Severe weather , including extreme weather event or weather anomaly is a collective term for extreme weather events. These weather events often cause major property damage, disasters and mortal danger for many people.
Extreme events in the sense of meteorology are weather conditions that deviate significantly from the average in their course (shown in weather elements ). The basis is a climatological normal period , a geographical reference to a climate classification , the annuality of the weather elements and other impact factors (such as the flood level) as well as the insurance damage or the macroeconomic (insured and uninsured direct damage, consequential damage and restoration, including the Victim). The term is not based on any precise definition, but is a pragmatic expression of the documentation of climate and weather in climate impact research or insurance : “Extreme events are events that differ greatly from the average and are therefore exceptional. It only depends on the specific application how strong this deviation actually has to be in order to classify an event as extreme. "
Extreme events are of particular historical and economic importance. However, they are unsuitable as climatological indicators: on the one hand, they occur very irregularly, and on the other hand, the mean value of a normal period must be known in order to be able to classify a weather anomaly as such. However, the current long-term average is made up of the occurring weather events, so current extreme events can only be compared / put into contexts with expired measurement periods.
The German Meteorological Service defines the following events as severe weather (level 3 of the criteria scale in the range 0–4) if the specified thresholds are exceeded:
|designation||Criteria for severe weather warnings|
|thunderstorm||with hail (grains larger than 1.5 cm) or with heavy rain or with a storm or hurricane.|
|Storm||Hurricane gusts of 11 Bft. (measured at a height of 10 m)|
|hurricane||at least 12 Bft. (measured at a height of 10 m)|
|Snowdrift||loose snow cover (larger than 10 cm) or fresh snow with gusts over 8 Bft|
|Heavy rain||more than 25 l / m² in 1 hour or more than 35 l / m² in 6 hours|
|continuous rain||more than 40 l / m² in 12 hours or more than 50 l / m² in 24 hours or more than 60 l / m² in 48 hours|
|black ice||widespread formation of black ice or freezing moisture with an impact on traffic|
|Snowfall||more than 10 cm in 6 hours or more than 15 cm in 12 hours|
|thaw||Continuous rain with a snow cover of more than 15 cm|
The following events are still used for severe weather warnings from the meteorological services:
- Extremely high temperature ( heat wave , heat anomalies ) extremely low temperature ( cold wave , cold anomalies )
- Drought (also with the consequence of forest fire risk)
- Avalanche danger
The following events are generally considered to be more specific storms:
- Cyclone ( small storm , tornado , tropical cyclone - the terms storm / hurricane stand parallel to this as a name for the strength)
In addition, since 1993 the International Civil Aviation Organization ( ICAO ) has set up nine Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers , which monitor airspace for volcanic ash worldwide and warn air traffic if necessary. Because of the meteorological prognosis of the trajectories of aerosol emissions, these belong to the subject area.
Severe weather warning services
- German Weather Service (DWD)
- Meteo alarm from EUMETNET
- Federal Office for Meteorology and Climatology (MeteoSwiss)
- Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG, Austria)
- KATWARN (warning and information service)
- Austrian Severe Weather Center (UBIMET)
- Skywarn , voluntary observation network
- Severe weather center Germany
- Weather alarm , free storm warning service from the cantonal building insurance, furniture and SF Meteo
- WIND storm warning system “Weather Information on Demand”
Between 1980 and 2016 z. In Germany, for example, according to the insurance group Munich Re, the damage caused by extreme weather (thunderstorms) practically quadrupled from an average of around 580 million to over 2 billion euros.
According to a study by the Joint Research Center of the European Commission published in the journal The Lancet Planetary Health , up to two thirds of the European population could be affected by weather extremes by the year 2100 without further adaptation measures to global climate change between 2071 and 2100 in the EU , Switzerland, Norway and Iceland 80,000 to 240,000 people die every year. Between 1981 and 2010, around 3,000 Europeans per year lost their lives due to weather disasters. 99% of weather fatalities between 2070 and 2100 could die from heat.
In addition to damage, injuries and deaths, storms also cause people to be displaced. In 2016, almost 24 million were on the run due to extreme weather conditions, mainly in poor areas. In richer countries, on the other hand, only just under a million people were affected each year.
Examples of historical storms
- List of historical disasters (worldwide, including weather events)
List of weather events in Europe
- Floods and natural disasters in Saxony
- List of storm surges in the North Sea
- Flood: See the individual rivers, for example Rhine # flood , Elbe ; see also Danube flood 2002 , flood in Central Europe 2013
- Omegalage , with a list of the most stable highs in Europe (heat anomalies, droughts)
- Vb weather situation , with a list of typical southern dam heavy precipitation events in the Alpine and Carpathian regions
- Major tornado events (examples also for Europe)
- Karl W. Steininger , Christian Steinreiber, Christoph Ritz (eds.): Extreme weather events and their economic consequences. Adaptation, ways out and political demands of affected economic sectors . 2nd Edition. Springer, Berlin / Heidelberg 2005, ISBN 3-540-23477-2 .
- Christian Rohr : Extreme natural events in the Eastern Alps: Experience of nature in the late Middle Ages and at the beginning of the modern era . In: Environmental historical research . tape 4 . Böhlau, 2007, ISBN 978-3-412-20042-8 .
- naturgewalten.de : Information about severe weather worldwide
- Natural disasters and storms - When the weather goes crazy : WDR documentary (YouTube channel)
- Ulrich Foelsche: Regional development and impact of extreme weather events exemplifying Austria . In: Steininger, Steinreiber, Ritz (ed.): Extreme weather events and their economic consequences. Adaptation, ways out and political demands of affected economic sectors . 1st edition. Springer, Berlin / Heidelberg 2004, ISBN 3-540-23477-2 , 3rd chapter, p. 25-39 .
- Quote Ulrich Foelsche: Introduction . In: Steininger, Steinreiber, Ritz (ed.): Extreme weather events and their economic consequences. Adaptation, ways out and political demands of affected economic sectors . 1st edition. Springer, Berlin / Heidelberg 2005, ISBN 3-540-23477-2 , pp. 25 .
- Ulrich Foelsche: Regional development and impact of extreme weather events exemplifying Austria . In: Steininger, Steinreiber, Ritz (ed.): Extreme weather events and their economic consequences. Adaptation, ways out and political demands of affected economic sectors . 1st edition. Springer, Berlin / Heidelberg 2005, ISBN 3-540-23477-2 , 3rd chapter, p. 26 .
- German Weather Service: warning criteria
- badische-zeitung.de , September 12, 2017: Briefly reported - Damage in Germany. Retrieved September 15, 2017.
- zeit.de , August 5, 2017: Extreme weather could hit two thirds of Europeans in 2100. Retrieved September 15, 2017.
- zeit.de , September 8, 2017: Florida residents should prepare for evacuation. Retrieved September 15, 2017.
- zeit.de , September 10, 2017: Floods hit Miami. Retrieved September 15, 2017.
- Climate change as a cause of flight. tagesschau.de, November 2, 2017, accessed on November 2, 2017 .