The term hadith ( the hadith, also the hadith; Arabic حديث Hadīth , DMG ḥadīṯ , narration, report, communication, tradition ') denotes the traditions of the sayings and actions of the Islamic prophet Mohammed as well as the sayings and actions of third parties that he is said to have tacitly approved. The singular hadith is used for a single tradition, but also for the entirety of the traditions. The plural in German reads Hadith (more rarely Hadith orأحاديث ahādīth ).
The great importance of the Hadith in Islam results from the fact that the way of acting ( Sunnah ) of the Prophet has a normative character and is the second source of Islamic norms ( Fiqh ) after the Koran . The hadiths are considered to be the means by which future generations can inform themselves about this course of action. That is why the study of hadith is still regarded today as one of the most important branches of Islamic religious science.
Characteristic for the form of the hadith is its two-part structure: the actual text ( matn ) is preceded by a chain of narrators ( isnād ). The Hadith shares this peculiarity with the Chabar (خبر / ḫabar ), the "news" guaranteed by a chain of sources about a religious or profane event, as found in early Islamic literature. The hadith as "message" about the Prophet Mohammed is a special form of Chabar. Sometimes the term Chabar is also used as synonymous with Hadith. Another term that has overlap with hadith is athar (أثر / aṯar / 'trace, sign') with the plural Āthār (آثار / āṯār ). Above all, it denotes traditions that are ascribed to the companions ( sahāba ) of the Prophet and to which jurisprudence also assigns a normative meaning. The term can also be used as a name for a report about the prophet himself.
The extensive Hadith material is classified by the Muslim religious scholars ( ʿulamāʾ ) in various categories.
According to the number of narrators
The most important classification is certainly the one that depends on the number of people who have passed on the respective ḥadīṯ . Usually two types are distinguished from each other in this category, 1. the aḥādīṯ mutawātira , 2. the aḥādīṯ ʾaḥādīyya . In addition to this dualistic division, which is common to all schools of law, the Hanafi law school regards the 3rd aḥādīṯ mašhūra as a third distinctive group.
- 1. aḥādīṯ mutawātira : This category includes all aḥādīṯ that have been narrated by so many people at any time in the tradition that the sheer number of narrators makes forgery - either by chance or by agreement - impossible or at least very improbable. Even if it is one of the most important factors for evaluating a adīṯ today, it can only be historically proven relatively late. This definition is of course fuzzy in view of the fact that the exact number that is necessary to meet the requirements is not precisely determined. This results in certain difficulties in practice, since religious scholars made very different - sometimes seemingly arbitrary - demands on the number of narrators.
- 2. aḥādīṯ aḥādīya : This category includes those traditions that only one or two people tell about from the beginning to the end of the chain of narration. An alternative name for these traditions is "message of the individual" ( ḫabar al-wāḥid ). Ibn Taimīya writes that - with the exception of a few Kalām scholars - the legal theorists of the four Sunni disciplines generally attribute evidential value to such individual messages “if the umma has accepted them in the form of certification or execution.” Among those scholars who have such individual traditions as evidential have agreed, he names al-Bāqillānī , al-Ghazālī , Ibn ʿAqīl , Ibn al-Jschauzī and al-Āmidī .
- 3. aḥādīṯ mašhūra : This category includes all those aḥādīṯ that were passed down by individuals in the first generations after Muḥammad's death, but have found greater dissemination and acceptance in the umma in the further course of history and consequently more and more narrators can be identified . The status of the message changes from ʾaḥād to mutawātir at a certain point in time.
According to the connection of the Isnad
A hadith consists of its content ( matn ) and a preceding chain of narrators ( isnād ), which contains the names of the narrators (traditionalists) in their chronological continuity up to the time of the Prophet; the last link in this chain is always one of the Prophet's Companions ( sahaba ), who quotes the prophet's testimony as a witness. The categorization of the hadith is based either on the Isnad or on the content of it. The division of the hadiths according to the Isnads is therefore based on external, formal criteria and initially says nothing about the authenticity of the content of the traditions. An isnad can be:
- musnad /مسند / ' Traced back completely to the sahaba ' and muttasil /متصل / ‚Contiguous; continuous': a chronologically uninterrupted chain of narrators with the prophet's companion as the main witness of the statement. According to its form one speaks in this case of a hadīth marfūʿ /حديث مرفوع / ḥadīṯ marfūʿ / 'traced back to the Prophet'.
- mursal /مرسل / 'Incomplete': the chain of the prophet's companion as a key witness is missing, although the subsequent authority quotes a prophet's saying, or the prophet's companion as a direct mediator of tradition is not recognized. In this case the traditional literature speaks of marasil as-sahaba , such as B. the mursal tradition of ʿAbdallāh ibn ʿAbbās , who is said to have been only thirteen years old in the year Muhammad died.
- munqaṭiʿ /منقطع / 'Interrupted' is related to the mursal ; in this Isnad a mediator is missing elsewhere, e.g. B. between the third and fourth generation of the tradition chronology. According to its form one speaks in this case of a ḥadīth maqṭūʿ /حديث منقطع / ḥadīṯ maqṭūʿ / 'interrupted hadith '.
- muʿḍil /معضل / 'Enigmatic' and muʿallaq /معلق / ‚Tie; 'questionable' is an Isnad in which two or even more mediators are missing in the chain of narrators or are deliberately not mentioned for various reasons that the critique of hadith has to discuss. This means that a mu istil is also munqaṭiʿ , i.e. interrupted in the chain, but not all munqaṭiʿ are muʿḍil .
In the history of the development of hadith literature and the critique of hadith, Islamic scholars have created further categories through their astute criticism of the structure of the Isnade .
- Saheeh /صحيح / ṣaḥīḥ / 'healthy, authentic';
- Hasan /حسن / ḥasan / 'beautiful, good' are traditions according to the prophet, which have general acceptance both in terms of content and with regard to their narrators and thus normative character in the application of the Sunna , the second source of jurisprudence;
- Daʿīf /ضعيف / ḍaʿīf / 'weak', on the other hand, is a tradition that - as Ahmad ibn Hanbal defines it - in legal practice, despite its dubious authenticity, is used in certain cases as a sunna , before resorting to analogy ( qiyās ) as a further source of jurisprudence. However, this view of Ibn Hanbal, which is rooted in traditionalism and not in Fiqh , has not prevailed in the criticism of hadith. Because a “weak” hadith is not an argument in jurisprudence ( ḥuǧǧa ). The hadith scholar an-Nawawī explained that with a weak hadith that is quoted without Isnad, one should not apodictically say: “The Messenger of God said” ( qāla rasūl Allāh ) or something similar, but only: “It is narrated about him ”( Ruwiya ʿan-hu ),“ we heard about him ”( balaġa-nā ʿan-hu ) or the like.
These three main categories of hadiths have numerous sub-categories developed and defined by Islamic hadith studies according to different criteria; the most important of them is a hadith mutawatir /حديث متواتر / ḥadīṯ mutawātir / 'widespread hadith cited by many', which is considered authentic ( saheeh ) and at the same time goes back to the Prophet via several credible chains of narration.
- Maudūʿ /موضوع / mauḍūʿ / 'falsified' - from the verb w-ḍ-ʿ = "invent", in the sense of "falsify" - is a hadith whose content ( matn ) and chain of narrators ( Isnad ) are invented and are therefore to be regarded as forgeries.
Hadīth nabawī and Hadīth qudsī
While the vast majority of hadiths are considered prophetic (نبوي / nabawī ) of origin, there are others who are ascribed a directly divine origin. They are called hadīth qudsī ( Arabic حديث قدسي, DMG ḥadīṯ qudsī 'holy hadith'). A hadīth qudsī does not contain the words of God in the wording as in the Koran, but only in their essence and passed on by the prophet Mohammed. Such a hadith can arise through divine inspiration (ilham) or through a dream and therefore differs from the revelation (wahy) of the Koran, which according to Muslim belief represents the pure word of God. If someone does not believe in the revelation, he is accused of disbelief ; this is not the case with regard to the hadith qudsi. Such hadiths may not be spoken in Islamic ritual prayer . The first collections of these traditions are of relatively late origin and date from the 13th and 15th centuries.
History of Hadith Literature
Hadiths were initially passed down mainly orally. Probably during the Second Civil War (680–692 AD), isnād emerged as a new phenomenon. The traditions probably originally served as example narratives for a pious life following the example of Muhammad. A complete chain of narrators (Isnād) only gained importance after the second century of the Islamic calendar and was supposed to guarantee the authenticity of the traditional text. Muslim sources associate the first collections with the Umaiyad caliph ʿUmar ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz and with the two scholars Abū Bakr ibn Hazm and Ibn Shihāb al -Zuhrī (d. 741/2). ʿUmar ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz is said to have written to Abū Bakr ibn Hazm: “Look what has been narrated to us in the hadiths of God's Messenger and write them down! Because I fear that knowledge is dwindling and scholars are dying out. Only the hadiths of the Prophet (S) are important, nothing else! And people should spread the knowledge. "
The first written records had no specific work titles; they were called Sahīfa ("scroll") or Juzʾ ("part, section; little booklet"). These collections, which Fuat Sezgin lists under these names, go back to authorities in the first and second Muslim centuries (7th to 8th centuries AD), but are copies that were made about 500 years later. The oldest literary - d. That is, non-Quranic - writings on papyrus became known for the first time through the publications of Nabia Abbott . They go back to the early 8th century.
Mention should also be made of resistance in the early history of Islam to the writing of Muhammad's statements and doctrinal sayings which were transmitted through the Isnād chain . At the time of the traditionalist al-Qasim ibn Muhammad († 728), the grandson of Abu Bakr , it was reported that the caliph Omar should have disapproved of the written fixation of the hadith with the words: This is a (written) "mathnat" like that "Mathnat" ( aram. Mishnah ) the script owner . However, it is narrated that ʿAbdallāh ibn ʿAmr , with the Prophet's permission, began to put his sayings down in writing already during the lifetime of the Prophet.
With regard to the hadith collections, a distinction is made between two types. In collections of the Musannaf type مصنف / muṣannaf / 'sorted, classified', the hadiths are arranged according to content. There are chapters about ritual purity / prayer / pilgrimage / marriage / divorce / contract and sales law etc. One of the first scholars to write such a work was the Meccan scholar Ibn Juraidsch (d. 748). Another work of the late eighth century that is close to this type is the Muwattā by Mālik ibn Anas . However, it is not clear whether this work should be understood more as a collection of hadiths or as a corpus iuris of the Medinan legal school, because it is repeatedly interrupted by long sections of purely legal traditions - including the presentation of Raʾy ( opinio ) . Other important works of the Musannaf type were written in the eighth century by ʿAbd ar-Razzāq ibn Hammām (d. 827 in Yemen ), Ibn Abī Shaiba (d. 849), al-Buchari (d. 870) and Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj (d . 875).
A subgroup of the Musannaf works are the so-called Sunan works. These are collections that particularly list those hadiths that deal with the rules of everyday life. Works of this type have been put together by ad-Dārimī (d. 869), Ibn Madscha (d. 887), Abū Dāwūd as-Sidschistānī (d. 889), at-Tirmidhī (d. 892) and an-Nasāʾī (d. 915) . Among these hadith works, the five-volume work by at-Tirmidhī is the first to stand out because of the author's critical remarks on the isnads and the mention of the views of the schools of law on the individual hadiths.
The other important type of hadith collections is arranged according to the Companions of Muhammad, who appear in the Isnads as direct narrators of the Prophet's sayings and deeds. This also includes anonymous companions whose names were no longer known in the next generation. Collections of this type are known as Musnad works. Among the earliest scholars who compiled Musnad works were at-Tayālisī (d. 819), al-Humaidī (d. 834) and Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (d. 855). The Muʿdscham works of Abū l-Qāsim at-Tabarānī also follow this system. A peculiarity of the work of Ahmad Ibn Hanbal is that in his last volume the wives of Muhammad and other women who were able to narrate after the Prophet are named.
Processes of Canonization
From the 11th century onwards, there was a tendency in Sunni Islam to assign a canonical rank to certain collections of hadiths. The two collections of "healthy" hadiths by al-Buchari and Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj played a particularly prominent role. Together with the four Sunan works by Ibn Mādscha, Abū Dāwūd as-Sidschistānī, at-Tirmidhī and an-Nasā'ī, they form the so-called six books , which represent the classical canon of the Sunni hadith collections. Conversely, there was a group of four books among the Twelve Shiites that were elevated to the rank of canonical collections of traditions.
Although the "six books" had a canonical rank in Sunni Islam, there were later scholars who put together new collections of hadiths in which they added "additions" ( zawāʾid ) to the hadiths from the six books . A particularly well-known such Zawāʾid work is the collection Maǧmaʿ az-zawā'id wa-manbaʿ al-fawā'id by ʿAlī ibn Abī Bakr al-Haithamī (d. 1405). In addition to the hadiths from the six books, it also lists the hadiths from the Musnad works by Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Abū Yaʿlā (d. 889), al-Bazzār (d. 905) and the three Muʿdscham works by Abū l-Qāsim at -Tabarānī on.
It later became popular to compile collections of forty hadiths each on specific topics. A popular forties collection of this type is the Kitab al-arba'in hadithan ("The Book of the Forty Hadith") by the Syrian scholar Yahya ibn Sharaf ad-Din an-Nawawi (d. 1278). The hadiths in this collection are primarily of moral content. An-Nawawī also put together in the Riyad as-Salihin ("Gardens of the Virtuous") an extensive collection of traditions for moral and educational purposes.
The Rijal literature
The dissemination of the traditional material in the form of hadiths, in their unity of Isnad and matn (content; the statement itself), above all the growth of this material, inevitably not only led to the categorization of the hadiths according to their formal structure, but also promoted the emergence of an important one Branch of science among the Islamic studies , which is called ʿIlm ar-ridschāl "science about men". The narrators of hadiths are meant by “men”. This branch of science was already the basis of the criticism of hadith in the second half of the 2nd Muslim century (end of the 8th century) and did not deal with the traditions or the formal structure of the Isnade, but examined the living conditions and the scientific qualifications of those in the Isnaden called narrator. These hadith-critical investigations by the traditionalists - the narrators of the hadith (ruwat al-hadith) - were ultimately reflected in the development of an extensive biographical literature, which led from the small, concise lists of names in the beginning to large-scale, multi-volume biographies in the Islamic Middle Ages. These works are called kutub ar-ridschāl ("books about the traditionalists"), in which both the curriculum vitae of the specified persons and their contacts with other scholars are mentioned, as well as the hadith-critical predicates associated with their names. It was always important to point out the narrator's teacher-student relationship in order to be able to check the criteria of his reliability as a narrator according to his older sources - according to his teachers and written records in his possession. Among these comprehensive scholarly biographies, the most important are the works of Al-Maqdisī , al-Mizzi , al-Dhahabi, and Ibn Hajar al-ʿAsqalānī . The local historians, in turn, have understood how to take into account the biographies of those traditionalists in their works on the city's history and to present them according to the criteria of the hadith criticism who lived and worked in the city or region in question. The works of Ibn ʿAsākir for the city history of Damascus and of al-Chatib al-Baghdadi for Baghdad are conceived with this in mind.
The most important predicates that the trader criticism had to award are: thiqa /ثقة / ṯiqa / 'credible, reliable'; mutqin /متقن / mutqin / 'exactly'; huddscha /حجّة / ḥuǧǧa / 'conclusive'; 'adl /عدل / ʿAdl / 'just, correct'; hasan al-hadith /حسن الحديث / ḥasanu ʾl-ḥadīṯ / 'good (narrator) of hadiths'. On the other side of the criticism are then: da'if /ضعيف / ḍaʿīf / 'weak, unreliable traditionalarian'; kadhdhab /كذّاب / kaḏḏāb / 'liar'; sariqu'l-hadith /سارق الحديث / sāriqu ʾl-ḥadīṯ / 'hadith thief'. A special predicate is mudallis /مدلّس: He falsifies the Isnade by replacing the names of "weak" traditionalists with "credible" ones in order to be able to use a hadith as a basis for argument in the law in theology.
In the hadith literature it is frowned upon to narrate hadiths in whose isnads weak traditionalists appear. That is why one has the names of the weak, i.e. i.e. , unreliable, traditionalists in the so-called kutub al-du'afa ' /كتب الضعفاء / kutubu ʾḍ-ḍuʿafāʾ / 'Books on the weak (traditionalists)' compiled together with the hadiths handed down by them. The oldest collection, which in turn contains the names of the credible narrators who worked in Iraq, is under the title kitab al-thiqat /كتاب الثقات / kitābu ṯ-ṯiqāt / 'The Book of the Faithful (Traditional)' received from the late 2nd Muslim century (early 9th century AD). It is a simple list of scholar names with no further biographical information.
Ignaz Goldziher aptly summarized the essence of hadith criticism in his groundbreaking Muhammadan Studies (Halle 1889–1890):
"Each and every one of the informants mentioned in the Isnaden was followed up to find out his character, to find out whether he was morally and religiously indisputable, whether he was not making propaganda for anti-Sunni purposes, whether his love of truth could generally be considered proven, whether he has the personal ability to faithfully reproduce what he has heard, whether he is a man whose testimony in the civil law sense would be safely admitted by the judge. For the hadith tradition was regarded as the most sublime form of the Shahada , the testimony, since the Rawi (i.e., the narrator) bears a testimony that is extremely important for the shaping of religious life that he has heard this or that word from one or the other. "
Works on balancing apparently contradicting hadiths
A number of different works deal with balancing hadiths that seem to contradict one another. The best-known works of this genre are the Kitāb Iḫtilāf al-ḥadīṯ ("Book on the Contradictory in the Hadith") by Ash-Shāfiʿī (d. 820), Taʾwīl Muḫhtalaf al-ḥadīṯ ("Interpretation of the Contradictory of the Hadith") by Ibn Qutaiba ( d. 889) and Bayān muškil al-āṯār ("Explanation of the Problems of Hadith") by at-Tahāwī (d. 933). In the area of Shiite Islam, the book al-Istibṣār fī-mā uḫtulifa min al-aḫbār ("Consideration of the deviations in the news") by Abū Jaʿfar at-Tūsī (died 1067) belongs to this genre.
Philological commentaries on hadith
In addition to dealing with the authenticity of the traditions and their narrators , a new branch of science developed relatively early, in the middle of the 2nd Muslim century (end of the 8th century AD): the interpretation and explanation more difficult, not generally known and seldom used words in the hadiths. The collections, mostly arranged alphabetically, were called arīb al-ḥadīṯ ("The strange thing about the hadith"). In these works, in addition to linguistic explanations of words, the authors also resorted to lines in Arabic poetry in order to explain the use and meaning of such terms.
An overview of the various branches of traditional science of hadith was given for the first time by Ibn al-Salāh al-Schahrazūrī (1181-1245), whose work Kitāb Maʿrifat anwāʿ ʿilm al-ḥadīṯ ("The Book of Different Kinds of Hadith Science"), better known as Muqaddima , to this day it is regarded as a standard work of the criticism of hadith. It was published in English in 2006 under the title An introduction to the science of the Ḥadīth .
Modern Muslim Hadith Criticism
Muhammad Nāsir al-Dīn al-Albānī , one of the pioneering thinkers of Salafism (1914–1999), has complained that around two dozen hadiths in the collection of Muslim ibn al-Hajjādj contained inadequate chains of warranties. He fundamentally criticized the use of weak hadith and even saw them as a betrayal of Islamic integrity.
Some Muslim hadith critics even go so far as to completely reject hadiths as the basic texts of Islam. The Egyptian Rashad Khalifa , the Malaysian Kassim Ahmad and the Turk Edip Yüksel ( Koranism ) are among the most prominent contemporary Muslim critics of hadith .
Western Hadith Research
One of the first fundamental works of Western Hadith research were the Muhammadan Studies (Halle 1889–1890) by Ignaz Goldziher . From the 1930s onwards, Arent Jan Wensinck created a hadith concordance for the search for a given hadith in the canonical hadith collections , which lists all hadiths of the big six collections as well as the traditions of Malik ibn Anas and Ibn Hanbal according to the rules of a concordance . The collection of Ahmad ibn Hanbal was not arranged thematically, and working with her was a particular challenge. They have now been classified by AM Omar and thematically. The CD-ROM al-Alfiyya li-s-sunna al-nabawiyyaالألفية للسنة النبويةrecords 1300 collections of hadiths and hadith-specific books. After Goldziher, Joseph Schacht (1902–1962) is considered to be the second great Orientalist who has dealt critically with the classical tradition of hadith.
Gautier HA Juynboll made a substantial and groundbreaking contribution to the hadith discussion. He has examined the isnāde of numerous canonical hadiths and shown that they mostly show the following pattern: From the prophet to a narrator - whom Juynboll calls the Common Link narrator after Joseph Schacht - the hadith is narrated in a single strand . Only from the Common Link does the Single Strand fan out into a bundle of branches. The more branched the lines of narration that are brought together in the common link narrator, the more likely it is for Juynboll that the hadith actually goes back to this narrator. The historicity of that part of the Isnāde that was in front of the "node" of the Common Link trader is questioned by Juynboll.
One of the most important hadith researchers of today is Harald Motzki , who has dealt very critically with the research hypotheses Schacht and Juynboll and considers their skepticism towards the Muslim narrators to be exaggerated. In contrast to Schacht and Juynboll, he bases his research on a considerably broader text basis. The eleven-volume early Musannaf work by ʿAbd ar-Razzāq ibn Hammām, which was first edited in Beirut in 1970 and in which the legal norms of the Meccan and Medinan schools are set out, plays a particularly important role .
In contemporary Islamic research, it is particularly controversial when the written fixation, collection and transmission of the contents ( Matn ) of the hadiths together with their chains of transmission ( Isnād ) are to be started. Today it is considered likely that there were records of prophetic traditions as early as the first Muslim century ( 7th century AD), which according to their oral tradition were summarized in small scrolls or notebooks. In his History of Arabic Literature (Vol. 1), F. Sezgin has compiled some news from Islamic sources that report the existence of earlier hadith collections, but say little about their content. In this context, the state of research has essentially not changed since Goldziher's deliberative statement:
"Nothing stands in the way of the prerequisite that the comrades [Goldziher means the sahāba ] and students want to keep the sayings and decrees of the prophet from oblivion by means of a written record."
Other meanings of hadith
As a Quranic term, hadith is also the revelation of God:
"God has sent down the best proclamation (that one can even imagine, as a revelation), a similarly repeating scripture ..."
The Islamic tradition uses the term kalām (speech, slogan, statement) as a synonym - based on the content of the Quranic verse above , quoting the prophet as follows: “The best speech ( kalām ) is the speech of God ( kalām Allāh ) and the best guidance (to faith) is the guidance of Muhammad ”.
- Ṣaḥīḥ al-Buḫārī. News of actions and sayings of Prophet Muhammad . Reclam, Stuttgart 1991, ISBN 3-15-004208-9 .
- The Book of Forty Hadith. Kitab al-Arba'in. With the commentary of Ibn Daqiq al-'Id al-Nawawi . Verlag der Welteligionen, Frankfurt am Main 2007, ISBN 978-3-458-70006-7 .
- Jonathan Brown : The Canonization of al-Bukhari and Muslim. The Formation and Function of the Sunnī Ḥadīth Canon . Brill, Leiden / Boston, 2007.
- Jonathan AC Brown : Hadith. Muhammad's Legacy in the Medieval and Modern World. Oneworld Publications, Oxford, 2009.
- John Burton: An Introduction to the Hadith. Edinburgh 1994, ISBN 0-7486-0435-9 (Reprint 2001)
- Ignaz Goldziher : On the Development of the Hadith. In: Muhammadan Studies. Volume II. Halle 1890. ISBN 3-487-12606-0 (Reprint 2004)
- GHA Juynboll: Muslim tradition. Studies in chronology, provenance and authorship of early ḥadīṯ . Cambridge University Press, Cambridge u. a. 1983.
- Birgit Krawietz: Hierarchy of Legal Sources in Traditional Sunni Islam. Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2002
- Rüdiger Lohlker (Ed.): Hadith Studies - Conversation with the traditions of the Prophet. Festschrift for Prof. Dr. Tilman Nagel . Publishing house Dr. Kovac, Hamburg 2009, ISBN 978-3-8300-4193-1 .
- Harald Motzki : Ḥadīth. Origins and Developments Ashgate, Aldershot / Burlington, 2004.
- Miklos Muranyi : Fiqh. The Ḥadīṯ as the source of Fiqh. In: Helmut Gätje (Hrsg.): Outline of Arabic Philology. Volume II. Literary Studies. Wiesbaden 1987. pp. 301-306. ISBN 3-88226-145-5 .
- Aisha Y. Musa: Ḥadīth as scripture: discussions on the authority of the prophetic traditions in Islam . Palgrave Macmillan, New York, NY [et al. a.], 2008.
- J. Robson: Articles "Ḥadīth" and "Ḥadīth qudsī" in The Encyclopaedia of Islam. New Edition . Volume III, pp. 23b-29a.
- Gregor Schoeler : "Oral Torah and Ḥadīṯ: Tradition, prohibition of writing, editing." In: Der Islam 66 (1989) 213-251.
- Fuat Sezgin : History of Arabic Literature. Volume I. Chapter Hadith. Pp. 53-233. Brill, Leiden 1967, ISBN 90-04-02007-1 (Reprint 1996)
- Muhammad Zubayr Siddiqi: Hadith Literature. Its Origin, Development & Special Features. Cambridge 1993
- Arent Jan Wensinck : Concordance et Indices de la tradition musulmane: les Six Livres, le Musnad d'Al-Darimi, le Muwatta` de Malik, le Musnad de Ahmad ibn Hanbal. Reprint. Leiden 1992. ISBN 90-04-09714-7 .
- English translations of the large collections of hadith at the Center for Muslim-Jewish Engagement at the University of Southern California
- Excerpts from Saheeh al-Buchari in German
- Sahih Muslim - Over 1700 selected hadiths from the Sahih work of Imam Muslim in German
- Riyad as-Salihin - Gardens of the Virtuous - Hadiths of Imam an-Nawawi - 1896 Hadiths from the Kuttub as-Sitta (the 6 books) in German
- Hadith search engine (only in Turkish)
- See Robson 23b.
- Birgit Krawietz (2002), p. 135.
- GHA Juynboll: (Re) Appraisal of Some Technical Terms in Hadith Science. In: Islamic Law and Society. Volume 8, No. 3. Brill, Leiden 2001. p. 326.
- See Krawietz 141.
- Iḏā talaqqat-hu l-ummatu bi-l-qubūli taṣdīqan la-hū au ʿamalan bi-hī , so in al-Muqaddima fī uṣūl at-tafsīr. Ed. Maḥmūd M. Maḥmūd an-Naṣṣār. Cairo: Dār al-Ǧīl li-ṭ-ṭibāʿa or DS 77.
- Cf. Ibn Taimīya: al-Muqaddima p. 77.
- Cf. Yaḥyā Ibn-Šaraf an-Nawawī: at-Taqrīb wa-t-taisīr li-maʿrifat sunan al-bašīr an-naḏīr . Ed. Muhammad ʿUṯmān al-Ḫušt. Beirut, Dār al-Kitāb al-ʿArabī, 1985. p. 48.
- Schoeler: "Oral Torah and Ḥadīṯ". 1989, p. 217.
- Rüdiger Lohlker: Islam. A story of ideas. Vienna 2008, p. 22 .
- Juynboll: Muslim tradition. 1983, p. 34.
- Dieter Ferchl (Ed.): Ṣaḥīḥ al-Buḫārī. News of actions and sayings of Prophet Muhammad. Reclam, Stuttgart, 1991. p. 54.
- Fuat Sezgin: History of Arabic Literature , Vol. 1, p. 54
- Fuat Sezgin, op.cit. 84 ff.
- Nabia Abbott: Studies in Arabic Literary Papyri . I. Historical Texts. Chicago University Press 1957
- See the fragments published by Nabia Abbott: Studies in Arabic Literary Papyri. Vol. II. Qurʾānic Commentary and Tradition. Chicago 1967
- Quoted from: Muhammad ibn Saʿd : K. at-Tabaqat (ed. KV Zetterstéen), Brill, Leiden 1905, Volume 5, p. 140: “maṯnātun ka-maṯnāti ahli ʾl-kitāb”; Ignaz Goldziher: Muhammedanische Studien, Vol. 2, p. 209; See also: Encyclopedia Judaica , Vol. 9, p. 103.
- The Encyclopaedia of Islam . New Edition. Brill, suffering. Vol. 7, p. 662; F. Sezgin, Vol. 1, p. 55.
- See Harald Motzki: The beginnings of Islamic jurisprudence. Stuttgart 1991. p. 244.
- See Siddiqi p. 61.
- F. Sezgin: History of the Arabic literature . Vol. 1, p. 154
- Brown: The Canonization of al-Bukhari and Muslim. 2007, p. 64.
- Cf. İsmail Lütfi Çakan: Hadîs edebiyâtı: çeşitleri, özellikleri, faydalanma usulleri . Marmara Üniversitesi, İstanbul 1985. p. 128.
- On Goldziher's methodology cf. z. B. Talal AH Maloush: Early Hadith literature and the theory of Ignaz Goldziher , Diss. Edinburgh 2000.
- Ignaz Goldziher: Mohammedan Studies , Part 2, p. 142 (digitized version)
- The Encyclopaedia of Islam . New Edition. Brill, suffering. Vol. 2, p. 1011 (gharīb)
- An introduction to the science of the Ḥadīth . Transl. by Eerik Dickinson. Garnet Publ., Reading, 2006.
- Brown: Hadith. Muhammad's Legacy in the Medieval and Modern World. 2009, p. 256f.
- Musa: Ḥadīth as scripture . 2008, p. 85.
- Kurt Bangert: Muhammad: a historical-critical study on the origin of Islam and its prophet . Springer VS, Wiesbaden, 2016. pp. 147–151.
- Brown: Hadith. Muhammad's Legacy in the Medieval and Modern World. 2009, p. 226f.
- F. Sezgin, Volume 1, p. 99; Harald Motzki: The Development of Islamic Jurisprudence. Their development in Mecca up to the middle of the 2nd / 8th centuries Century. Treatises for the customers of the Orient. Volume L, 2. Stuttgart 1991; ders .: The Muṣannaf of ʿAbd al-Razzāq al-Ṣanʿānī as a source of authentic aḥādīth of the first century a. H. In: Journal of Near Eastern Studies 50 (1991), pp. 1-21
- Ignaz Goldziher: Muhammadan Studies , Part 2, p. 9 (digitized version)
- Allāhu nazzala aḥsana l-ḥadīṯi ...