Abū Dāwūd as-Sidschistānī

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Abū Dāwūd Sulaimān ibn al-Asch'ath ibn Ishāq al-Azdī as-Sidschistānī , Arabic أبو داود سليمان بن الأشعث بن إسحاق الأزدي السجستاني, DMG Abū Dāwūd Sulaimān b. al-Ašʿaṯ b. Isḥāq al-Azdī as-Siǧistānī (born 817 in Sigistan ; died 888 in Basra ), was an Islamic traditionalist and critic of Hadith .


At the age of 17 to 18 he began his study trip that took him to the great centers of Islamic learning: to Basra, Kufa , Mecca , Khorasan and Fustat . He is said to have studied with more than forty scholars of his time. His most famous teacher was Ahmad ibn Hanbal in Baghdad . Among his disciples, at-Tirmidhī was best known as a traditionarian . After his study trips, he settled in Basra at the request of the Abbasid caliph al-Muwaffaq . al-Dhahabi in his scholarly biography and Ibn ʿAsākir in his history of the city of Damascus describe his life and his learning in detail on several pages.


  • Kitab as-sunan كتاب السنن, also سنن أبي داود / Sunan Abī Dāwūd , is one of the six canonical collections of hadiths in the Islamic tradition. It contains a total of 5274 hadiths, which represent the Sunnah of the Prophet Mohammed in recognized traditions. Like the other Sunan works of the 9th century, it is arranged according to chapters of Fiqh . The work is an important source for the presentation of the early stages of the hadith literature. It has been commented on several times in the following generations; the best-known commentary was written by a great-great-nephew of the second caliph ʿUmar ibn al-Chattāb , Abū Sulaimān al-Chattābī (born 931; died 998) under the title Maʿālim as-sunan (Guide to the Sunan (from Abū Dāwūd)), who im Orient was printed several times. The book is now available in German:
Sunan Abi Dawud. Darulkitab Verlagshaus, Heidelberg 2015, ISBN 978-3-943812-06-0 , Arabic and German.

Abū Dāwūd subjects the hadiths cited by him to a scientifically founded criticism; because he did not recognize the collected traditions as "completely equivalent and incontestable materials of the Mohammedan law". At one point he writes: "This is a reprehensible (munkar) hadith, I have heard that Ahmad ibn Hanbal rejected the same very strictly". During the repeated examination of his materials in the colleges, he no longer included such hadiths in the new readings.

These critical glosses are the oldest testimonies of hadith criticism that have been handed down in literary terms within traditional literature from the 9th century. The importance of the work also speaks for its dissemination by Andalusian scholars in the middle of the 10th century in Islamic Spain. It was commented on several times between the 10th and 18th centuries.

The legal questions from Abū Dāwūd al-Siǧistānī to Ibn Ḥanbal. One of the oldest literary manuscripts in the Islamic world, produced in Rabīʿ I. 266 (October 879). Probably an autograph
  • His collection of legal issues al-masā'il allatī chālafa 'alaihā al-imām Ahmad ibn Hanbal  /المسائل التي خالف عليها الإمام أحمد بن حنبل / al-masāʾil allatī ḫālafa ʿalaihā al-imām Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal  / 'Legal issues to which the Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal contradicted' is preserved in a dated manuscript from the year 879 and contains the legal doctrines of his teacher in his direct tradition. The work is one of the oldest collections of controversial doctrines from legal scholars in the 9th century. It is probably a copy by Abū Dāwūd himself (see photo).
  • Another book of 595 questions that Abū Dāwūd put to Ahmad ibn Hanbal suʾālāt Abī Dāwūd lil-imām Ahmad ibn Hanbal fī jarh al-ruwāt wa-taʿdīlihim  /سؤالات أبي داود للإمام أحمد ابن حنبل في جرح الرواة وتعديلهم / suʾālāt Abī Dāwūd lil-imām Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal fī ǧarḥ ar-ruwāt wa-taʿdīlihim  / 'Questions from Abū Dāwūd to the Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal about the critical assessment of narrators' is a collection of predicates by which Ibn Hanbal characterized both contemporary and older narrators of hadith.
  • Kitāb al-marāsīl كتاب المراسيل / 'The book on traditions whose isnād lacks a narrator' is available in several manuscripts on around 70 folios and was printed in Cairo in 1892. It is a fragment that can also be assigned to the genre of traditional criticism.
  • Kitāb az-zuhd كتاب الزهد / 'The book on asceticism' contains 521 statements attributed to the prophet and his successors about the advantages of the ascetic lifestyle, which distinguishes believing Muslims. The only known manuscript of this collection is preserved in the library of al-Qarawiyīn University .
  • Another book written by the Andalusian scholar Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr under the title aʿlām an-nubuwwa  /أعلام النبوة / Quoted 'The Characteristics of Prophecy' has been lost.


  • Fuat Sezgin: History of Arabic Literature . Brill, Leiden 1967. Vol. 1, pp. 149-152
  • Ignaz Goldziher : Muhammadan Studies . Hall a. S. 1890. Vol. 2, pp. 250ff.
  • The Encyclopaedia of Isla m. New Edition. Vol. 1, p. 114.

Individual evidence

  1. Printed several times in Egypt and India. See F. Sezgin (1967), p. 150
  2. ^ J. Robson: The Transmission of Abū Dāwūd's Sunan. In: Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies (BSOAS), 14 (1952), pp. 579-588
  3. F. Sezgin (1967), p. 150 and p. 210-211
  4. al-Maktaba al-ʿilmiyya. Beirut 1981. 2nd edition in four volumes
  5. Sunan Abi Dawud 5-Pack - Islamic Books at Darulkitab Publishing House. Retrieved on May 3, 2018 (German).
  6. Ignaz Goldziher: Muhammedanische Studien , Vol. 2, p. 251
  7. Ignaz Goldziher, op.cit. 251 and note 3
  8. Ignaz Goldziher, op.cit. 252
  9. See Miklós Murányi : The Muwaṭṭaʾ commentary by the Andalusian al-Qanāziʿī. In: Der Islam 82 (2005), pp. 89–90
  10. See the information in F. Sezgin (1967), pp. 150–151
  11. F. Sezgin (1967), p. 152. No. II
  12. In F. Sezgin, op.cit. not listed. Printed in Medina 1994
  13. F. Sezgin (1967), p. 152. No. VII
  14. F. Sezgin (1967), p. 152. No. V. Edited by Yāsir b. Ibrāhīm b. Muḥammad and Ġunaim b. ʿAbbās b. Ġunaim. Cairo 1993
  15. Maher Jarrar: The biography of the prophets in Islamic Spain. A contribution to the tradition and editorial history. Peter Lang. Frankfurt 1989. pp. 152-153. The title is not given in F. Sezgin (1967), p. 152.