List of weather events in Europe

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The list of weather events in Europe gives an overview of extreme weather events known as severe weather, including natural disasters (damaging events) of historical importance. The names are assigned according to national customs, see Assigning names for weather events .


Name: > 1 A – J · K – R · S – Z
Event: floods · strong winds S · other ; Period: before 1900 · 20th century · 21st century
Fatalities: yes · no · unknown / no answer ; Property damage: property damage> € 1 billion · property damage <1 billion € · unquoted / unknown / no information
Remarks Event of the century and more · only a few events per century · unknown / no information
Sort the corresponding column beforehand! Pre-sorting another column is also possible.


  • Date: Dates before October 1582 not converted in the Julian calendar , after that in the Gregorian calendar (inaccuracies in countries that introduced the new calendar later are possible)
  • Victims: reported fatalities and those affected
  • Damage: known damage sums in million  euros , if applicable, current value converted: historical estimates are generally economic damage , a value as insurance damage is naturally up to several orders of magnitude lower than the economic damage, depending on the event. Older data are usually lower because the damage calculations were different; early events can hardly be estimated.
  • Comments: sortable according to known or estimated annuality
Surname event Period Victim Damage region Remarks

Weather anomaly of 535/536 cold phase of several years 535/536 a connection with the eruption of the Ilopango, which dates back to this time, is assumed
Year of famine 784 784
Cold anomaly 821-824 Cold spell 821-824 very wet, cold years with crop failures, famines and epidemics Britain, continental Europe, also parts of Asia probably from several volcanic eruptions, including one of Katla 822/823
Cold anomaly 1010/11 Cold spell 1010/11 extremely severe winter with ice on the Bosphorus and the Nile Europe
Julian flood Storm surge Feb 17, 1164 estimated 20,000 k. A. North Sea coast
First Marcellus flood Storm surge Jan. 16, 1219 estimated 36,000 k. A. North Sea coast
All children flood Storm surge Dec 28, 1248 unknown Creation of the West Frisian Islands , Altenwerder , Finkenwerder North Sea coast
Eruption of the Samala in 1257 Volcanic winter  Sep 1257 Cooling down, darkening worldwide, v. a. Southeast Asia and Europe Entry of 258 teragrams (258 × 10 12  g) sulfate aerosols into the stratosphere
All Saints Flood 1304 Storm
0Nov 1, 1304 unknown Loss of land on Rügen and Usedom , formation of Greifswalder Bodden and Ruden Baltic coast
The great hunger 1315 to 1322
Magdalen flood Flood  July 1342 unknown k. A., ravine tearing, washing away of earth, regionally down to the weathered stone layer (geoarchaeological evidence) Central Europe: u. a. Rhine, Main, Danube, Moselle, Lahn, Weser, Werra, Unstrut, Moldau and Elbe is presumed to be more than 1000 annually
Cold anomaly 1346/47 Cold spell 1346 and 1347
Second Marcellus Flood , First Grote Mandränke Storm surge Jan 15, 1362 10,000 possible Downfall of Rungholt North Sea coast
Elizabeth flood 1404 Storm surge Nov. 19, 1404 unknown Cities of IJzendijke and Hugevliet perished North Sea coast of the Netherlands
Elizabeth flood 1421 Storm surge Nov 18, 1421 up to 10,000 Formation of the Hollands Diep and de Biesbosch North Sea coast of the Netherlands
Weather anomalies of the 1430s Cold spell 1431 to 1439 unknown Decade with very cold and long winters and wet summers. Lead to great famines. Whole europe
All Saints Flood 1436 Storm surge 0Nov 1, 1436 180 occupied Destruction of Eidum , cunning North Sea coast
Danube flood 1501 Flood Aug 15, 1501 Danube, Elbe, Oder
Drought in Central Europe in 1540 Drought and heat wave 1540 Europe possibly the hottest summer of the 2nd millennium
All Saints Flood 1570 Storm surge 0Nov 1, 1570 by 20,000 k. A. North Sea coast
Thuringian Flood Flood May 29, 1613 2261 k. A. Saale and tributaries
Hot summer 1616 Drought and heat wave 1616 Switzerland
Ice flood 1626 Storm surge 1626 k. A. severe dam damage from ice floes North Sea coast
Burchardi flood, Second Great Mandrank Storm surge May 11, 1634 8,000-15,000 Loss of land and beach tearing apart North Sea coast
Winter 1607/08 , the "Great Winter" Cold spell 1607/08 k. A. Europe the coldest winter in Europe probably since 763/764
Winter 1657/58 Cold spell 1657 to June 1658 k. A. Western Europe severe and snowy, oresund frozen ( Peace of Roskilde )
Winter 1683/84 Cold spell 1683/84 k. A. Western Europe coldest recorded winter in the British Isles
Great storm of 1703 Storm Nov. 24, 1703 8,000-15,000 devastated coastal cities, thirteen Royal Navy ships sunk British Islands is considered to be the worst storm that has ever struck the British Isles and the English Channel
Millennium winter of 1708/1709 (The cold winter of 1709) Cold spell 1708/09 unknown k. A. Europe Lake Garda froze over, as did the canals of Venice and the mouth of the Tejo / Portugal; prolonged cold, a Europe-wide famine the following summer.
Winter 1739/40 Cold spell Oct. 1739 to June (!) 1740 k. A. Europe the hardest winter in Europe in the 2nd millennium, probably comparable to winter 763/764 , cf. also ice house (Saint Petersburg)
Hamburg flood of 1771 Storm surge 1771 unknown k. A. Elbe estuary
Winter 1783/84 Volcanic winter 1783/84 Estimates: probably several million victims worldwide, in the hundreds of thousands across Europe Worldwide crop failures in 1783, snow and heavy frosts in winter 1783/84, flood disaster in Europe in spring worldwide Laki / Asama event, one of the world's greatest environmental disasters of the early modern period
Ice floods February / March 1784 Flood  Feb. 1784 unknown Destruction of many bridges ( Heidelberg , Roßlau ), destruction of buildings near the bank due to ice drift ( Wegstädtl / Elbe Church , Würzburg , Bamberg , Cologne etc.) Germany: u. a. Rhine, Neckar, Main, Danube, Elbe, Saale, Glan , is suspected to be more than 500 annually
Cold winter 1788/89 Cold spell Dec. 1788 - Jan. 1789 k. A. Southern Germany, Switzerland severe frost, Rhine Falls completely frozen on January 5, 1789, the first time since the millennium winter of 1708
Year without summer 1816 Volcanic winter 1816 unknown Famine caused by crop failures, economic crises, uprisings worldwide Result of the eruption of the Tambora volcano in what is now Indonesia
The galne måndagen Storm 11th Mar 1822 300 estimated k. A. Norway
Night of the Big Wind Storm 0Jan. 6, 1839 250-300 estimated k. A. Ireland
Saxon Flood Flood  March 1845 unknown k. A. Elbe strongest measured flow of the Elbe so far
Baltic storm flood Storm
1872 271, approx.15,000 homeless Loss of land on Lolland , Zingst becomes a peninsula Baltic Sea is considered the heaviest storm flood in the Baltic Sea to date
Tay Bridge Disaster Storm Dec 28, 1879 75 The Firth of Tay bridge collapses , a train crashed Scotland
March Orcan 1876 Storm March 12 1876 unknown severe damage throughout North Central Europe North-Central Europe (especially southern England, northern France, Benelux countries, northern Germany, Denmark) Probably an event more than 100 years old, comparable to Daria 1990 and Lothar 1999
Eyemouth disaster Storm Oct 14, 1881 189 (fisherman at sea) 19 boats sunk or stranded Scotland worst disaster in the Scottish fisheries
The Great Storm of January 26th, 1884 Storm Jan. 26, 1884 unknown severe damage throughout North Central Europe Northern Central Europe (especially Ireland, England, Northern France) Probably more than 100 years old, comparable to Daria 1990
Cyclone of July 1, 1891 Storm 0July 1, 1891 Damage in the Viersen district
February hurricane 1894 Storm Feb 12, 1894 unknown severe damage throughout North Central Europe North Central Europe (in particular Ireland, Scotland, England, Belgium, the Netherlands, North Germany, Poland, Denmark, South Sweden) Probably an event more than 100 years old, comparable to Daria 1990 and Lothar 1999
Cyclone in Upper Bavaria on July 14, 1894 Storm July 14, 1894

Cyclone in the Bergisches Land tornado Aug 14, 1906 3 Destruction of houses, bridges and forests Bergisches Land
Tornado in Wiener Neustadt tornado July 10, 1916 32, 300 injured Damage to over 150 buildings Wiener Neustadt Strength F3 , wind speeds probably 330 km / h
Avalanche disaster on December 13, 1916 in the Southern Alps / Dolomites Avalanches Dec 13, 1916 several thousand soldiers Southern Alps / Dolomites Dozens of avalanches buried and killed several thousand soldiers during the Alpine War in World War I.
Floods in the Eastern Ore Mountains in 1927 Flood 0July 8, 1927 160 estimated over 100 million  RM (330 million €) Ore Mountains
Elbe-I hurricane Storm with storm surge 26./27. October 1936 15 sailors Capsized Mayor O'Swald I, on duty as lightship Elbe 1 North Sea ( German Bight ) Storm surge triggered by a severe hurricane.
Hunger winter 1946/47 Cold spell 1946/47 in Germany: several hundred thousand people; At about the same time, two million people died in the Soviet Union between 1946 and 1948 as a result of hunger and extreme weather conditions. hit post-war Europe Europe hardest winter of the 20th century
Avalanche winter 1951 (January) Snowfall  / avalanches Jan. 19, 1951 235 around 1000 buildings damaged or destroyed, 1951 total follow-up investments> 1 billion € central alpine region (Switzerland, Austria, Italy) in Switzerland between 19 and 22 January over 1000 harmful avalanches
Avalanche winter 1951 (February) Snowfall  / avalanches Feb 11, 1951 30th around 350 buildings damaged or destroyed, forest damage, 1951 total follow-up investments> 1 billion € South side of the Alps 300 harmful avalanches in Switzerland between February 11th and 15th
Holland storm surge Storm surge 0Feb. 1, 1953 2160 k. A. North Sea coast of the Netherlands is considered to be the worst North Sea storm surge of the 20th century
Storm surge 1962 Storm surge Feb 16, 1962 315 (Hamburg), tens of thousands of homeless people 650 million DM, around 6,000 destroyed buildings, one sixth of Hamburg's national territory under water North Sea coast First deployment of the Bundeswehr inside for disaster defense
Winter 1962/63 Cold spell Dec. 1962 to Feb. 1963 k. A. k. A. Europe, especially Northwest Central Europe the greatest cold spell since 1740 or 1684
Severe weather on July 19, 1966 July 19, 1966
Adolph Bermpohl hurricane ,
Second low water hurricane tide
Storm with storm surge Feb 23, 1967 80 sailors Bad luck for Adolph Bermpohl , severe devastation in the interior North Sea ( German Bight ) Storm surge, triggered by a severe hurricane, in which previously unmeasured wind speeds are determined. Peak gusts exceeded the measuring range of anemometers at that time. Probably well over 180 km / h.
Skane hurricane Storm Oct 17, 1967 at least 32 k. A. Germany, Denmark, southern Sweden leads to a failure of the low tidal water at the gauges in the German Bight.
Tornado over Pforzheim tornado July 10, 1968 2, 200 injured 100 million DM, 2,300 houses damaged within 3 minutes Pforzheim (Baden-Wuerttemberg) Strength F4 on the Fujita scale
Hurricane Quimburga (Niedersachsenorkan) Storm Nov 13, 1972 73 (4 seafarers) (Germany, Belgium, Netherlands) Devastation of over DM 1 billion, especially windthrow Northern Germany, especially Lower Saxony With wind speeds over 200 km / h, large areas in Lower Saxony are practically completely deforested within two hours.
Capella hurricane Storm with storm surge 0Jan. 3, 1976 27 (11 sailors) Misfortune of the Capella, € 450 million in total. North Sea one of the worst hurricanes of the 20th century
Snow disaster in northern Germany Snowfall  Dec 1978 / February 1979 23 (FRG 17, GDR 5) FRG: 140 million DM Northern Germany two snowstorms with ice and drifts, one of the hardest winters for Norddt. in the 20th century
Hurricane at the Fastnet Race Storm 1979 19th k. A. English Channel greatest catastrophe in yachting
Cold spell on the British Isles in 1981/1982 Cold wave with snowfall Dec-Jan 1981/82 k. A. € 575 million (total damage, converted) British Islands snowiest winter in Western Europe of the 20th century
Hailstorm from Munich hail July 12, 1984 no about € 1.5 billion Munich east the most expensive natural event in Germany to date
Cold wave in Europe in 1985 Cold wave with snowfall Jan./Feb. 1985 ? € 440 million (total damage) all of Europe, especially Western Europe
Cold wave in Europe in 1987 Cold spell  1st - 15th Jan. 1987 k. A. 420 million € (total damage) Europe (Scandinavia to Romania)
Western Europe hurricane Storm Oct 15, 1987 29 6 billion DM Western Europe, especially England, Northern France heaviest storm in England since 1703
Hurricane Daria Storm Jan. 25, 1990 at least 94 € 4–6 billion (insured) Northwest Central Europe (Great Britain, Netherlands, France, Germany)
Hurricane Vivian Storm Feb 25, 1990 64 € 1.1 billion (insured), especially forest damage (with Wiebke over 70 million EFm, largest damage since 45) Northwest Central Europe (British Isles, France, Benelux, Germany, Switzerland) several successive storm surges in Hamburg
Hurricane Wiebke Storm Feb 28, 1990 35 around € 3 billion (insured), especially forest damage (with Vivian over 70 million EFm, largest damage since 45) Central Europe (Germany, Switzerland, Austria) three days after Vivian
Cold spell in the British Isles in 1991 Cold wave with snowfall  Feb 1991 ? € 390 million (total damage) British Islands
Cold wave in Western Europe in 1992 Cold spell  Jan. 1992 ? € 250 million (total damage) Western Europe (especially France) Snow in Spain to the Mediterranean
Rhine flood in 1993 Flood  Dec 1993 no € 400–500 million Rhine partly maximum water levels of the century, otherwise as in 1926
Cold wave in Eastern Europe 1996/1997 Cold spell Dec. 26, 1996 to Jan. 8, 1997 k. A. € 795 million (total damage, converted) Central and Eastern Europe Economic crisis with uprisings in Bulgaria
Oder flood 1997 Flood  July 1997 114 around € 4.1 billion Or , especially Poland the largest known flood of the Oder
Avalanche winter 1999 ( avalanche disaster in Galtür February 23) Snowfall  / avalanches  Feb 1999 70 (Galtür and Valzur 38, Chamonix 12, Evolène 12 ), including 100,000 in the Alps € 10–11 million (Galtür), total follow-up investments> € 1 billion Alpine region of western Austria and Switzerland comparable to the avalanche winter of 1951 , over 1000 avalanche events, helicopter evacuation in Galtür of around 5000 people
Whitsun flood in 1999 Flood May 22, 1999 no k. A. Alpine region (Vorarlberg, Bavaria, North Tyrol) in this area comparable to the more extensive Alpine floods in 2005
Hurricane Anatol Storm 0Dec 3, 1999 k. A. k. A. North-Central Europe (Northern Germany, Southern Sweden, Denmark) worst hurricane of the 20th century in Denmark
Hurricane Lothar Storm Dec 26, 1999 110 approx. € 11.5 billion nationally, US $ 6 billion vers .; Windthrow approx. 200 million cubic meters Central Europe (Northern France, Southwest Germany, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Vorarlberg / Austria) Exceeded Daria and Kyrill in damaging effects, worst storm since 1876 , largest known forest damage in Central Europe, one of the world's most expensive storms of the last 50 years
Danube flood in 2002 Flood  Aug 2002 7th estimated at € 3.1 billion (Austria) Danube upper course (Austria, Bavaria, Slovakia, Hungary) Classified as a flood of the century, comparable to 1899 , surpassed two flood waves in 1954 , the second coincides with the Elbe flood in 2002
Elbe floods in 2002 Flood  Aug 2002 17 (Czech Republic) around 18 billion euros (15 billion DE, 3.3 billion euros CZ) Elbe (Czech Republic, Germany) Classified as a flood of the century, in Saxony one speaks of a flood of a millennium
Hurricane Jeanett Storm Oct. 27, 2002 47 around € 1.7 billion Western and Central Europe (especially the Czech Republic, Germany) strongest storm since Lothar 1999
2003 heat wave Heatwave  Aug 2003 70,000 according to recent estimates of mortality estimated at US $ 13 billion Central and Southwestern Europe (especially France, Spain, Portugal) Probably more than 500 years of event (drought year 1540 ), maybe much higher
Hurricane Gudrun Storm 0Jan. 8, 2005 at least 17 € 2.25 billion, especially storm wood North-Central Europe (especially South Scandinavia) In Halland and Småland, around 70 million cubic meters of forest (three to four annual harvests) were cut, surpassing the storms of 1969 .
Alpine floods in 2005 Flood Aug 20, 2005 30 or more around € 4 billion
(CH: 2.5 billion,
Romania $ 800 million)
Alpine and Danube region
Muensterland snow chaos Snowfall , especially snow break Nov 26, 2005 no € 100 million (on the power grid) Münsterland Electricity pylons buckled, and some towns were without electricity for days. Traffic came to a standstill on various motorways and other roads. Hundreds of drivers stayed in their cars for hours in the snowstorm.
Snow disaster in Central Europe in 2006 Snowfall  7-13 Feb. 2006, 4th – 5th March 2006 k. A. € 713 million (total damage) Central Europe (Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Poland) numerous houses collapsed
Elbe floods in 2006 Flood  March 2006 several k. A. Elbe on the middle course comparable to the flood of 2002 , but longer
Danube flood 2006 Flood  Apr. 2006 k. A. k. A. Danube heavier in Romania than in 1970
Hurricane Kyrill Storm Jan. 18, 2007 47 around $ 10 billion (econom.) Northwest to Eastern Europe strongest storm since Lothar 1999
Great Britain floods in 2007 Flood June / July 2007 13 around £ 2 billion (econom.) Great Britain wettest early summer since records began in 1776, flooding probably stronger than in 1947
Floods in Switzerland in 2007 Flood  8/9 August 2007 no k. A. Switzerland (Schweizer Mittelland, Romandie, Northwestern Switzerland) fourth flood of the century in Switzerland since 1999, partially exceeded 2005
Storm Paula Storm 26./27. Jan. 2008 none directly,
2 forest workers
€ 280 million (€ 80 million vers.), Especially forest damage Germany, Austria in south-east Austria 20 to 30 years, otherwise rarely; with Emma over 8 million EFm, biggest damage since 1945, locally exceeded Vivian / Wiebke 1990
Hurricane Emma Storm February 29 to March 2, 2008 14th around € 1 billion in insurance damage Central Europe heaviest storm since Kyrill 2007
Hurricane Klaus Storm Jan. 24, 2009 32 several 100 million euros Southwest Europe (France, Spain, Italy, Algeria) rare occurrence of a hurricane moving southeast from the Bay of Biscay
Floods in Central Europe in 2009 Flood June 23, 2009 14th > € 300 million in total Northern Alps , Danube and Vltava basins , Carpathians locally comparable to the 2005 Alpine flood , locally 100 years
Deep Vincent Cold wave with snowfall 19.-23. Dec 2009 k. A. > € 1 billion total damage Western Europe (France, Germany, Great Britain) Eurostar trains got stuck in the Channel Tunnel
Storm Daisy Cold wave , snowfall with drifts  5th-11th Jan. 2010 > 100 deaths from cold (England) 1.245 billion € total damage Western and Northern Central Europe Snowfall in northern Spain (in March then Mediterranean low Andrea ), cold wave in Great Britain (in Nov./Dec. Then cold wave in the British Isles 2010 ), drifts in northern Germany
Hurricane Xynthia Storm with storm surge 26.-28. Feb 2010 > 60 still unknown, estimated at billions Western and Northern Central Europe largest damage locally since Lothar 1999 (France)
Mediterranean deep Andrea Storm with snowfall  7-10 March 2010 1 k. A. Mediterranean area heavy snowfalls across the northern Mediterranean basin, surpassed the January event in Spain
British Isles Cold Spell 2010 (The Big Freeze) Cold wave with snowfall Nov. – Dec. 2010 ≈10 € 1.9 billion (total damage) British Islands two cold events, the coldest December since records began in 1910
Storm depression Norina Storm July 12, 2010 3 still unknown North Rhine-Westphalia Wind speeds of up to 120 km / h and in Düsseldorf up to 20 liters per square meter of rain in 20 minutes.
Genoa low Rolf Storm ( Medicane ) with heavy rain 4-8 Nov 2011 11 still unknown Northwest Italy , South France severe flooding
Cold wave 2012 (Russia highs Cooper, Dieter, Atlantic and Italy lows) Cold wave with snow and storm Jan. 20, 2012 to Feb. 2012 so far 600 still unknown Europe numerous deaths from frostbite, especially in Eastern Europe , snow chaos in the Adriatic region to North Africa and in the Balkans to the Caucasus
Floods in Central Europe in 2013 Flood May 30, 2013 to June 2013 At least 21 still unknown Central Europe classified as a flood of the century
Floods in the Pyrenees in 2013 Flood  June 2013 At least 1 still unknown French and Spanish Pyrenees
Hurricane Christian Storm Oct 28, 2013 At least 14 around € 300 million Western Europe , Southern Scandinavia United Kingdom unknown
Hailstorm from Reutlingen hail July 28, 2013 k. A. € 3.6 billion (total damage) Zollernalb, Tübingen, Reutlingen, Göppingen and Esslingen as well as the Ostalb district With a total loss of 3.6 billion euros, the storm caused the largest hail damage to the German insurance industry to date
Hurricane Xavier Storm surge 5th-6th Dec. 2013 At least 15 still unknown Western Europe , Southern Scandinavia, United Kingdom, Poland Sixth heaviest recorded storm surge on the German North Sea coast, second largest storm surge in Hamburg since 1825
Ela (low pressure area) Storm ,
0June 9, 2014 6th € 650 million North Rhine-Westphalia, Hesse and Lower Saxony (Germany) Thunderstorms with hurricane gusts of up to 144 km / h, heavy rain and hail, in places greater damage than from Hurricane Kyrill 2007
Foehn storm and heavy rain in the Alpine region in November 2014 Flood  Nov. 2014 at least 9 still unknown Northern Italy , Alpine region , Slovenia Foehn storm in the alpine region (187 km / h on Titlis , canton Uri), sometimes it rains twice as much within a few days as it usually does in November, flash floods and mudslides in southern France and northern Italy, floods in Slovenia, at least six tornadoes
Hurricane Niklas Storm 31 Mar 2015 11 at least € 750 million Central Europe Germany In Germany at least 750 million euros insurance damage, up to 192 km / h (Zugspitze), rail traffic in Germany largely stopped
Heat waves in Europe in 2015 Heat wave with storms Jun. – Sep. 2015 still unknown still unknown North Africa Southern Europe Central Europe Eastern Europe Temperatures in southern Europe up to over 46 ° C, new high in Germany with 40.3 ° C, in between cold fronts with severe storms and tornadoes, crop failures due to drought
Storm in Europe in spring 2016 storm May – Jun. 2016 20th still unknown Germany

Central Europe

Storm series with heavy rain, lightning strikes, floods, flash floods, mudslides, gusts of wind, hail and tornadoes.
Deep Axel 2017 Storm surge Night 4th to 5th January 2017 still unknown still unknown Central Europe Baltic coast according to the Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency, worst storm surge since 2006; near Koserow and Zempin, steep bank breaks on the cliff coast ;
Mean water in Lübeck 1.79 m above normal
Deep Rasmund 2017 Heavy and persistent heavy rain 29./30. June 2017 still unknown still unknown Brandenburg , especially Berlin Highest rainfall: Oranienburg 269 mm within 36 hours, spreads heavy flooding on the streets and full cellars. According to the DWD, one of the heaviest heavy rain events ever in Central Europe.
Storm depression Xavier Storm 0Oct. 5, 2017 still unknown northern and eastern central Europe unknown
Storm depression Burglind Storm 2nd / 3rd January 2018 up to € 1.6 billion British Isles, Spain, France, Germany, Switzerland 268 km per hour (peak gust) on the Great St. Bernhard in Valais in Switzerland
Storm Friederike Storm January 15-20, 2018 € 1 billion British Isles, Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, Poland 205 km per hour (peak gust)
Drought and heat in Europe 2018 Drought and heat wave Apr-Dec 2018 k. A. Scandinavia, British Isles, Baltic States, Iceland, Germany, Netherlands, Austria, Switzerland
Storm in the Alps-Adriatic region in autumn 2018 Storm and heavy rain Oct. – Nov. 2018 38 > € 3 billion Italy, France, Austria, Slovenia, Croatia etc. a.
Heat waves in Europe 2019 two heat waves June and July 2019 k. A. k. A. Germany, Austria, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, France Leads to numerous measurement records, u. a. to the new German all-time heat record of 42.6 ° C in Lingen .
Severe weather in Spain in September 2019 Storm and heavy rain September 2019 7th approx. € 2.2 billion Spain Severe weather with storms, heavy rain, hail, floods, flash floods, landslides and tornadoes.
Severe weather in the Mediterranean region storm November 2019 Four dead in France, two in Greece Among other things, the collapse of the bridge on the A6 autostrada (Italy) . France, Greece, Italy a. a. 300 liters of rain per square meter within three hours.
Hurricane Sabine Storm February 2020 13 dead k. A. Germany, France, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Great Britain Significant property damage
A-J Floods to 1900 Fatalities > € 1 billion A ≥ 100
K-R Strong winds S from 1900 no fatalities <€ 1 billion A <100
S-Z Others from 2000 unknown / k. A. Other / unknown / k. A. unknown / k. A.
S.According to the Munich Reinsurance Company , storm damage (1980 to 2006) is distributed as follows: winter storms: 56%, severe weather, tornado and local storms: 24%, hail damage: 20%.

See also


Web links

Commons : Meteorology of Europe  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  2. a b c d
  3. Michael McCormick, Paul Edward Dutton and Paul A. Mayewski: Volcanoes and the Climate Forcing of Carolingian Europe, ad 750-950 . In: Speculum . tape 82 , 2007, doi : 10.1017 / S0038713400011325 .
  4. Ulf Büntgen u. a .: Multi-proxy dating of Iceland's major pre-settlement Katla eruption to 822–823 CE . In: Geology . 2017, doi : 10.1130 / G39269.1 .
  5. ^ Paul Schlaak: The weather in Berlin from 1933 to 1945 . In: Berlin monthly magazine ( Luisenstädtischer Bildungsverein ) . Issue 9, 2000, ISSN  0944-5560 , p. 177-184 ( ).
  6. ↑ The name is contemporary: "And this winter is still today called secundum excellentiam the cold winter." (Johann Adolph Stock: Kleine Franckfurter Chronik. Frankfurt / M., 1719. p. 64)
  7. The extreme winter 1709 .; The winter in which half of Europe froze to death ( Memento from February 22, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
  8. Wilhelm Gottfried von Moser: Forest archive to expand forest and hunting science and forest and hunting literature. Volume 6. Ulm 1790, p. 356 f.
  9. Historical background to the hunger winter 1946/47 Part 1 ( Memento of the original from December 8, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. on Das @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  10. a b c Disaster victims without mountain accidents (approx. 80-100 / year average)
  11. Weather of December 1981: Snowiest of 20th century, January 1982: Record cold and snow, both Philip Eden, WeatherOnline; Wiltshire wild weather: the long winter of 1982 . BBC; It's not that cold. It's just winter, .
  12. Gerhard Koslowski: The ice winter 1986/87 in the German coastal area between Ems and Trave. In: Deutsche Hydrographische Zeitschrift 40th year 1987 issue 3 ( pdf, ( memento of the original from January 25, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. ) @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  13. a b Werner Bätzing : Der Avalanche Winter 1999 in the Alps, p. 1.
  14. Snow masses in the Nordstau from 7th to 11th February 2006 (PDF; 630 kB)
  15. ^ Snow chaos in and around Munich on March 5th, 2006. Retrieved February 9, 2020 .
  16. Key points: Pitt report on floods . In: BBC News , June 25, 2008. Retrieved October 18, 2008. 
  17. Deep "Vincent": The cold comes, the snow remains .; Cold shock: Chaos on Germany's roads . Mirror online; Siberian cold on 4 Advent 2009 (special) .
  18. After the strongest storm surge since 2006, water levels are falling , , January 5, 2017
  19. Storm surge 2017 leaves damage to the Baltic Sea coast , overview in the area of ​​the Baltic Sea, on: , January 5, 2017
  20. ^ Alan Niederer: How «Burglind» differs from «Lothar» | NZZ . In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung . January 3, 2018, ISSN  0376-6829 ( [accessed July 2, 2018]).
  21. Weather chaos on the Mediterranean: bridge collapse in Italy. In: . November 25, 2019, accessed November 25, 2019 .
  22. Munich Reinsurance Company, quoted in n. Distribution of the damage caused by severe weather by weather event (1980 to 2006). Statista, accessed March 23, 2008 .