|The Aasee in Münster|
|Geographical location||North Rhine-Westphalia|
|Places on the shore||Muenster|
|Altitude above sea level|
|surface||0.402 km² (40.2 ha)|
|Maximum depth||2 m|
artificial lake, water bus service
The lake, located in a south-westerly direction out of town, has an area of 40.2 hectares and a length of about 2.3 km. It is up to two meters deep. The lake is surrounded by numerous green areas and is therefore the largest local recreation area in the city of Münster.
The lake accumulates the water of the Münsterschen Aa , so it serves as flood protection and provides fresh air, because the air masses that mainly flow in from the southwest are cooled. Thus it has an important ecological and urban planning function for the city. This also applies to the increasingly natural environment of the lake, which offers breeding and habitat for numerous species and is a popular local recreation area for the people of Münster. The water level of the lake fluctuates by up to one meter.
During the siege of Münster by Prince-Bishop Christoph Bernhard von Galen on December 18, 1660, two earth walls, with which the city had been cut off from the water supply, broke, whereupon large parts of the city area were flooded. Munster then surrendered to the besiegers. The water masses from the dam breach could still be seen years later at the site of today's Aa lake.
Up until the beginning of the 19th century there were wetlands and swampy meadows in the area of today's Aa lake, through which the Aa flowed. These meadow areas were regularly flooded, and the water levels sometimes reached such proportions that the old town of Münster was flooded. In 1888 , the Münster zoology professor Hermann Landois spoke out in favor of building an “Aa basin ”, not just in order to better control the water level of the Aa . At the same time, Landois planned to use the reservoir to ensure the city's drinking water supply, to enable sports activities such as rowing, sailing and swimming, to contribute to the beautification of the city, but also to reduce the source of pathogens from a hygienic point of view by flushing the Aabett, as the Aa also acts as a The city's sewer was used. It was not until a quarter of a century after Landois 'first remarks and nine years after his death, in the spring of 1914, that Italian workers began to implement Landois' vision to reduce the risk of flooding for the city of Münster.
The excavation of the artificially created Aa lake was interrupted by the outbreak of the First World War in the same year. The work was only continued after a severe flood in 1925 during the tenure of Mayor Georg Sperlich . Finally, in 1934, the lake was completed and covered an area of 20.7 hectares. At the time of National Socialism , there were plans to build a temple on the Aasee meadows . After the end of the war, these plans were discarded and instead, from 1972 to 1976, as part of the construction work for the all-weather zoo Münster, the Aasee south of the Torminbrücke was expanded by 19.5 hectares to almost double the area. Also in 1976 the park areas were enlarged by 50 hectares to a total of 90 hectares, which are criss-crossed by around ten kilometers of walking paths and encompass around 18 hectares of lawns.
Later on, shallow water zones were created on the banks of the new Aa lake, which are intended to reduce the nutrient load of the inflowing water. In 1996 the river landscape in the area up to the Kump house was redesigned to be natural. In 2008 the “Aaseeterrassen” were opened at the northernmost point of the water near the city. The Aasee site is home to three restaurants, boat rentals and school and three sailing clubs, the sailing club Munster , the Sailing Club Hansa Münster and the Sailing Club of Westphalia-Holstein Seglervereinigung with university sailing club Munster (WHS / HSC).
In 2009 the Aasee-Park was named the “Most Beautiful Park in Europe”, after having been voted “Germany's Most Beautiful Park” in 2008.
In the first half of 2012, the "Badestraße fish pass" was built, which is intended to enable the Aa weir to pass through for aquatic life in accordance with the requirements of the Water Framework Directive . Due to the limited space available in the city center, the so-called “slot-pass construction” was chosen for this fish ladder .
Life at the Aasee
Today the lake is the centerpiece of a popular recreational destination near the city center. At the Aasee there is a youth hostel , several student residences, the cafeteria at the Aasee , the sports park Sentruper Höhe , the all-weather zoo Münster with the Westphalian horse museum Münster , the LWL-Museum für Naturkunde with planetarium and the Mühlenhof-Freilichtmuseum Münster . There are two small sailing boat harbors with restaurants . A hiking trail of about 5.7 km leads around the lake, which is also used for jogging .
A rowing regatta takes place every year in spring. Around 900 rowers in 470 boats took part in the 42nd spring regatta on April 20 and 21, 2013. The juniors from 17 years of age and the adult participants started over the Olympic distance of 2000 meters, which extends over the entire length of the Aasee. Younger athletes were able to compete over a distance of 1500 meters, while the older starters started over 1000 meters.
The Aasee has been one of the venues for the Rowing League since 2009 . In September 2012, the German Sprint Championships were held in Münster. From October 11, 2013 to October 18, 2013, the 100th German championship of eight rowers took place over the long distance.
On April 12th and 13th, 2013, a ranking regatta of the Paralympic one-man keelboat class 2.4mR was held on the Aasee for the third time .
The Montgolfiade, Germany's oldest hot-air balloon event , has been taking place on the Aasee meadows since 1969. It is organized every year in August by the “Freiballonsport-Verein Münster und Münsterland e. V. “in cooperation with the Sports Office of the City of Münster.
In autumn the Aaseepokal der Piraten , organized by the sailing club Münster , takes place on the part of the lake closer to the city . The “Bockwurst Challenge” pirate regatta, the “Laser Cup” for all Laserrigg classes and the “Kiepenkerlregatta” optimist as ranked regattas are held annually by the “Hansa Münster” sailing club on the upper Aasee, which is further away from the city center .
Not only on the first of May , the Aasee is the destination of a large number of guests who visit the local recreation area for a barbecue. After May 1, 2013, six tons of garbage were collected from the green spaces around the Aasee by employees of the Münster waste management company. The underground waste bins installed the year before and the bins suitable for hot grill ash were well received.
The outside staircase of the Aasee terraces offers space for 2,000 spectators during events. The episodes of the crime series Wilsberg , which is set in Münster, are regularly shown here. The classical concerts with international cast, known as “AaSeerenaden”, have also been held annually on the Aasee terraces since 2010 and end with fireworks. A musical program ranging from "jazz to classical, orchestra to choir, pop to baroque" is regularly voiced. The artistic director and artistic director is Peter von Wienhardt. According to the organizers, more than 20,000 visitors take part in the three-day event and its supporting program.
The “Wasserbus Professor Landois”, which was named after Hermann Landois , the founder of the zoo in Münster, was built in 1974 in a shipyard on Dümmersee from mahogany on oak based on the model of a Dutch canal boat with a length of 17 meters and a width of 4.50 meters Meters built. It was about four feet deep in the water with a weight of 17 tons. The ship could carry 75 passengers, 15 meters were needed for a braking maneuver. Between 1975 and 2011, the all-weather zoo with the Westphalian Horse Museum and the LWL Museum for Natural History with a planetarium and the Mühlenhof open-air museum could be reached by water with the waterbus . From March to October the waterbus drove several times a day from the “Golden Bridge” at 6 km / h the two-kilometer route in 25 minutes via the Mühlenhof open-air museum to the all-weather zoo, on the way back there was a stop at the Tormin Bridge. In 1984 the largest number of passengers was registered with around 40,000 passengers, the majority of them tourists and foreign guests. Around 400,000 passengers were carried in the 36-year service. In 2008 the ship was renovated. In 2009 it was fitted with seven square meters of solar cells that could cover part of the ship's energy needs. After 36 years of service, the waterbus was transferred to a shipyard in Stralsund on November 6, 2011 after its last trip . The successor was also built there. After the renovation, the water bus will be used in the Szczecin Lagoon .
The successor " Solaaris " is a solar boat made entirely of aluminum that is powered by two electric motors. The electric motors have a volume emission of 55 decibels at full load and accelerate the ship to 9.8 km / h. The usual service speed is 7 km / h. The Solaaris has no alternative drive to its electric motor. The catamaran is almost 16 meters long, is barrier-free and can accommodate 68 passengers. The cost of the solar boat and its lithium-ion batteries are around 500,000 euros. The costs for the battery system alone are around 200,000 euros. In 2012, the Solaaris was subsidized with 55,000 euros by Stadtwerke Münster . The Solaaris was built in the Ostseestaal shipyard in Stralsund within 70 days. She had her maiden voyage on March 23, 2012 on the Baltic Sea. A day later she arrived on a low-loader in Münster am Aasee. The ship was christened on April 2, 2012 at Lake Aasee by Mayor Markus Lewe . This cast off on the maiden voyage on the Aasee and touched a sailing dinghy. The Solaaris started its regular operations on the Aasee on Good Friday, April 6, 2012. In the 27 weeks of operation in 2012, the Solaaris made 1,045 journeys using solar energy, during which it carried 20,000 to 20,500 passengers. Since the Solaaris is almost five meters wider than its predecessor Professor Landois, around 40 meters of sheet piling had to be removed from the Allwetterzoo Münster so that the boat can reach the zoo's harbor. For this purpose, divers from a Duisburg company were used to carry out welding work under water.
On June 12, 2013 and the two following days, theatrical performances, including Shakespeare's "The Tempest", were staged on board the Solaaris.
Art objects on the lake
Numerous sculptures enliven the bank , the most famous of which is the Giant Pool Balls by Claes Oldenburg , created in 1977 as part of the Sculpture Projects , which initially met with massive rejection on the part of the Münster population and who tried in vain to roll into the Aasee at night . Rosemarie Trockel is represented with her project Less Sauvage than Others , a massive yew tree that blends harmoniously into the landscape.
Sculpture Giant Pool Balls by Claes Oldenburg (1977)
Sculpture Do you look up and read the words of Ilya Kabakow (1997)
Untitled by Donald Judd
Pier by Jorge Pardo (1997)
In the summer of 2013, the Münster artist Wilm Weppelmann realized a 24 m² floating vegetable garden as a temporary artistic installation on the Aasee. He called his self-sufficiency project aFarm to relate it to global agriculture. In 2014 he expanded the experiment with a micro-house. From September 1 to September 30, 2014, he spent day and night in a permanent performance on the garden island and fed on the horticultural crops that grew there. His strictly regulated daily routine included not only the gardening work, but also the job of a town crier, who loudly addressed the topic of the installation “what I need” and thus the basic human needs. The project met with great national response.
Rohrbach murder case
In 1957 a male torso was found in the Aasee. The body was identified as Hermann Rohrbach, whose wife Maria Rohrbach was found guilty in the subsequent circumstantial trial and sentenced to life imprisonment. After the murdered man's skull was found in the summer of 1959, the trial was resumed because of considerable procedural errors on the part of the experts, in the course of which Maria Rohrbach was acquitted for lack of evidence. The murder case, which was considered a judicial scandal and made headlines across the country at the time, is Münster's most famous murder case.
This murder case found cinematic reception in the Münster episodes " Murder Games " and " Say Nothing " of the crime television series Tatort and the episode " Wilsberg: Wilsberg and the dead in the lake " of the Münster-based crime series Wilsberg .
The "Black Petra"
In the spring of 2006 a mourning swan appeared on the Aasee, which apparently "fell in love" with one of the white pedal boats in the shape of a swan. In Münster the swan was christened "Black Peter" because of the color of its plumage. It later emerged that the swan was a female who was henceforth called " Petra ".
Since the pedal boats are taken out of the water in winter, the "swan couple" from swan lady "Petra" and pedal boat found a place to stay in the all-weather zoo and spent the winter there before being released back to the Aasee in March 2007. In 2009 the swan did not return to the lake.
On April 5, 2013, Petra was identified by Jörg Adler, director of the Allwetterzoo Münster , in a stork care station in Osnabrück . Adler made attempts to be able to transfer Petra to Münster as an ambassador for bird protection. This was rejected by Wolfgang Herkt, the head of the station. Contrary to reports to the contrary, there was no offer to buy Adler.
In August 2018 there was massive fish death in the Aasee . The weather conditions ( drought and heat in Europe in 2018 ) and the sudden death of the green algae within a very short time led to a lack of oxygen in the water, which resulted in several tons of fish perishing. In mid-September 2018, large parts of the lake were covered with cyanobacteria . The Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research suspects that the strong algae formation is a late consequence of the phosphate precipitation with iron (III) chloride carried out up to now , with which the algae formation could be reduced in the past; it had the previously precipitated phosphate possibly in the seawater back solved .
Bathing and surfing in the Aasee is currently prohibited and not recommended due to the poor water quality , especially in the hot summer months. However, there are efforts to improve the water quality. The main problems are distinguished by eutrophication masses of proliferating blue-green algae , but also Coli bacteria . Skin contact with the carrion water can lead to irritation in summer, if swallowed it can lead to life-threatening diseases.
The Hygiene Institute of the Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster has already significantly reduced blue-green algae in particular , with the help of chemical agents, including iron (III) chloride , whose trivalent iron ions bind phosphate and thereby remove nutrients from the lake. After two years of use, good results have already been achieved.
However, the main sources of over-fertilization of the lake have not been removed. In many places, the Münstersche Aa is still lined with intensively used agricultural areas, the drainages of which drain into the river. Also not to be neglected is the pollution and nutrient input from the traffic areas and sewage treatment plants .
It should also be noted that the trophic level of a still water body like the Aasee cannot be kept permanently low. Without extreme structural interventions such as the deep-water drainage process or heavy dredging, it will not be possible to permanently remove the sapropel , which was created by the long period of anaerobic conditions, as a negative factor.
In 2012, an organism ascent was completed for 350,000 euros. The water quality of the Aasee is to be improved by the exchange of microbes, which has not been possible for 90 years due to the weir on Badestrasse, by enabling the ascent of organisms to allow fish and microbes to migrate again. Likewise, the stocks of non- predatory fish in the Aasee, such as bream , should mix with the predatory fish, including pike and pikeperch , from the Munster Aa in order to stabilize the ecosystem. The construction of the organism ascent was already planned in 2010, but was postponed due to a lack of budget. The construction work began in July 2011 and continued until autumn 2011.
Furthermore, the water quality of the Aasee is to be improved by renaturing the course of the Münsterschen Aa south of the Aasee beyond Haus Kump to Sentruper Straße. A sand trap was built near Haus Kump to prevent further silting up of the Aa lake. In addition, the construction of a still water body is intended to lower the temperature of the Aasee's inflow by a few degrees in order to reduce the growth of blue-green algae.
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