .

In the spandrels of the dome there are four medallions by Antonio Soldini , which represent the pillars of the covenant: Athena , who teaches a young man archery, embodies the military. Justice , the symbol of justice, judges a defendant. An ancient woman who gives lessons stands for education. A female personification of civil engineering holds the drawing of the Federal Palace in her left hand . Finally, four large, brightly painted lunette windows , which combine scenes from the working life of the population with Swiss landscapes, decorate the shield arches of the cross arms. The south window by Hans Sandreuter shows agriculture in the southern Alpine and foothills of the Alps (indicated by the Jungfrau in the background). Albert Welti's east window represents the textile industry widespread in Eastern Switzerland, while Ernest Biéler's west window represents the metal industry in the Jura to the west . In the north window by Émile-David Turrian , a goods transshipment point in Basel's Rhine port represents the export and import industry.

National Council Chamber

National Council Chamber

The National Council hall is located on the first floor on the south side . The walls are made of yellowish limestone. On the ceiling, a skylight in the shape of a rectangle with an attached circular segment lets in daylight. The council presidium is located on the front of the hall. The President of the National Council , the two Vice Presidents and nine other National Councilors sit here . There is also space for up to six Federal Councilors, the Secretary General of the National Council and two other secretaries. The seats and desks of the other national councils are grouped in a fan shape around the presidium, with passageways dividing the semicircle into four sectors. Media representatives have two rounded stands in the corners on the presidential side. In contrast to most parliaments, the backbenchers in the National Council are the politicians who have the greatest influence. You sit in the back rows so that you can see what is happening in the hall better and have the shortest possible way to your seat.

Meeting with present national and state councils, as well as spectators

At the back of the hall there is a spectator platform in an elevated position, which is divided by arcade columns. Foreign diplomats take their seats in the stands on the left and right side of the hall. These are supported by limestone columns and divided on the upper level by caryatids designed by August Bösch . Part of the western side stand is separated as a glazed cabin and serves as a workplace for translators. Meetings of the Federal Assembly as a whole take place in the National Council Chamber. In such cases, take Councilors on leather-covered seats at the rear wall space, decorated in the style of choir stalls. A wooden arch, in which the corresponding cantonal coat of arms is carved, holds two seats together. Ferdinand Huttenlocher carved images of native flowers and animals in Art Nouveau style in the back wall of the arches , while Anna Haller created the leather cut works. The Council of States of the Canton of Jura received seats under the western grandstand in 1978. The canton's coat of arms is embossed in the leather there, while an abstract bronze relief by Camillo Huber is attached to the wall .

The mural The Cradle of the Confederation by the painter Charles Giron dominates the wall behind the Council Presidium. It depicts the landscape around Lake Uri . In the left foreground, under the Seelisberg rock face , you can see the Rütli , the mythical place where the Swiss Confederation was founded. The village of Schwyz can be found above the middle, behind the two mountain peaks of the Mythen . In the clouds in the golden section an allegorical naked woman can be seen holding an olive branch in her hand as a symbol of peace. In Auer's presentation, the Federal Councilors to be sworn in should stand in front of this "stage design" in the figurative sense on the Rütli meadow and thus understand the Rütli oath.

Two statues flank the mural, on the left William Tell by Antonio Chiattone and on the right Stauffacherin by his brother Giuseppe Chiattone . The statue of the Swiss freedom hero Wilhelm Tell looks quite similar to the Tell monument in Altdorf. However, the depiction cannot be classified in any scene of the tell saga popularized by Schiller. Rather, Tell is sitting passively on a rock, his crossbow not cocked. The Stauffacherin is the symbolic figure of the bold and energetic Swiss woman. The statue holds the left hand to the chest and points with the right to the ground.

The relief Die Sage by Aloys Brandenberg is attached to the gable above the mural . A female figure sits on a throne with an apple pierced by Tell's arrow in her left hand. She tells a crowd of children who have gathered around her about the great deeds of their ancestors and encourages them to act patriotically. A boy on the far left takes this as a model and draws a crossbow. A wreath runs around the hall. This is adorned with the Swiss coat of arms above the top of the mural as well as with the coats of arms of the 59 cities that had the most inhabitants in 1902.

Council of States Chamber

Council of States Chamber

The hall of the Council of States is on the first floor on the north side, facing Bundesplatz. Three high arched windows decorated with St. Gallen embroidery let in daylight. The rectangular, in Renaissance held room is completely on the walls with dark paneling lined from oak and walnut. It is reminiscent of the early modern council rooms in the Old Confederation . Another reminiscence of this time is the oval council table in the middle of the room. The seats and desks of the Council of States are grouped around him in a semicircle. The President of the Council of States , the two vice-presidents and the teller sit facing their council colleagues below the window, as do the secretary and the secretary. In addition, federal councilors attending the meeting have six seats on the presidential side. Representatives of the press can be seated on two rounded stands in the corners of the hall.

A wrought-iron chandelier hangs from the oak coffered ceiling above the council table . It weighs 1.5 tons and has 208 light bulbs, making it one of the largest chandeliers of that time in Switzerland. It was only during the renovation work in 2001 that it became known that it had been made by the Lucerne art locksmith Ludwig Schnyder von Wartensee. A row of arcades surrounds the hall on three sides; While the columns on the narrow sides at the entrances are made of marble and have a limestone base, they are only painted on the long wall as a fresco . The visitor galleries are arranged above the entrances. Important dates of the Swiss constitutional history can be read in gold in the spandrels of the arcade: 1291 ( Federal Letter ), 1370 ( Pfaffenbrief ), 1393 ( Sempacher Letter ), 1481 ( Stans Decree ), 1803 ( Mediation Act ), 1848 ( Federal Constitution ), 1874 (first Total revision of the Federal Constitution) and 1999 (second total revision).

The fresco mural Die Landsgemeinde by Albert Welti and Wilhelm Balmer extends over the entire south wall of the hall, divided into five fields by the painted columns . At the time the parliament building opened in 1902, the fields were still unpainted. Four years later, Councilor of States Paul Usteri suggested decorating the wall with a history or landscape picture. In 1907 Welti was awarded the contract, but made the condition that his friend Balmer could also participate. When Welti wanted to start transferring the model to the wall in 1911, he fell seriously ill and died the following year. Balmer single-handedly completed the mural by March 1914.

The mural shows a rural community in the 18th century. The Nidwalden Landsgemeindeplatz near Stans served as a model, but the surrounding landscape corresponds to that around the Obwalden capital Sarnen . The picture shows over 150 people, most of whom are listening to a gesticulating speaker in the fourth field from the left. This includes members of the government and church representatives. Outside the walled ring, soldiers, a horn blower, women and children playing are shown. Balmer gave Welti's facial features to the person to the right of the standard-bearer.



The foyer encloses the National Council Chamber on its south side in a long arch. It serves as a ballroom, reception room for high-ranking state guests, lounge and social room for parliamentarians as well as for meetings with lobbyists and the media. Through the use of light materials such as stucco and stucco marble , the lobby exudes a certain serenity and lightness. There are also various Swiss decorative stones that were used for cornices, columns and door frames . The panels on the radiators, which are decorated with lions' heads, are made of Saillon marble.

Several allegorical paintings by Antonio Barzaghi-Cattaneo adorn the ceiling of the foyer in three rows. The six paintings in the middle row represent the virtues of the state. A woman who lifts her mask and veil represents the truth . The wisdom is symbolized by a lorbeerbekränzte woman two folios holds in her hands. An angel with a Swiss banner, accompanied by three putti as symbols for singing, gymnastics and shooting festivals, represent patriotism . A woman with a cornucopia , surrounded by sunbeams and poppies, embodies fertility . The Mercy is represented by a woman on a battlefield, that takes care of an orphan; The Red Cross flag flies above her . A woman with a sword and scales sitting on a cloud is the symbol of justice . The other two rows show important branches of trade and industry in Switzerland at the beginning of the 20th century. In the outer row these are education, art, agriculture, science and the watch industry, in the inner row bakery, construction, blacksmithing, shoemaking and tourism.

other rooms

Room of the President of the National Council

The room of the President of the National Council is located in the southeast corner of the first floor . The ceiling paintings by Marcel de Chollet , which are kept in ocher tones and caricature everyday political life, are striking . Putti represent politicians discussing a vase; first in a preparatory meeting, then in the actual commission meeting and finally in the council. Finally, the same politicians can be seen relaxing activities, the calm soon being disturbed by an approaching messenger.

The southwest corner of the first floor is the location of the so-called Federal Council room. Here the Federal President receives foreign diplomats at the traditional New Year's reception, meetings are also held here and the ballot papers are counted in Federal Council elections. This room should not be confused with the meeting room of the Federal Council in the West House of Parliament. Four ceiling mirrors by Wilhelm Ludwig Lehmann represent border regions of Switzerland; the Lake Geneva at the Chillon Castle , the Rhine at Basel , the Lake and the Engadine . On the wall is a grandfather clock made by the Königliche Porzellan-Manufaktur Berlin , which Kaiser Wilhelm II gave as a gift on his state visit in 1912.

Room of the President of the Council of States

The room of the President of the Council of States in the north-west corner of the first floor has a walnut ceiling with ornamental carvings, and the walls are completely lined with walnut paneling. Stained glass windows from 1902 by Christian Baumgartner depicting landscapes that cannot be identified in detail adorn the two cloakrooms. They were removed in 1930, but were reinserted during the renovation. In the intervening years, a glass window by Burkhard Mangold was to be seen in the eastern cloakroom , depicting occupations in twelve fields, and in the western cloakroom a glass window by Augusto Giacometti depicting a couple of peasants and the view of the village of Stampa . Both are exhibited today in the Vitromusée , the Swiss Museum for Glass Painting and Glass Art in Romont .

Brienz room

The “Brienzer Zimmer”, which is used for meetings, is located in the south-east corner of the ground floor. The paneling is the work of the famous Brienz wood carving school (now the school for wood carving ). Before being installed in the Federal Palace, it was presented at the World Exhibition in Paris in 1900 and was awarded a gold medal.

Bundeshaus West

Main hall on the first floor of the Bundeshaus West
Meeting room of the Federal Council

The Bundeshaus West (former Federal City Hall) is the headquarters of the Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (FDFA) and the Federal Department of Justice and Police (FDJP) as well as the location of the Federal Chancellery .

The building has a U-shaped floor plan and encloses a courtyard with the Berna fountain . The statue placed on the fountain represents Berna , a female figure as personification of the city of Bern. With the exception of the four- story central projectile , the West Federal Building has three floors throughout. Two arcades connect to the parliament building. The facade is kept simple and consists of blocks made of Bernese sandstone with wide joints. The base is made of two types of limestone. The central risalit is limestone from Gsteigwiler , which has a partially intense light veining. Limestone from a rock fall near Merligen was used on the rest of the building, which shows fossilized nummulites , oysters and corals .

Hardly anything can be seen of the old structure of the council chambers in the side wings. One exception is the old National Council Chamber in the west wing (today the Parliamentary Library ), where five arched windows with rosettes have been preserved. From the entrance hall in the central elevation, visitors can take the main staircase to the main hall on the first floor. This connection is adorned with ornamental paintings on the walls and ceilings. A stone Swiss cross is embedded in the floor of the main hall. To the south of the main hall border four rooms which are collectively referred to as the «Federal Council Apartment». These are the anteroom, the meeting room of the Federal Council, the salon of the Federal President and the office of the Federal President.

The Federal Councilors meet in the conference room for their weekly meetings, usually on Wednesdays. Hans Wilhelm Auer redesigned the room in 1889, especially the paneling. He took over the stucco ceiling created in 1857 and the last remaining gas candelabra (from the original 162). The desks of the Federal Councilors and the Federal Chancellor are arranged in a circle. The salon and bureau are audience rooms. The four rooms are designed as a sequence of styles: the office is in the rococo style, the salon in the baroque style and the meeting room in the renaissance style. The anteroom originally represented the Gothic style , but was completely redesigned around 1930 and provided with Art Deco paneling.

The most important meeting room of the FDFA in the west of the Bundeshaus was renamed “Salle Carl Lutz” on February 12, 2018, the day he died, in honor of Carl Lutz , Swiss diplomat and Righteous Among the Nations .

Bundeshaus Ost

Entrance hall of the Bundeshaus Ost (1895)

The Bundeshaus Ost has been used exclusively for the federal administration since it opened. It is the headquarters of the Federal Department of Defense, Civil Protection and Sport (DDPS) and the Federal Department of Economics, Education and Research (EAER).

The floor plan is the same as that of the Bundeshaus West, as is the arched style and the number of floors. This part of the building is also connected to the parliament building by two arcades. Differences can be seen in the design of the facade. The base is made higher and consists of yellowish Solothurn limestone, which has layers with petrified spiral snails. Bossed cuboids made from the same stone extend to the first floor, above which are broadly jointed sandstone cuboids. The material of the foundation and the masonry comes partly from the broken Inselspital. Two marble bas-reliefs are embedded in the north façade of the central projection, which refer to the departments domiciled here. The one on the right comes from Charles Iguel and represents the general staff surrounded by various branches of arms. On the left relief by Alfred Lanz, personifications of various professions are depicted.

Two flights of stairs lead up from the entrance hall to an arcade hall on the first floor. The use of limestone in seven different yellowish tones is characteristic of this axis. Auer tried to use this brightening to optically enlarge the spaces that were perceived as narrow. The opening of the Gotthard tunnel in 1882 made it possible for the first time to use south and central alpine rocks on a larger scale. Black limestone and white marble for the floor and door frames, finely grained wood for the door leaves and stucco for the ceiling and walls give the arcade hall a solemn, sublime ambience. Bronze sculptures by Rosa Langenegger , which were set up in four niches in 1912, symbolize the career of a “warrior in prehistoric times”. The offices of the two Federal Councilors working here border the hall on the south side.

Between 2012 and 2016 the Bundeshaus Ost was extensively renovated and a new basement was built.


The Federal Security Service , a main department of the Federal Office of Police, is responsible for security in the Federal Palace . Your “Personnel Security Department” protects magistrates, parliamentarians and federal employees. The “Building Security Department” is divided into two parts: the “Property Security” section plans and monitors structural, technical and organizational security concepts, while the “Property Security” section includes the operational security personnel stationed in the Federal Palace. The tasks of the federal security service are limited to the inside of the building, the Bern canton police are responsible for security on the surrounding area . This includes, in particular, the monitoring of approved and the dissolution of unapproved demonstrations on the Bundesplatz. The canton of Bern receives a lump sum of four million francs annually from the federal government for security services that it provides for the benefit of the federal government in the city.

At the turn of the millennium, concerns about security were raised with increasing frequency, as not only parliamentarians and employees entered the parliament building through the main entrance, but also visitors largely uncontrolled. On December 19, 2000, Kurdish activists initially mingled with a group of tourists and then barricaded themselves in the anteroom of the Council of States, where they unfurled a banner and shouted slogans against the Turkish state from the window. The terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 and the attack in Zug 16 days later led to a fundamental review and tightening of security regulations. In 2003, separating elements and security gates were installed in the entrance hall , which enable targeted personal control and replace various temporary but personnel-intensive measures.


In 1881 the Federal City Hall was connected to the telephone network. In 1923 the first automatic in-house telephone system with around 600 connections was installed in the Federal Palace. The number of telephone connections for the federal administration was gradually expanded: in 1940 to around 2,100, in 1954 to around 3,500 and in 1974 a maximum capacity of 8,000 phones. This made the in-house telephone system in the Federal Palace the largest of its kind in Switzerland.


The waiting area for visitors (2019)

Since the completion of the renovation work on the parliament building, visitors have been able to access the parliament building via a newly created entrance hall from the federal terrace. The heating center was there before. In the waiting area there is a brass wall in which the topographic map of Switzerland (published 1845–1865) is embedded as a reprint from the old copper plates. In addition to the Three Confederates from 1291, which are exactly above it in the domed hall, the map symbolizes Switzerland from 1848. Two flights of stairs lead from the waiting area up to the domed hall. The Parliamentary Services offer several free guided tours every day during the period when there are no sessions. The visitors get an insight into the building history and the working methods of the parliament. There are no guided tours during the sessions of the National Council and Council of States. The debates can be followed from the stands, and groups can be received by a council member.


  • Monica Bilfinger: The Federal Palace in Bern . Ed .: Society for Swiss Art History. Swiss art guide, volume 859/860 , series 86. Bern 2009, ISBN 978-3-85782-859-1 .
  • Monica Bilfinger: The Swiss Parliament Building, about handicrafts and contemporary design , in: k + a, 2017, No. 1, pp. 4–15. Summary
  • Andreas Hauser, Peter Röllin: Bern . In: Gesellschaft für Schweizerische Kunstgeschichte (Ed.): Inventory of recent Swiss architecture , 1850–1920: Cities . tape 2 . Orell Füssli, Zurich 1986, ISBN 3-280-01716-5 , doi : 10.5169 / seals-3534 .
  • Johannes Stückelberger: The artistic furnishings of the Federal Palace in Bern . In: Swiss National Museum (Ed.): Journal for Swiss Archeology and Art History . tape 42 . Karl Schwegler AG, Zurich 1985, doi : 10.5169 / seals-168629 .
  • Toni P. Labhart: Steinführer Bundeshaus Bern . Ed .: Society for Swiss Art History. Swiss art guide, volume 719 . Bern 2002, ISBN 3-85782-719-X .
  • Bernhard Furrer : A whole of old and new. (PDF, 1.93 MB) TEC21 - trade journal for architecture, engineering and the environment, 2009, accessed on September 7, 2010 .
  • Angelica Tschachtli: “A parliament building must also unite contradictions”. In art + architecture in Switzerland. Society for Swiss Art History GSK, No. 4, Bern 2014. pp. 36–40.
  • Parliamentary representations: the Bundeshaus in Bern in the context of international parliament buildings and national strategies / Anna Minta and Bernd Nicolai (eds.), Bern: Peter Lang, 2014. ISBN 9783034315029 . The contributions were made in connection with the eponymous, in the Bundeshaus Bern from 17. – 19. October 2012 conference. contents
  • Bernhard Weissberg, Edouard Rieben: The Federal Palace. Faro Lenzburg 2012, ISBN 978-3-03781-038-5 .
  • The new Swiss Federal Palace / Festschrift on the occasion of its completion and inauguration ed. from the Federal Department of the Interior. Bern 1902. 104 p. With plans and pictures. PDF
  • Martin Rüedi: The Parliament Building of Bern (1894-1902): Genesis of a National Monument (dissertation to obtain the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the Department of History and Cultural Studies of the Free University of Berlin), Berlin 2016. [1]

See also

Web links

Commons : Bundeshaus (Bern)  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

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  2. a b Toni P. Labhart: Steinführer Bundeshaus Bern , p. 4
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Coordinates: 46 ° 56 '48 "  N , 7 ° 26' 39"  E ; CH1903:  600,418  /  199502

This article was added to the list of excellent articles on November 15, 2010 in this version .