Drought and heat in Europe 2018

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Temperature deviation of the first two weeks of July 2018 from the average of the first two weeks of July 2000–2015. Red areas (Scandinavia with Norway and Sweden): warmer, blue areas (in Russia): colder than normal.
Drying out in north-central Europe on July 24, 2018 (right). For comparison: the same region on July 19, 2017 (left).
Variations in summer temperatures in 2018 from the long-term average of the normal period 1981-2010 from +0.9 ° C to +3.8 ° C .

The drought and heat in Europe in 2018 was a weather anomaly with below-average rainfall ( drought ), above-average temperatures (including heat waves ) and above-average hours of sunshine , especially in the northern and central parts of Europe in the spring and summer months. As a result, there were numerous forest fires, crop failures and further heat damage. Due to the high water temperatures of some rivers, power plants have been shut down or throttled, and inland navigation has been partially suspended due to low water levels. The extraordinary drought that prevailed in parts of Europe persisted into late autumn and the weeks of Advent. In various European countries such as Germany, France and Switzerland as well as throughout Europe, 2018 brought new heat records .

Continuous warmth and drought began in Europe in April 2018 when a blocking omegalage existed, which led to a complete breakdown of the west wind drift . These very long-term stable hot high pressure weather conditions , which extend over large parts of the northern hemisphere and hardly change over long periods of time, are judged to be very unusual by both meteorologists and climate researchers . Climate researchers interpret the weather anomalies against the background of man-made climate change . Among other things, this has increased the likelihood of stable weather conditions developing in Europe, which in summer either leads to an above-average amount of rain or - as in the present case - to persistent drought and heat.

In December 2018, the term “ hot time ” was chosen as the German word of the year 2018. The jury justified the judgment with the extreme summer of the year and the reference to climate change.

Northern Europe

Oak in late July with brownish foliage in Gunnersbury Park, England


Scandinavia was particularly hard hit by the heat wave. It began in May of 2018 and brought temperature deviations of more than 4 degrees.

British Islands

A severe drought began in June in the British Isles , particularly Ireland and Scotland . UK experienced the warmest summer since 1976, in Ireland and Scotland, the highest temperatures were since the beginning of weather records measured. The persistent drought led to a decline in drinking water reserves; the lawn watering was banned across the country indefinitely. The royal gardens in London were largely brownish-gray instead of green.

Baltic states

A national emergency has been declared in Latvia and Lithuania ; In Lithuania, crop losses of over 30 percent were feared.


In Iceland , people experienced the coldest and wettest summer on record. The mean temperature in the months of May, June and July was only 7.7 ° C, the precipitation during this period was more than 300 liters per square meter.

Central Europe


Temperature deviation from the long-term mean in Germany in the period April to August in the years 1881 to 2018 (basis of the mean: 1961–1990 ; evaluation by the German Weather Service)
Germany-wide precipitation deviation 2018 in a long-term statistical comparison. The values ​​for 2018 are shown in comparison to the values ​​for the period 1881–2017
Dried out meadow near Kaarst , Germany on July 8, 2018

According to the balance sheet of the German Weather Service, with an average temperature of 10.5 degrees Celsius, 2018 was the warmest year since weather records began in 1881. At the same time, it was the fourth driest year in the same period and the sunniest year since these measurements began in 1951. According to Deutscher The weather service (DWD) makes the combination of the warmest year with an "extremely dry year" at the same time climatologically "unique". The Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research - UFZ described the drought as a "large-scale drought in Germany both in the topsoil and over the entire depth of the soil" that occurred for the first time since 1976 and called the summer and autumn of 2018 "drier than in all previous years available in the drought monitor since 1951 ".

From April to October there was an unusually dry and hot general weather situation in Germany, which was hardly interrupted; even in mid-October were often reached summer levels, the warmest October day was 28.6 ° C daily maximum temperature of 13 October in Tönisvorst . With an average of 11.6 degrees Celsius, it was 2.2 degrees warmer than the long-term average of 9.4 degrees. The period from April to October 2018 was the driest since measurements began; 40% less rain fell than the long-term average. A sustainable change in weather conditions did not take place until December 2018. Particularly in the south-west of Germany there was sometimes more rainfall in December than in the entire summer of the same year. Overall, however, there was a large water deficit between December 2018 and February 2019 despite slightly above-average rainfall. As of April 2019, the soil was missing an average of around 200 to 300 liters of water per square meter, so that at this point in time, due to the great drought, the highest forest fire warning level was sometimes again declared. In some places the drought was so great that winter crops such as rapeseed had to be plowed up again due to poor development.

Nationwide, new records were set in Germany for the number of summer days and hot days . T. significantly exceeded. In total, there were an average of 75 summer days with at least 25 degrees and more than 20 hot days with at least 30 degrees. Neither had existed since records began in 1881; the values ​​for summer 2003 with 62 summer days and 19 hot days were in some cases significantly exceeded. In Leipzig , where 7 to 8 hot days over 30 degrees are expected in a normal year, there were 36 such days.

In large parts of Germany, as of mid-October, there was extreme to exceptional drought in the deeper soil layers of up to 1.8 meters after there had been no extensive rainfalls since April. At this point in time, around 70% of the area of ​​Germany was affected by extreme drought. This drought continued over the year. While the situation in the topsoil had normalized in many regions by the beginning of 2020, moderate to exceptional drought continued to prevail in deeper soil layers in large parts of Germany. In some regions, the precipitation deficit that accrued in 2018 and 2019 amounts to an entire annual precipitation.

Looking at the period from April 1 to September 30, 2018, a new record was set for the highest temperature average in each individual federal state and a new record for the longest sunshine duration in 15 of 16 federal states (only Schleswig-Holstein is an exception) set up. The exceptionally long sunshine continued into autumn. As early as mid-November 2018, some measuring stations recorded a longer duration of sunshine than had ever been measured before within a calendar year. The German Weather Service also states in its evaluations that such a large precipitation deficit has never been observed for the period April to July 2018 (−110 mm [= l / m²]).

In June 2018, the weather in Germany was not noticed by temperature extremes, but by extreme drought, which even exceeded that of the " summer of the century" of 2003 . Initially, Northern Germany (especially Berlin and Brandenburg ) was affected, where temperatures of up to 30 ° C were already measured in April. In southern Germany, thunderstorms brought local precipitation, but also numerous thunderstorms. At the end of June, meteorologists spoke of “catastrophic proportions”. In the period from April 1 to September 30, 2018, the federal average fell 263 liters of rain per m², a value that was only undercut in 1911 (249 liters per m²). In two federal states, a new record was set for the lowest amount of precipitation.

The Federal Office for Radiation Protection dismissed early August 2018 the need to be against high UV radiation to protect, and advocated the creation of shaded areas: addiction Anyone shadow, should be able to find some. June and July were around 2.5 degrees warmer than the long-term average, and July was also the second sunniest since measurements began. From late July to early August, the weather in Germany was determined by an unusually long heat wave. The weather stations in Frankfurt, Mannheim and Offenbach am Main measured 18 consecutive days with maximum values ​​of more than 30 ° C.

At the end of May and beginning of June 2018 there were heavy floods in several regions of North Rhine-Westphalia. The damage was particularly high in Wuppertal . According to Germanwatch estimates, the total damage caused by the increasing effects of climate change in Germany amounted to around 32.2 billion euros in 2018 .


Dry grass in the Achterhoek in the Netherlands, July 30th

The Netherlands suffered from the worst drought since 1976 (as of mid-July 2018).


In Austria , according to the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics, 2018 was 1.8 degrees Celsius above the long-term average, the hottest year since the beginning of records dating back 252 years, and the driest in many regions. The number of hours of sunshine throughout Austria was 11 percent above the long-term average, and there were a lot of meteorological summer days, sometimes twice as many as usual in a normal year. In Andau a new Austrian record was observed with 127 summer days.

At the end of July 2018, temperatures were around five to ten degrees above the typical values ​​for the end of July / beginning of August (mean of the past 30 years). Almost all of the state capitals experienced the longest heat waves since weather records began. In Vienna , the 40th tropical night of the year was registered on the night of August 22nd , the record so far was 39 tropical nights in 2003. The summer half-year April to September 2018 was 2.6 degrees above the long-term mean and was the warmest since measurements began in 1767. Precipitation was 15 percent below the long-term mean, making it the driest summer since 2003. In many places, records were set for the number of summer days (day with a maximum of ≥ 25 degrees Celsius) broken.

In Austria there was a below-average amount of precipitation, in some regions up to 40 percent less rain fell than the long-term average. Some mountain lakes dried up, and in some places the drinking water supply was affected. Drought and heat had a negative impact on fish stocks in streams. Due to the low water level, many fish did not find any spawning grounds , and one hundred percent spawning failure was feared for brown trout in Upper Austria . In agriculture, harvest volumes were widespread and pests were able to spread more frequently. The forestry sector in particular suffered from a record bark beetle infestation . There were also major failures in root crops such as potatoes and sugar beets . Christmas tree farmers reported that young plants had dried up, which will be noticeable on the market in five to seven years from a low supply. In Salzburg there were several deaths among horses that, due to the drought, did not find enough grass in the pastures and therefore ate mountain maple seeds that were poisonous for them .

On the Danube , there were 60 percent transport losses in freight shipping and many passenger ships were stuck in Vienna with no progress because the level in neighboring countries was too low.


In Switzerland , the summer half of 2018 was the warmest since measurements began. In addition, Switzerland experienced the warmest meteorological period with a mean of 12.0 degrees (2003: 11.8 degrees) and the fourth driest meteorological period April – July since measurements began, with precipitation of 65 percent (1870: 46 percent) compared to the normal period 1981–2010 1864. In order to reduce the risk of forest fires , from the end of July 2018 there was an absolute ban on outdoor fires in many cantons of German-speaking Switzerland , with the result that August 1st - sparks and fireworks were dropped in many places. For example, the fire ban in the forests of the canton of Thurgau was in effect from July 30th to September 4th, 2018. Ozone pollution increased extremely during the hot days. On the night of October 23 to 24, 2018, temperatures of over 20 degrees were measured in some places. On October 24, 2018, Locarno-Monti recorded the latest hot day ever recorded at 30.5 degrees , aided by the persistent northern foehn . So far, this has been the case for September 25, 1983.
Only in the summers of 2003 and 2015 were even higher temperatures measured than in 2018. In many places, 2017 was already dry and hot; This is one of the reasons why the drought and heat of 2018 hit many trees particularly hard. Beeches in particular , but also elms , ash trees , alders and maples were affected. The WSL reported 110 problems related to drought and heat from 114 forest districts. The report on heat and drought in summer 2018 provides a detailed description of the climatic and hydrological development and describes the effects systematically. He cites the number of 177 additional deaths .


Forest and wildfires

The articles Forest fires in Sweden 2018 and Drought and heat in Europe 2018 # Forest and wildfires overlap thematically. Help me to better differentiate or merge the articles (→  instructions ) . To do this, take part in the relevant redundancy discussion . Please remove this module only after the redundancy has been completely processed and do not forget to include the relevant entry on the redundancy discussion page{{ Done | 1 = ~~~~}}to mark. TheRandomIP ( discussion ) 10:20, Sep 2. 2018 (CEST)

Rolled leaves of a young tree with drought stress

The drought favored forest and field fires . There were 1708 forest fires across Germany in 2018, more than four times as many fires as in 2017; as many fires as there have not been since the hot summer of 2003. A total of 2349 hectares of forest burned; In 2017 it was less than 400 hectares. Compared to the equally hot summer of 2016, both the number of forest fires and the number of forest areas burned down doubled. The focus of the fire was East Germany and Brandenburg in particular , as it has many poorly water-storing sandy soils and pine forests that are particularly at risk of fire.

Since the fire brigades on site were often overwhelmed, there was sometimes administrative assistance from the Bundeswehr , the technical relief organization and the federal police , although the deployment times of these units were significantly longer than in previous years. In the Lieberoser Heide , a former military training area in Germany, over 400  hectares of forest were on fire. The fire brigade could not extinguish the fire because of suspected duds . At Trebbin , mechanical field work was secured with water tankers to extinguish possible sources of fire. There were also smaller forest and meadow fires throughout Germany. The drought also favored a large mire fire in the Wehrtechnischen Dienststelle 91 , which affected several square kilometers of moor for weeks.

The forest fires in Sweden in 2018 were the worst in more than 100 years. On July 22, 2018, more than 25,000  hectares of forest were in flames. The fire brigades cut aisles and specifically burned areas to steal the fuel from the fire . After Sweden asked for international help, teams, fire-fighting equipment, fire-fighting planes and fire-fighting helicopters from Denmark, Germany, France, Italy, Norway, Austria, Poland and Portugal, among others, came to support. Sweden did not have any fire fighting planes to fight forest fires in July 2018 . Swedish authorities said it could take until early 2019 for all fires to be completely extinguished. As of July 20, 2018, the largest fire with an area of ​​8500 ha was in the municipality of Ljusdal . The front of that forest fire was 55 kilometers wide at that time.

In Southern Norway broke out in July, more than 350 forest and field fires within two weeks, which was noisy Norwegian Civil Defense Directorate, the highest ever recorded number of such fires. It had hardly rained since the beginning of May.

In August 2018, there were major forest fires near the Portuguese town of Monchique . More than 1,300 firefighters were on duty. The forest fire could only be brought under control by the fire brigade after a week. A total of 41 people were injured and around 27,000 hectares of forest were destroyed.

Flora and fauna

Wasps in August (Heidelberg)

The drought leads to a decline in various insects, such as B. the mosquitoes . Birds therefore suffered from a lack of food in addition to the lack of water. Wasps that reproduced rapidly due to the heat were likely to have fewer insects to feed their larvae and were relatively small.

As in 2015 and 2017, a few specimens of Hyalomma marginatum and Hyalomma rufipes - two disease-transmitting tropical tick species , presumably introduced by migratory birds - were found in Germany. So far they have been found in Europe in Italy, France, Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Spain, Portugal, Romania and Ukraine.

Large areas of young trees that were not yet able to develop deep roots also died in the forests. For Germany it was calculated that about 85% of the newly planted young trees dried up; Looking back, the German Forestry Council estimates the total number of dry young trees for 2018 to be around 500 million. Climate researchers also assumed that due to the severe drought, the forest could not have acted as a carbon sink as usual , i.e. had bound net carbon dioxide from the air, but instead became a carbon source, i.e. released more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere than it absorbed. This had already happened in the summer of 2003, which was also very hot and dry. The Working Group of German Forest Owners' Associations (AGDW) put the damage in the forests at around 5.4 billion euros, caused by forest fires, dead young tree plantings and excessive pest infestation, e.g. B. by the bark beetle .

The hot, dry weather resulted in a mass appearance of bark beetle species, which led to wood damage on 11 million solid cubic meters of wood across Germany . In Saxony there was the largest plague of bark beetles since the Second World War . Prices for spruce fell by 50% due to the masses of affected trees . Emergency measures have been taken in various federal states. Due to the mild winter of 2018/2019, a strong bark beetle year is also expected for 2019, as many beetles have survived the winter and, among other things, there is plenty of dead wood available for reproduction after storms . In addition, many spruces are weakened by the drought of 2018, which has not yet been overcome, and can therefore only produce little resin with which they can defend themselves against bark beetles. In NRW , counts in an affected spruce stand revealed bark beetle values ​​of an average of 15,000 beetles per tree, in addition to others in the soil. Healthy spruce trees that are well supplied with water can repel around 100 to 200 bark beetles through resin production . In 2018, however, spruce only managed to successfully control 1–2 beetles due to the severe water shortage. In July 2019, the AGDW estimated that it would cost 2.1 billion euros to remove the damaged wood that had been cut to a total of 70 million cubic meters for 2018 and 2019. In February 2020, the Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture put the forest area destroyed in the drought and hot years of 2018 and 2019 at 245,000 hectares; according to the same source, the amount of damaged wood was 160 million cubic meters. A further exacerbation of forest death is expected due to the persistent drought at the beginning of 2020 and the once again very good development conditions for bark beetles. At the beginning of June 2020, Germany's forests were still suffering from the drought stress that began with the drought that had persisted since 2018.

According to the Forest Condition Report 2020, the condition of German forests after the drought years 2018 and 2019 was worse than ever since these surveys began in 1984. According to this, 180,000 hectares of forest had completely died and, for the first time since the forest died out in the 1980s, large areas of spruce had died again . Many other trees also suffered from significant crown defoliation , including 50% of the oaks and 47% of the beeches. The jaw is also getting worse and worse. No improvement is expected for 2020 either, as the effects of droughts only show up with a time lag.

Phenologically there were also peculiarities. For example, the fall of leaves for many tree species was delayed in autumn, such as the English oak , which marks the phenological winter. The German Meteorological Service suspected that the drought had disrupted the trees' metabolic processes and that the cork layer between leaf and twig, which normally causes leaf fall , could not be formed properly. Scientifically, however, the phenomenon has not yet been clarified.


Parched river bed of the Wharfe in Wetherby , West Yorkshire , July 9th 2018

Many bodies of water carried little water for a long time. In 9 of the 15 largest rivers in Germany there was extremely low water for more than 100 days . The rivers most severely affected by the water shortage were the Elbe and Oder, which experienced extremely low water for 183 and 175 days respectively. In the Rhine and Danube there were 132 and 109 days respectively. In mid-October the water level of the Rhine at Emmerich am Rhein was just 26 cm; a new low that even broke the previous record set in 2003.

The low water had the effect that some rivers in Germany, such as the Oder, could be waded through in some places. On the Oder, at the relevant gauge Frankfurt 1 in August 2018, a new all-time low of 94 cm since the measurements began. The Danube also had historically low water on the weekend of August 12th: At the Pfelling measuring point in the Straubing-Bogen district ( Lower Bavaria ), only a level of 2.28 m (fairway depth 1.38 m) was measured, another two centimeters below Previous low on September 25, 1947. Some smaller rivers such as the Black Elster dried up completely due to the unusually hot and dry weather conditions.

Among other things, due to the high temperatures and low water levels, severe effects on the water ecology were feared. According to the Swiss Fisheries Association, heat-related fish deaths in the Rhine can hardly be averted. Environmental associations demanded that the introduction of warm industrial waste water should be temporarily prohibited in order to keep the environmental impact of the heat wave within limits.

The fill level of the Edersee fell to 10% of its maximum value by November 2018, and branches of the lake were completely dry. In addition, some ruins and foundations of buildings came to light that had been demolished when it was filled.

In addition, ammunition from the Second World War that was sunk by the low tide reappeared. More ammunition , grenades and mines were found in the Elbe and Rhine rivers . In Saxony-Anhalt, the Technical Police Office (TPA) issued a warning. On August 1st, 66 flak cartridges , which had been found in mid-July, were blown up in the Rhine near the Mainz winter port  .

In Bochum's city pond, several hundred fish perished on July 29, 2018 due to a lack of oxygen . In Hamburg, five tons of dead fish were removed from water. Dead fish were discovered in numerous other bodies of water. Because of the high water temperatures, the cyanobacteria increased in the Unterbacher See near Düsseldorf , so that the lido north had to close on July 29, 2018. The Ironman Hamburg on July 29, 2018 was converted from a triathlon to a duathlon due to the cyanobacteria bloom in the Alster . At the beginning of August there was a fish death in the Aasee (Münster) . The blue-green algae have been fought there for years.

In Switzerland, the river beds near the Emme and Töss had dried out in places. The Lac des Brenets almost completely dried up and extremely low water levels were also measured at Lake Lucerne , Lake Zug and Lake Zurich . While the Aare in Bern recorded a record temperature, grayling and trout suffered, among other things, in the Rhine, which is around 27 degrees Celsius. In many places had to be fished; For example, around 40 bodies of water in the canton of Thurgau .

Due to the high temperatures and the low precipitation, the approx. 1500 glaciers in Switzerland melted significantly. According to the Swiss Academies of Arts and Sciences , they lost an estimated 1.4 billion cubic meters of ice year-on-year , which corresponds to around 2.5% of the total glacier mass. The fact that there had been very high snowfalls in some regions in winter 2017/2018 had a dampening effect, without which the snow loss would have been significantly greater.


As a result of the persistent lack of water, apples (variety: Maunzen ) remained significantly too small in Lower Franconia.
Drought 2018 Germany Kartelegende.pngDevelopment of the drought of the topsoil (top 25 cm of the soil) in Germany in half-month steps.

In large parts of Central, Northern and Eastern Europe, the lack of rainfall in the spring and summer of 2018 led to significantly lower harvest volumes. As a result, the grain harvest (including grain maize) in the EU-28 fell by 8% compared to the five-year average to a volume of 284.3 million tons.

From a global perspective, almost 2.66 billion tons of grain were produced worldwide in the 2018/19 cultivation year, around 30 million tons less than was demanded, which led to the first global grain deficit since 2012/2013. However, the warehouses were still well filled from previous years, so that no grain shortage is expected.

In many places, premature slaughter of cattle and sheep due to insufficient feed has been reported.

World market prices for grain rose by around 20 percent for the 2018 European harvest compared to the relatively low level of the previous year. In the case of oilseeds (especially rapeseed in Europe), no drought-related price increases were noticeable due to the abundant global availability of soy and palm oil.

The regionally strongly fluctuating prices for roughage rose sharply. In many regions of Europe, reports have doubled compared to the previous year.

In the first three quarters of 2019, the number of farm insolvencies in Germany rose by 23.9% compared to the previous year. The reason for this is the drought of 2018, which had a delayed effect on the financial situation of the companies with lower income and higher costs.

The grape harvest began about three weeks earlier than usual. German winegrowers were expected to have a productive year with high quality grapes, as long as the intense sun did not damage the grapes through sunburn .


In Germany, drought-related yield losses in outdoor cultivation were recorded in all federal states.

The drought meant that many farmers had to harvest their grain much earlier due to strong signs of emergency ripening . The grain harvest (excluding grain maize ) fell by 19% to 34.5 million tons compared to the mean of the three previous years. The hectare yield of 60.2 quintals was 15.8% below the three-year average. For the first time since 1986, Germany became a net importer of grain. The harvest of grain maize (including CCM ) was 3.3 million tons, 25 percent below the three-year average. The yield losses in organic farming were estimated to be 10 percent across all types of grain, although this could be partially compensated for by increasing areas under cultivation.

Similar yield losses were also seen in other area crops such as B. Potatoes or rapeseed reported. Regionally, however, losses of 50 percent and more were also reported. In some places, fields were not harvested at all because the harvest costs would have exceeded the value of the harvest. In some cases, such as E.g. with potatoes in organic farming, the yields could even be increased by reducing disease pressure and intensifying irrigation.

The drought, which persisted after the main harvest until late autumn, also had an impact on the following year of cultivation. In Hesse, for example, the area under cultivation of rapeseed fell from 55,000 to 36,300 hectares for the 2018/19 cultivation year. A quarter of the harvest is expected for the 2019 harvest. As a result, a yield decline of 10 to 20% is expected for rapeseed honey as well.

The production volume of most animal foods could also be kept at the level of previous years in the following months. It is true that many farms, especially cattle and sheep farmers, were unable to create sufficient feed stocks from their own sources due to the low level of plant growth. However, this was largely compensated for by purchasing animal feed and using in-house reserves.

Lower harvest volumes could only be partially offset by higher market prices; many farms suffered financial losses, especially if they had fixed the selling price of their harvest in advance through preliminary contracts .

After the Federal Minister of Agriculture Julia Klöckner announced financial aid from the federal government for existentially affected farms in the event that the official harvest report expected for the end of August 2018 shows damage of "national proportions", the responsible state ministries sent the federal government in mid-August estimated damage sums of over three billion euros . On August 22, 2018, Federal Minister Klöckner classified the extreme drought of 2018 as an extraordinary weather event of national proportions , in which the existence of around 10,000 companies was threatened with damage amounting to 680 million euros. As a result, the federal government and 14 federal states decided in an administrative agreement in October to provide half a total of up to 340 million euros for these companies. The payment of the aid was linked to extensive criteria and was not yet completed in April 2019.

Federal and state program to support companies whose existence is threatened by the consequences of the 2018 drought
state Reported damage in € million

(As of August 2018)

Planned federal and state aid in €

(Federal and State; as of October 2018)

Baden-Württemberg ? 22,240,000
Bavaria ? 20,460,000
Berlin ? 56,000
Brandenburg 260 46,260,000
Bremen ? 272,000
Hamburg ? 500,000
Hesse 150 17,800,000
Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania 531 50,000,000
Lower Saxony 980 35,600,000
North Rhine-Westphalia ? 17,800,000
Rhineland-Palatinate 180 (Criteria for federal aid not met)
Saarland 5.3 (Criteria for federal aid not met)
Saxony 308 44,480,000
Saxony-Anhalt 237 51,180,000
Schleswig-Holstein 422 20,000,000
Thuringia 150 13,340,000

In addition to this federal-state program, further support was promised, in particular to counteract the scarcity of roughage . The Lower Saxony State Office for Consumer Protection and Food Safety also allowed non- organic roughage in organic agriculture . In many federal states, the mowing of ecological priority areas for fodder purposes was permitted. Bavaria provided 20 million euros as aid for the purchase of roughage.

The drought started a debate about the possible state support for agricultural multi-risk insurance , as the few available private-sector offers have so far hardly met with the farmers due to the high premiums.


At the beginning of August 2018, the Austrian hail insurance company estimated the nationwide damage to be 80 million euros for grain and 130 million euros for grassland. In October 2018, the amount of damage to grassland was estimated at 300 million euros.

Federal Minister Elisabeth Köstinger promised the livestock farms affected by the drought direct aid amounting to 20 million euros. A further 20 million euros have been pledged to increase the premium subsidy for natural hazard and animal failure insurance.


According to a report from Bio Suisse , an application for the use of roughage from non-organic conventional agriculture could also be submitted in Switzerland . This also applied to Demeter Switzerland from August to December 2018 . Never before have more feeding exceptions been made in Switzerland than in 2018.


In Denmark the grain harvest decreased by 28% to 7.2 million tons and in Sweden by 45% to 3.25 million tons.

Industry, commerce and transport

Shipping channel between a Rhine island and the shallows Jungferngrund in October

In addition to the aforementioned yield losses in agriculture , the hot and dry weather also had an impact on other branches of the economy.

In Germany and Switzerland, some power plants had to reduce their output because the cooling water that was fed into the already heated waters additionally heats them. This affected the Philippsburg , Grohnde and Brokdorf nuclear power plants as well as the Rheinhafen steam power plant in Karlsruhe . At the beginning of August, one of the two reactors at the Fessenheim nuclear power plant had to be completely taken off the grid. In Switzerland, the nuclear power plants in Beznau and Mühleberg cut their electricity production . Rivers (for example Elbe , Rhine , Oder and Danube ) carried so little water that shipping was restricted or stopped. Cargo ships could only be partially loaded. As of October 2018, shipping traffic on the Elbe between Magdeburg and Dresden had not been possible for months, on the Danube ships could practically only operate unloaded. There was a lot of cargo ship traffic on the Rhine because these ships could only be partially loaded. In some places the Rhine ferries no longer operate . River cruises had to be shortened, and planned stops at inaccessible landing stages had to be omitted.

Industrial companies such as BASF and ThyssenKrupp had to cut production as a result of the low water on the Rhine. Likewise, for example, had K + S production sites include temporarily because their sewage no longer in the Werra could be derived. Many petrol stations could also only be supplied with fuel with difficulty due to the transport bottlenecks on the inland waterways, which were made even more difficult by the failure of a refinery and in some cases could no longer offer the full range for a few hours. In addition, fuel prices rose in some cases by more than 20 cents / liter. On October 22nd, 30,000 cubic meters of diesel were released from compulsory storage in Switzerland , which corresponds to around 2.5 percent of the total diesel compulsory storage volume. On October 26, the German government also released the strategic oil reserve in order to remedy the shortage of crude oil in south-west Germany caused by the low water levels.

In Germany, the sun shone an average of 305 hours in July 2018 - 44 percent more than the long-term average. According to preliminary figures, photovoltaic systems in Germany produced around 6.7 to 6.8 TWh in July 2018, taking into account their own consumption. This is a new all-time record. A new photovoltaic output record was set at the beginning of July with 29.1 GW (equivalent to around 25 nuclear power plants).

In Switzerland, the Rhaetian Railway announced at the end of July that it was painting its rails white so that they would deform less in the heat. In order to be able to better reach the ports in Basel even when the water is low, several sections of the shipping channel will be removed by around 25 cm between July 2018 and February 2019.


Heat waves are harmful to health and can lead to death, especially for the elderly and weak, as well as children. Matthias an der Heiden from the Robert Koch Institute estimates that the hot summer of 2018 caused roughly as many heat deaths as the heat wave in Europe in 2003 . Between 50,000 and 70,000 people across Europe died of the heat, including around 7,600 people in Germany.


One of the few positive effects of the drought is the fact that historical sites can be recognized from the air due to the contrasts of differently decaying vegetation ( aerial archeology ). Recordings were made of well-known sites to document their condition and location: for example, of the moated castle in Bauda , the historic garden of Gawthorpe Hall in the English county of Lancashire and the foundation walls of Tixall Hall in Staffordshire In addition, numerous new discoveries were made: for example in Saxony, Wales, Ireland and France. In addition, ammunition, everyday objects and shipwrecks came to light due to the low water level.

Relation to weather events in other regions

The forest fires caused by arson in Greece in 2018 , which got out of control east of Athens several times, were also favored by extreme weather as a result of climate change, according to Disaster Protection Minister Nikos Toskas. At least 96 people died, making the forest fire the worst of its kind in Europe since 1900, according to the Center for the Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters. The fire researcher Lindon Pronto, on the other hand, sees the weather conditions that favor the fire as not unusual: "[...] in Greece you have to reckon with it every year." The main factor was the wind. Only the forest fires in northern and central Europe were unusual in their number and danger.

In addition to Europe, other continents were also marked by considerable weather extremes. This resulted in an unprecedented number of extreme floods, droughts, heat waves and fires in North America, Asia and, at the end of the year, in Australia .

The constant high pressure system over Eastern Europe repeatedly diverted the low pressure areas coming from the Atlantic to southwest Europe, where they became so-called cut-off lows over the Mediterranean . These developed strong momentum in autumn and were able to carry large amounts of moisture with them from the still warm seawater, which led to the storms in the Alps-Adriatic region at the end of October .

Connection with climate change

Many climate researchers such as Markus Rex from the Alfred Wegener Institute , Friederike Otto from the University of Oxford , Mojib Latif , Stefan Rahmstorf , Michael E. Mann and Judah Cohen from MIT see a connection between man-made climate change and the development of such stable weather conditions the jet stream will weaken due to the increased warming of the Arctic . Depending on how exactly the jet stream weakens and where it comes to a halt, there will be a very sunny or a very wet summer. The heat of 2018 and the rain and flooding of the wet summer of 2017 are "two sides of the same coin".

The 2015 heatwave was analyzed in a study published in 2016 . The authors find that the probability of heat waves in Europe is increased by the unusually cold surface water of the Atlantic south of Greenland , which, among other things, makes it more difficult to shift the jet stream. The cooling of the Atlantic surface water in this region is in turn a consequence of the weakening Gulf Stream .

A study published in Earth's Future in 2019 came to the conclusion that the heat events that occurred in the northern hemisphere in 2018 would with a probability bordering on certainty (i.e. 99-100% certainty) would not have occurred without man-made climate change. In addition, the researchers noted that events such as the drought and heat extremes that lasted between May and July 2018 had not occurred before 2010.

See also

Web links

Commons : Weather Anomalies in Europe 2018  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Worldwide temperatures and extreme weather events since 2010 . Federal Environment Agency. Retrieved April 17, 2019.
  2. No real westerly weather situation since April - permanent warmth and drought. kachelmannwetter.com from July 16, 2018, accessed on July 26, 2018.
  3. The heat wave puzzles science. In: Potsdam's latest news . July 26, 2018, accessed July 31, 2018 .
  4. Hot time is the word of the year . In: Die Zeit , December 14, 2018. Retrieved December 14, 2018.
  5. a b Attribution of the 2018 heat in northern Europe. Accessed August 5, 2018 .
  6. Record heat and massive forest fires in Scandinavia . ( wetter.net [accessed on August 5, 2018]).
  7. Not Everyone's Happy About Britain's Hottest Summer in Four Decades .
  8. irishtimes.com July 5, 2018: Ireland in state of 'absolute drought' as heatwave continues: Irish Water extends hosepipe ban to rest of country as heatwave continues
  9. Scorched Satellite Images Show how London's Green Spaces have been parched by the heatwave. In: Evening Standard . July 27, 2018, accessed August 1, 2018 .
  10. ^ WORLD: Drought: Latvia declares a national emergency because of drought . June 26, 2018.
  11. Drought: Lithuania declares a national emergency . 6th July 2018.
  12. Iceland: Record wet summer. In: WetterOnline. August 4, 2018. Retrieved August 5, 2018 .
  13. German Weather Service: 2018 warmest summer in northern and eastern Germany. Background report of the German Weather Service from September 6, 2018 (PDF (745 kB)) Retrieved September 30, 2018 .
  14. a b Friedrich, K .; Kaspar, F .: Review of 2018 - the warmest year so far in Germany , report by the German Weather Service , as of January 2, 2019
  15. Annual mean temperatures in Germany by region. DWD, accessed on January 2, 2018 .
  16. Balance sheet of the weather service - warmest year since 1881 , tagesschau.de from December 20, 2018, accessed on December 20, 2018
  17. ^ First balance of the German Weather Service for 2018 in Germany ; Press release from the German Weather Service. Retrieved December 20, 2018.
  18. Development of the 2018 drought. Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research - UFZ , February 8, 2019, accessed on July 25, 2019 .
  19. Autumn continues to be difficult . In: n-tv.de , October 15, 2018. Retrieved October 15, 2018.
  20. 2018 with almost widespread new summer day records . Retrieved October 18, 2018.
  21. Weather and Climate - Deutscher Wetterdienst - Presse - Deutschlandwetter in October 2018. Accessed on November 3, 2018 .
  22. December brought the turning point, sometimes more rain than all summer. Retrieved January 2, 2019 .
  23. a b Forest Fire Risk: Dry Germany . In: Deutsche Welle , April 22, 2019. Retrieved April 21, 2019.
  24. Review October golden and partly late summer . Retrieved November 2, 2018.
  25. Two records in summer 2018 . In: Proplanta , November 24, 2018. Retrieved November 24, 2018.
  26. Coronavirus and heat: How will summer be in Europe? . In: Deutsche Welle , April 12, 2020. Accessed April 17, 2020.
  27. a b c d Germany's rivers are approaching their historic low . In: Spektrum.de , October 16, 2018. Retrieved October 16, 2018.
  28. Drought in Germany - When will it finally rain? . In: Spiegel Online , October 19, 2018. Retrieved October 19, 2018.
  29. This summer is no cause for joy . In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung , October 19, 2018. Accessed October 19, 2018.
  30. Robert Hausen: The floor does not forget . Website of the German Weather Service. Retrieved January 20, 2020.
  31. a b How unusual was the summer half year? . Retrieved October 13, 2018.
  32. In some locations, 2018 is the sunniest year on record . Retrieved November 24, 2018.
  33. ^ Deutscher Wetterdienst: Preliminary review of the summer of 2018 - a balance sheet of extreme weather events. Background report of the German Weather Service from August 3, 2018 (PDF). Retrieved on August 4, 2018 .
  34. the monthly average temperature was 17.8 degrees
  35. de.statista.com : April 2018 35 liters / m² (long-term average 58 l); May 2018 50 liters / m² (l. M. 71 l); June 2018 50 liters / m² (l. M. 85 l)
  36. tagesschau.de: Feared of crop losses: It remains "bone dry" .
  37. Climate change also leads to higher UV radiation , Federal Office for Radiation Protection , August 1, 2018, accessed on August 2, 2018.
  38. The fear of the millennium summer . In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Sonntagszeitung , July 30, 2018.
  39. Heat waves are becoming more and more extreme. In: Potsdam's latest news . July 31, 2018, accessed July 31, 2018 .
  40. Weather stations DWD. Retrieved August 15, 2018 .
  41. rp-online.de: NRW suffers the most from storms and thunderstorms in 2018
  42. Heavy storm in Wuppertal: "Obviously the state of emergency" . May 30, 2018.
  43. ^ Joachim Wille, Susanne Schwarz: Germany is becoming a climate risk country. In: Klimareporter. December 4, 2019, accessed December 4, 2019 .
  44. CLIMATE: In times of extreme drought, the dikes come first (July 24, 2018)
  45. 2018 is Austria's warmest year in measurement history . In: Der Standard , December 20, 2018. Retrieved December 21, 2018.
  46. a b 2018 is very likely the warmest year in measurement history. ZMAG , December 20, 2018, accessed on January 28, 2019 .
  47. Heat wave in Austria will continue for the next few days. In: OÖN , July 30, 2018.
  48. Longest heat wave since measurements began. In: ORF . August 21, 2018. Retrieved August 23, 2018 .
  49. Warmest summer half year in measurement history. ZMAG , September 19, 2018, accessed on September 19, 2018 .
  50. 2018 will be one of the warmest years since measurements began. ZMAG , October 16, 2018, accessed November 9, 2018 .
  51. Drought endangers fish stocks. In: ORF . November 13, 2018, accessed January 28, 2019 .
  52. Persistent drought - anxious waiting for the rain. In: ORF . October 20, 2018, accessed November 9, 2018 .
  53. Bad year for forest owners. In: ORF . October 30, 2018, accessed November 9, 2018 .
  54. Most of the potato harvest unusable. In: ORF . December 19, 2018, accessed November 9, 2018 .
  55. Drought troubles Christmas tree farmers. In: ORF . December 7, 2018, accessed January 28, 2019 .
  56. 15 horses perished by maple seeds. In: ORF . October 25, 2018, accessed November 9, 2018 .
  57. ^ Danube ships hope for rain. In: ORF . October 23, 2018, accessed November 9, 2018 .
  58. a b Swiss glaciers lose massive amounts of ice in the hot summer . In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung , October 16, 2018. Accessed October 16, 2018.
  59. «The warmest April-July period since measurements began in 1864» . In: tagesanzeiger.ch/ . ( tagesanzeiger.ch [accessed on August 6, 2018]).
  60. Extreme lack of rain and record warmth - MeteoSwiss. Retrieved August 6, 2018 .
  61. Franziska Scheven and Manuel Frick: Fire ban in Switzerland: An overview . In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung . ( nzz.ch [accessed on August 6, 2018]).
  62. Thurgau Forestry Office: Thurgauer Wald - Yearbook 2018 (PDF; 5 MB) June 2019, p. 21 , accessed on August 10, 2019 .
  63. Kelly Spielmann: Ozone values: In Aargau the limit has already been exceeded 361 times - what does that mean? In: aargauerzeitung.ch . August 8, 2018, accessed June 29, 2019 .
  64. Lucien Rahm: Heat wave drives up ozone levels in Lucerne. In: luzernerzeitung.ch . August 7, 2018, accessed June 29, 2019 .
  65. Hot day at the end of October. In: Swiss farmer . October 24, 2018, accessed October 24, 2018 .
  66. tagesanzeiger.ch: How hot it really was this summer
  67. NZZ.ch August 2, 2018: How the forest suffers from drought (with a bar chart on precipitation)
  68. The Swiss forest is dying. In: nau.ch . July 7, 2019, accessed July 7, 2019 .
  69. Tobias Bossard: Hot summer 2018 - The Swiss forests have suffered so badly. In: srf.ch . February 23, 2019, accessed February 23, 2019 .
  70. FOEN et al. (Ed.) 2019: Heat and drought in summer 2018 . Effects on humans and the environment. Federal Office for the Environment , Bern. Environmental status No. 1909: 91 p.
  71. ↑ The number of forest fires more than quadrupled in 2018 . In: Die Zeit , June 22, 2019. Retrieved June 22, 2019.
  72. ↑ The army and federal police have to fight forest fires more often . In: Spiegel-Online , September 11, 2018. Retrieved September 12, 2018.
  73. rbb24.de: Huge forest fire on a former military training area - no all-clear in the Lieberoser Heide yet
  74. Now fires also threaten the harvest .
  75. a b As dry as never. Summer is gone - the drought has intensified . In: T-online.de , September 22, 2018. Retrieved September 22, 2018.
  76. Moor fire near Meppen becomes a disaster . In: Spektrum.de , September 21, 2018. Retrieved September 22, 2018.
  77. Unusually early forest fires . In: Tagesschau.de , April 24, 2019. Retrieved April 25, 2019.
  78. Sven Lemke Meyer: fire departments from all over Europe help in Sweden . July 22, 2018.
  79. http://www.aerobuzz.de : Fire fighters from the EU rush to help Sweden
  80. Severe forest fires: Sweden is now hoping for rain , Augsburger Allgemeine , July 22, 2018.
  81. Fighting forest fires: German fire brigade helps in Sweden ( Memento of the original from July 23, 2018 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . In: Die Zeit , July 23, 2018, accessed on July 24, 2018. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.zeit.de
  82. "We will not be able to put out the biggest fires" . In: Spiegel-Online , July 20, 2018, accessed on July 25, 2018.
  83. German fire fighters help Sweden . In: n-tv.de , July 23, 2018, accessed on July 25, 2018.
  84. "A demonstration of what to expect" . In: Klimareporter , July 22, 2018, accessed on July 25, 2018.
  85. Forest fire in Portugal keeps fire brigade in suspense . In: Salzburger Nachrichten , August 8, 2018. Retrieved August 8, 2018.
  86. At least 24 people injured in forest fires in the Algarve . In: Rheinische Post , August 6, 2018. Accessed August 8, 2018.
  87. After a week of forest fire: fire extinguished in the Algarve . In: tagesschau.de , August 10, 2018. Accessed August 10, 2018.
  88. Wasps - the plague of summer. Retrieved August 15, 2018 .
  89. "At some point the ecosystems simply collapse". Retrieved August 15, 2018 .
  90. First aid for nature. Retrieved August 15, 2018 .
  91. Drought reduces food supply for wasp larvae. Retrieved August 15, 2018 .
  92. Tropical ticks found in Germany . August 14, 2018.
  93. ^ Celine Müller: What pharmacists need to know about the Hyalomma tick ; DAZ -online from August 15, 2018; accessed on August 16, 2018.
  94. Drought is heading towards an absolute exception . In: t-online.de , October 19, 2018. Retrieved October 19, 2018.
  95. Tremendous damage. New bark beetle plague threatens forests . In: n-tv.de , March 10, 2019. Accessed March 11, 2019.
  96. The second bark beetle attack - what that means for the forest . In: Westdeutsche Zeitung , March 7, 2019. Retrieved March 11, 2019.
  97. Forest owners fear billions in costs from drought and bark beetles. In: www.tagesspiegel.de. July 20, 2019, accessed July 25, 2019 .
  98. Damage in German forests more massive than assumed . In: Spiegel Online , February 26, 2020. Accessed February 26, 2020.
  99. ^ Heike Holdinghausen: Drought threatens forests: Still drought stress . In: taz , June 3, 2020. Accessed June 3, 2020.
  100. German forests endangered by heat and drought . In: Die Zeit , April 8, 2020. Retrieved April 9, 2020.
  101. ^ German weather service for plant development in autumn 2018 , DWD of December 27, 2018; accessed on December 28, 2018
  102. Statistics for 2018. Extreme low water on more than 100 days in many large rivers . In: n-tv.de , July 8, 2019. Accessed July 10, 2019.
  103. Jeanette Bederke: Heat and drought: Or leads to extremely low water . In: Potsdamer Latest News Messpunkt . July 31, 2018 ( pnn.de [accessed August 2, 2018]).
  104. Historical low at the Oder level Frankfurt 1 . In: Märkische Oderzeitung , August 15, 2018. Accessed August 15, 2018.
  105. Danube in the Straubing-Bogen district at an all-time low. pnp.de, August 14, 2018, accessed on August 16, 2018 .
  106. Jan Augustin: Black Elster near Senftenberg dried up. Lausitzer Rundschau , August 7, 2018.
  107. Heat alarm. Big fish deaths in the Rhine feared . In: Kölnische Rundschau , July 26, 2018, accessed on July 26, 2018.
  108. ^ Drought in Germany. On reason . In: Süddeutsche Zeitung , November 14, 2018. Retrieved November 17, 2018.
  109. tagesschau.de: Low water on the Elbe exposes World War II ammunition. Retrieved August 2, 2018 .
  110. sueddeutsche.de: Ordnance clearance service finds 66 cartridges of anti-aircraft ammunition. Süddeutsche Zeitung , July 25, 2018, accessed on August 19, 2020 .
  111. dpa / mkü: Elbe: hand grenades and mines - low water exposes World War II ammunition . In: welt.de . August 2, 2018, accessed August 2, 2018 .
  112. Shells discovered after low water, Flak cartridge detonation in the Rhine ended on swr.de on August 1, 2018
  113. Hundreds of dead fish in Bochum's city park ( Memento from July 30, 2018 in the Internet Archive ) In: wdr.de , July 29, 2018.
  114. Fischsterben in Hamburg In: mopo.de , August 2, 2018, accessed on August 2, 2018.
  115. More than 20 tons of fish perished In: muenster.de, August 10, 2018, accessed on August 11, 2018.
  116. Lido at Unterbacher See closed due to algae plague In: nrz.de , July 29, 2018, accessed on July 30, 2018.
  117. ↑ Blue- green algae stop triathletes In: ovb-online.de , July 27, 2018, accessed on July 30, 2018.
  118. Does phosphate precipitation heat up algal blooms in the Aasee? In: muenster.de, September 18, 2018, accessed on September 20, 2018.
  119. Drought and heat - when all that's left of the river is a bed In: srf.ch , July 28, 2018, accessed on July 29, 2018.
  120. Hydrological Yearbook of Switzerland 2018 (PDF; 8 MB) Federal Office for the Environment , 2019, accessed on August 10, 2019 .
  121. Federal Office for the Environment : Low water and high water temperatures in summer 2018 In: bafu. admin.ch , August 14, 2018, accessed on September 20, 2018.
  122. Yves Schott (interview with Thomas Stocker in Bärnerbär ): Bern is sweating much more often. (PDF; 2.2 MB) In: climatehomes. unibe.ch . August 21, 2018. Retrieved July 21, 2019 .
  123. David Grob: Fish die because of warm water: Already a ton of dead grayling in the Rhine In: tagblatt.ch , August 6, 2018, accessed on September 20, 2018.
  124. Preventing fish deaths In: srf.ch , July 30, 2018, accessed on September 20, 2018.
  125. Deviation in soil moisture from the long-term condition (1951–2015) in the respective month ( https://www.ufz.de/index.php?de=37937 )
  126. FPFIS team: JRC MARS Bulletin Vol. 26 No 6 - Crop monitoring in Europe, June 2018. European Commission, June 28, 2018, accessed on May 22, 2019 .
  127. FPFIS team: JRC MARS Bulletin Vol. 26 No 9 - Crop monitoring in Europe, September 2018. European Commission, September 17, 2018, accessed on May 22, 2019 .
  128. ^ Drop in EU cereal harvest due to summer drought. European Commission, Directorate-General for Agriculture and Rural Development, October 3, 2018, accessed on May 22, 2019 .
  129. Grain harvest does not cover consumption . In: Tagesschau.de , April 7, 2019. Accessed April 7, 2019.
  130. Olaf Zinke: Organic farmers slaughter cows because of a lack of feed. In: agrarheute.com. Deutscher Landwirtschaftsverlag GmbH, July 13, 2018, accessed on May 23, 2019 .
  131. Sven Titz: Dürre 2018: An end to the drought is not in sight in Europe . November 24, 2018, ISSN  0376-6829 ( nzz.ch [accessed on May 23, 2019]).
  132. Drought drives sheep to slaughter early. In: rbb24.de, Antenne Brandenburg. Rundfunk Berlin-Brandenburg, July 11, 2018, accessed on May 23, 2019 .
  133. After the drought summer 2018: Many farmers go bankrupt . In: Berliner Zeitung , November 21, 2019. Retrieved November 24, 2019.
  134. Heat wave: grape harvest starts earlier than ever before . In: Spiegel Online . July 30, 2018 ( spiegel.de [accessed August 2, 2018]).
  135. Because of the summer heat: good quality, but fewer grapes , Lausitzer Rundschau , August 4, 2018
  136. Harvest Report 2018. Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture, August 24, 2018, accessed on May 21, 2019 .
  137. Lissa Peters: Germany will probably be a net importer of grain. In: top agrar online. Landwirtschaftsverlag GmbH, August 28, 2018, accessed on May 21, 2019 .
  138. Harvest quantities of grain and silage maize in Germany, 2014-2018. German Maiskomitee e. V. (DMK), accessed on May 22, 2019 .
  139. Olaf Zinke: Organic grain: area is growing, yields are not. In: agrarheute.com. Deutscher Landwirtschaftsverlag GmbH, January 11, 2019, accessed on May 22, 2019 .
  140. AMI: Yields in organic and conventional farming. Federal Agency for Agriculture and Food, December 20, 2018, accessed on May 22, 2019 .
  141. Hessen: Farmers' Association expects a third less rapeseed area. In: n-tv.de . April 25, 2018. Retrieved April 28, 2019 .
  142. dpa: Farmers are supported by the state - but also occupational risk. In: proplanta.de. August 23, 2018, accessed May 23, 2019 .
  143. a b Stefanie Awater-Esper: Drought: countries report € 3 billion in damage. In: top agrar online. Landwirtschaftsverlag GmbH, October 1, 2018, accessed on May 22, 2019 .
  144. Alfons Deter: National weather event: Klöckner promises 340 million euros in drought aid. In: top agrar online. Landwirtschaftsverlag GmbH, October 4, 2018, accessed on May 22, 2019 .
  145. a b Administrative agreement between the federal government and the federal states on the participation of the federal government in aid programs of the federal states for agricultural companies whose existence is threatened by the consequences of the 2018 drought. (PDF) October 2, 2018, accessed on May 22, 2019 .
  146. Sabine Tenta: Drought Aid: The hurdles are high. In: wdr.de. Westdeutscher Rundfunk, November 6, 2018, accessed on May 22, 2019 .
  147. Stefanie Awater-Esper: Payment of the drought aid is slowly progressing again. In: top agrar online. Landwirtschaftsverlag GmbH, April 1, 2019, accessed on May 22, 2019 .
  148. General decree for the use of non-ecological / non-biological roughage In: laves.niedersachsen.de , August 1, 2018, accessed on August 2, 2018.
  149. Jana Dahlke: Fallow land for forage use. In: agrarheute.com. Deutscher Landwirtschaftsverlag GmbH, June 27, 2018, accessed on May 22, 2019 .
  150. Bavarian Drought Aid: Apply now. Bavarian State Ministry for Food, Agriculture and Forestry, October 2, 2018, accessed on May 22, 2019 .
  151. Michael Stockinger: Record losses from heat and drought in Austria. In: Bauernzeitung. August 7, 2018, accessed May 22, 2019 .
  152. a b An average of € 1,000 direct drought aid for around 19,000 farms. In: top agrar Austria. Landwirtschaftsverlag GmbH, October 29, 2018, accessed on May 22, 2019 .
  153. ^ Package of measures on drought for farmers. Chamber of Agriculture Upper Austria, October 9, 2018, accessed on May 22, 2019 .
  154. Organic forage: Current market situation In: bioaktuell.ch, accessed on September 4, 2018.
  155. Decree due to persistent drought In: demeter.ch, accessed on January 14, 2019.
  156. General purchase of feed due to drought In: demeter.ch, accessed on January 14, 2019.
  157. Ueli Schmezer, Maria Kressbach: Diluted organic milk - conventional feed for organic cows. In: srf.ch . April 2, 2019, accessed April 24, 2019 .
  158. Fear of another drought. In: schweizerbauer.ch . April 21, 2019, accessed April 21, 2019 .
  159. a b Energy supply: Nuclear power plants have to shut down their output because of the heat . ( handelsblatt.com [accessed on August 2, 2018]).
  160. Power supply: Power plants have to reduce their output due to heat . In: ZEIT ONLINE . ( zeit.de [accessed on August 2, 2018]).
  161. Safety risk heat wave - nuclear power plants have to reduce their output . In: Deutschlandfunk . ( deutschlandfunk.de [accessed on August 2, 2018]).
  162. Fessenheim nuclear power plant switches off the reactor due to heat In: saarbruecker-zeitung.de, August 5, 2018, accessed on August 6, 2018.
  163. Heat wave: SP calls for Beznau shutdown In: energate-messenger.ch, August 7, 2018, accessed on September 4, 2018.
  164. No ship sails anymore Or reaches a new low In: rbb24.de , July 30, 2018, accessed on July 31, 2018.
  165. Carsten Dierig: Inland navigation: low water forces skippers to less freight . In: THE WORLD . July 30, 2018 ( welt.de [accessed August 2, 2018]).
  166. sueddeutsche.de October 19, 2018: The Rhine is drying up
  167. German rivers: If the cruise is canceled due to low water . Spiegel Online, August 3, 2018
  168. Low water hinders production . In: n-tv.de , October 19, 2018. Retrieved October 20, 2018.
  169. Due to drought: K + S lowers annual forecast ; HNA dated November 15, 2018, accessed December 21, 2018
  170. Frank Messing and Annette Kalscheur: The petrol stations in the Ruhr area are running out of fuel. In: waz.de. November 6, 2018, accessed November 9, 2018 .
  171. Wolfgang Hettfleisch: Gas station bottlenecks due to the low Rhine level. In: hessenschau.de. November 8, 2018, accessed November 9, 2018 .
  172. Gas stations are temporarily running out of fuel. In: rp-online.de. November 9, 2018. Retrieved November 9, 2018 .
  173. Drought cripples supply chain. Gas stations are running out of fuel . In: n-tv.de , October 30, 2018. Accessed November 7, 2018.
  174. Lower Rhine level slows oil imports - Federal government opens compulsory diesel stocks. In: BZ Basel. October 22, 2018, accessed October 24, 2018 .
  175. tagesschau.de: Restricted shipping on the Rhine: Government releases oil reserves .
  176. IWR: New solar power record in July 2018 . In: IWR . ( iwr.de [accessed on August 2, 2018]).
  177. High solar power production ensures a stable supply . Press release from Fraunhofer ISE . Retrieved August 2, 2018.
  178. Cyrill Pinto, Priska Wallimann: Heat wave in Switzerland: It's getting drier. In: blick.ch. July 30, 2018, accessed August 2, 2018 .
  179. ↑ The shipping channel will be lowered In: bazonline.ch, July 19, 2018, accessed on September 4, 2018.
  180. 40.5 degrees - New heat record in Germany . In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung , July 24, 2019. Accessed July 25, 2019.
  181. Why archaeologists are looking forward to the drought on sueddeutsche.de , accessed on December 5, 2019.
  182. Baudaer Wasserburg more visible than ever on saechsische.de , accessed on December 5, 2019.
  183. Gawthorpe Hall: Dry weather reveals 'ghost garden' on bbc.com , accessed December 5, 2019.
  184. ^ Heatwave leads to discovery of historic sites in Staffordshire at stokesentinel.co.uk, accessed December 5, 2019.
  185. Saxony: Dürre exposes invisible historical places on mdr.de , accessed on December 5, 2019.
  186. Wales-wide drought reveals further lost archaeological monuments on rcahmw.gov.uk, accessed December 5, 2019.
  187. In Ireland, Drought And A Drone Revealed The Outline Of An Ancient Henge at npr.org , accessed December 5, 2019.
  188. En Isère, la sécheresse menace les vestiges de la cité médiévale on leparisien.fr, accessed on December 5, 2019 (French).
  189. Drought: Bomb finds due to low water on dw.com , accessed on December 5, 2019.
  190. What the drought brought to light on jumpradio.de, accessed on December 5, 2019.
  191. ^ Dürre exposes shipwrecks from the 19th century on spiegel.de , accessed on December 5, 2019.
  192. Wildfires have ignited inside the Arctic Circle. Retrieved August 4, 2018 .
  193. ^ Greek government suspects arson . In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung , July 27, 2018, accessed on August 4, 2018.
  194. Forest fires in Greece with 82 dead: Did criminals ignite? . In: Stern , July 27, 2018, accessed August 4, 2018.
  195. [http://www.fr.de/panorama/waldbraende-in-griechenland-griechische-regierung-vermutet-brandstiftung-a-1552230 fr.de] Greek government suspects arson . In: Frankfurter Rundschau , July 27, 2018, accessed on August 4, 2018.
  196. dpa: The number of forest fire deaths in Greece rises to 91. (No longer available online.) Http://www.faz.net/ , July 29, 2018, formerly in the original ; accessed on July 30, 2018 .  ( Page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.@1@ 2Template: Dead Link / www.faz.net  
  197. Science Says: Record heat, fires worsened by climate change . In: Associated Press , July 28, 2018, accessed July 30, 2018.
  198. Forest fires in Greece: "The deadliest factor is the wind" . In: ZEIT ONLINE . ( zeit.de [accessed on August 4, 2018]).
  199. a b Michael E. Mann : It's not rocket science: Climate change was behind this summer's extreme weather . In: The Washington Post , November 2, 2018. Retrieved November 3, 2018.
  200. Heatwave Down Under - Up to 49 degrees in Australia ; tagesschau.de of December 28, 2018; accessed on December 28, 2018
  201. Sven Titz: Storms have been raging in Italy for days. "Cut off" lows are to blame. In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung . November 8, 2018, accessed November 9, 2018 .
  202. Lin Hierse: "Climate change is happening in our front yard" . In: The daily newspaper: taz . August 30, 2018, ISSN  0931-9085 , p. 2 ( taz.de [accessed on August 31, 2018]).
  203. Where does the heat come from? Retrieved August 5, 2018 .
  204. Heatwave made more than twice as likely by climate change, scientists find. Accessed August 5, 2018 .
  205. Climate researcher Mojib Latif demands: "For a better climate you need reverse gear". Retrieved August 5, 2018 .
  206. Heat without end. Retrieved August 7, 2018 .
  207. Heat due to high winds: is the jet stream running out of breath? Retrieved August 5, 2018 .
  208. ^ Arctic Change & Its Influence on Mid-Latitude Climate & Weather. Accessed August 6, 2018 .
  209. Debate about "hot time" "The processes are already running" . In: Tagesschau.de , August 7, 2018. Accessed August 7, 2018.
  210. Extreme weather and climate change. Above the clouds out of breath . In: Der Tagesspiegel , August 9, 2018. Accessed August 10, 2018.
  211. Aurélie Duchez, Eleanor Frajka-Williams, Simon A Josey, Dafydd G Evans, Jeremy P Grist, Robert Marsh, Gerard D McCarthy, Bablu Sinha, David I Berry, Joël JM Hirschi: Drivers of exceptionally cold North Atlantic Ocean temperatures and their link to the 2015 European heat wave . In: Environmental Research Letters . tape 11 , no. 7 , July 1, 2016, p. 074004 , doi : 10.1088 / 1748-9326 / 11/7/074004 .
  212. David JR Thornalley, Delia W. Oppo, Pablo Ortega, Jon I. Robson, Chris M. Brierley, Renee Davis, Ian R. Hall, Paola Moffa-Sanchez, Neil L. Rose, Peter T. Spooner, Igor Yashayaev, Lloyd D. Keigwin: Anomalously weak Labrador Sea convection and Atlantic overturning during the past 150 years . In: Nature . tape 556 , no. 7700 , April 2018, p. 227 , doi : 10.1038 / s41586-018-0007-4 .
  213. MM Vogel et al.,: Concurrent 2018 Hot Extremes Across Northern Hemisphere Due to Human-Induced Climate Change . In: Earth's Future . tape 7 , no. 7 , 2019, pp. 692–703 , doi : 10.1029 / 2019EF001189 .