Heat waves in Europe in 2015

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Heat waves summer 2015
Maximum temperature in Europe from the end of June to the beginning of September (purple> +40 ° C, dark red desert day> +35 ° C, bright red hot day> +30 ° C)
Maximum temperature in Europe from the end of June to the beginning of September (purple> +40 ° C, dark red desert day  > +35 ° C, bright red hot day  > +30 ° C)
storm Heat wave with storms
Emergence End of June 2015
resolution End of September 2015
Maximum temperature 45.2 ° C ( Cordoba , ES, 6.7. )
affected areas North West Africa , South , Central and Eastern Europe

Unusual heat waves occurred in Europe from late June to mid-September 2015 . With locally over 40 ° C, the highest temperatures have been measured since the beginning of the weather records. The Maghreb Mediterranean coast, south-west , central and south-east Europe were particularly affected, with one of the greatest heats in recent decades.


Synoptic overview of the course

  • Initially, the cause of the heat wave was a classic omega weather situation . The high pressure area Annelie over Central Europe , flanked by low pressure areas on the Atlantic and over Eastern Europe , caused a massive influx of subtropical hot air masses from the Central Atlantic and Northwest Africa into southern Scandinavia in large parts of Europe . A heat wave followed, with a focus on western and central parts of Europe.
  • The second phase was marked by the Azores high , which was shifted to the Atlantic off the Iberian Peninsula and which expanded towards Central Europe towards the middle of July. Because of the more unstable stratification compared to the beginning of the month, this phase was more humid and thunderstormous . In the middle of July, the high pressure situation in the Mediterranean area combined with that of the Middle East and Central Siberia, which has produced an extreme heat wave of up to 50 degrees there since mid-June.
  • A recent Eastern European high Finchen with wide-ranging Omega characteristics between the Atlantic and Siberia dominated the third phase from the end of July. This concentrated the heat on the eastern parts of Europe, while the west was more unstable. This extreme heat came to an end in the third week of August.
  • Then with the highs Isabel / Jessica over Central Europe towards the end of August it was again hot in summer, this fourth phase continued into the first days of September.
  • Another very northerly omegalage of the Lajana high brought more heat to southeastern Europe in mid-September.

In the peripheral zones as well as during the respective weather changes, violent storms accompanied the heat.

Duration and maximum temperatures by country (selection)
country Duration T max (° C) Date, place since
SpainSpain Spain June 26th - July 16th, July 21st - Aug 1st, April 4th - 6th Aug. 17-21 Aug. 25-30 Aug 45.2 July 6th Cordoba (AN) 2012 (45.9 ° C)
FranceFrance France June 30th - July 7th, November 11th - 18th July 5-13 Aug. 20-22 Aug., 26. – 30. Aug 41.4 July 16 Brive-la-Gaillarde (19) 2003 (44.1 ° C)
GermanyGermany Germany 1-7 July 17-21 July 4-14 Aug, 22 Aug - 1 Sep 40.3 July 5 and August 7, Kitzingen (BY) BdW (40.2 ° C 2003 )
SwitzerlandSwitzerland Switzerland 1-7 July 11-25 July 4th - 13th Aug. 27–31 Aug 39.7 July 7th Geneva GE 2003 (41.5 ° C)
ItalyItaly Italy 7th-9th July 11-25 July 7-13 Aug., Aug. 24 - Sep. 6, Nov. 16-19 Sep > 40 7. div. 2012 (44.7 ° C)
AustriaAustria Austria 3rd-7th July, {15-25. July 4-15, Aug 24 - Sep 2, 16-17 Sep 38.3 July 19 Krems and Langenlebarn (Lower Austria) 2013 (40.5 ° C)
HungaryHungary Hungary 4th-7th July 16-26 July 3-16 Aug., Aug. 26 - Sep. 5, Aug. 14-19 Sep 39.3 July 8th Budakalász ( PE) 2013 (40.6 ° C)
SerbiaSerbia Serbia 4-8 July 15-30. July 10-14 Aug., Aug. 31 - Sep. 6, Aug. 14-22 Sep 38.4 July 19th Veliko Gradište 2013 (39.7 ° C)
Duration: orange / red heat warning levels in the meteo alarm system and information from the weather services; “Since” is the nationwide peak value; BdW  … start of the weather recordings / measurements

First phase June / July

Maximum temperature and temperature anomaly (deviation from long-term mean)
June 28–4. July: Intense initial phase of the first wave
NWS-NOAA Europe Extreme maximum temperature JUN 28 - JUL 04, 2015.png
purple> +40 ° C
NWS-NOAA Europe Temperature anomaly JUN 28 - JUL 04, 2015.png
crimson> +7 ° C
5th-11th July: expansion to the east
NWS-NOAA Europe Extreme maximum temperature JUL 5 - 11, 2015.png
dark red> +35 ° C
NWS-NOAA Europe Temperature anomaly JUL 5 - 11, 2015.png
red> +5 ° C

Around 23-26 June a high pressure bridge was built from the Azores high to the withdrawing Central Europe high Zoe , from which under the influence of a low over the British Isles (Quintus) the high Annelie formed around June 29, which then shifted over the Baltic Sea .

Even in the initial phase, Spain was particularly affected by the heat wave , where heat records had already set in at the end of June 2015 with temperatures of up to 43 ° C. Heat warnings have been in place nationwide since June 25, and at least the second warning level since the 28th. In Algeria and Morocco , too , the temperatures reached the coast repeatedly over 40 ° C. In contrast, Portugal was only affected for a short time.

In other parts of Western Europe, unusually high maximum values ​​of the air temperature were also measured. In France, numerous local record temperatures of just under 40 ° C were recorded, the temperatures on the Channel coast were up to 20 ° C above the long-term average for this time. At the weather station at London Heathrow Airport , a temperature of 36.7 ° C was measured on July 1, 2015, which exceeded the previous July record for Great Britain. In the Netherlands , Maastricht recorded 38.2 ° C on July 2nd, the hottest day in July and the third highest temperature ever recorded in the Netherlands.

The heat quickly spread to western Central Europe. All-time record temperatures were measured at many stations in Germany, which exceeded the values ​​from summer 2003 . In Karlsruhe on July 5, 2015 the Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research measured 40.8 ° C. The German Weather Service (DWD) stopped taking measurements at this location on November 1, 2008, so these values ​​are not considered official. The DWD measured 40.3 ° C in Kitzingen ; At this point in time, this was the highest temperature ever recorded in Germany since the beginning of comprehensive weather records in 1881, but the previous high of 40.2 ° C was only just exceeded. The Switzerland recorded the first-seventh July one of the most extreme heat weeks for 150 years, next to 2003 and 1947 .

300-hPa - high winds June 28 - July 4 (weekly average): Omega position , west lows Quintus / Siegfried , east superposition of two currents from the retreating high Annelie .

The strong southerly current also caused unusually high temperatures in northern Sweden ; in Forse in Ångermanland (southern Norrland) a new high of 32.8 ° C was recorded on July 2nd. Otherwise it was above 30 degrees in northern and southern Sweden until July 5th.

In the course of the beginning of July, the center of Annelie shifted to Poland and the heat wave also reached eastern Central Europe with highs of 35 degrees in Slovenia , Austria , Hungary , the Czech Republic , Slovakia and Poland . The all-time record temperatures of the heat wave of 2013 were not reached here.

From the west, on the incoming cold front of the next low Siegfried over the British Isles, sometimes violent thunderstorms began. Tennis ball-sized hail fell in the South Westphalia area . However, the thunderstorms did not bring any significant cooling. As a result of the front, the European sub-core of the high-pressure complex was named Bigi .

As of July 7, the heat increased over eastern Central Europe , in Italy and in the Balkans , because a strong cold front from the subsequent North Sea Depression Thompson , which ended the heat wave, pushed the hot air masses of West Central Europe forward. Record values ​​have now been measured from the Swiss Central Plateau to the Pannonian Plain . With 39.7 ° C , Geneva recorded the highest value ever recorded for the north side of the Alps . Innsbruck registered a new maximum temperature of 38.2 ° C on July 7th, Lugano on July 7th (25.4 ° C) and Vienna on July 8th (26.9 ° C) the warmest night since measurements began. After that, Seibersdorf recorded the highest morning temperature ever recorded in Austria at 30.4 ° C (8 a.m.). In Hungary, on both days, with values ​​of up to 39 degrees, the local 60-year-old record values ​​of the summer of 1957 were exceeded (39.3 ° C Budakalász , Pest). Towards the Black Sea and Aegean Sea , the wave remained comparatively short for only one to two days with temperatures of almost 40 ° C ( Bucharest , July 9th), but severe weather warnings were also given here.

The cold front moving across the Alps caused severe storms in central and southern Germany , western and southern Austria , northern Italy and the Hungarian lowlands . In Tyrol ( Innsbruck 141 km / h), Carinthia and also central Hungary , where the greatest heat last prevailed ( Aszód , PE, 131 km / h), the wind peaks reached hurricane strength and led to windthrow, traffic obstructions and power outages. From the Saxony-Anhalt area as well as Villach - Gailtal , hailstones the size of golf balls were reported, which led to extensive roof damage in the region. The Styria recorded downpour to 65 liters in a few minutes. Between Dolo and Mira , near Venice set up a tornado of Stage 3 / EF4 havoc. A reported tornado in Framersheim (Rhineland-Palatinate) could also have been a downburst .

Second phase in mid-July

Maximum temperature and temperature anomaly (deviation from long-term mean)
12-18 July: start of the second wave
NWS-NOAA Europe Extreme maximum temperature JUL 12 - 18, 2015.png
purple> +40 ° C
NWS-NOAA Europe Temperature anomaly JUL 12 - 18, 2015.png
red> +5 ° C
19.-25. July: shift to the east
NWS-NOAA Europe Extreme maximum temperature JUL 19 - 25, 2015.png
dark red> +35 ° C
NWS-NOAA Europe Temperature anomaly JUL 19 - 25, 2015.png
crimson> +7 ° C

After this front, the heat retreated to the Mediterranean , and in Spain the heat wave entered the third week. There on July 6th with up to 45 degrees on the lower Guadalquivir up to the interior of the province of Valencia ( Córdoba - Observatorio Andalusia , 45.2 ° C) and on July 7th ( Zaragoza - Aeropuerto , Aragon , 44.5 ° C, Murcia , Murcia , 43 ° C) reached the highest readings in numerous places since weather records began in the 1920s. In terms of the combination of temperature, duration and extent, it already exceeded the extent of the heat waves in 2012 and 1991 at the beginning of July and in 2003 it became the second worst heat wave since 1975 . With high Clara and the lows Thompson and Ulrich , normal summer weather set in over Central Europe, which with cold fronts brought a short-term slight relief for Spain. At the edge of the Alps, these again led to severe thunderstorms in the province of Salzburg .

Weather situation July 14th: Flat Azores foothills to the Balkans, low pressure channel Xaver – Waldemar over northern Europe

From July 11th, temperatures in central and southern Spain were again widespread against the 40-degree mark. As a result, the high - this core, named Dietlinde , the following high cores remained unnamed - again against Central Europe and then Eastern Europe. The temperature there also quickly rose above 35 degrees. While the heat wave in Spain relaxed on July 16 with the arrival of a cold front (temperatures now up to a maximum of just over 35 degrees), the Scirocco set in in the Maghreb (Tunisia up to 41 ° C). France recorded a new national peak value of this heat wave with over 41 degrees (41.4 ° C in Brive-la-Gaillarde , Corrèze). A record value was also measured in the high mountain regions of the Alps (for example +6.7 ° C on the Capanna Margherita , Piedmont, at 4560  m ).

This time Italy was affected more extensively with several times over 40 ° C in Emilia , Apulia , Calabria and record night temperatures (Turin 27.1 ° C 16/17 July). Slovenia recorded these days up to 38 degrees. In Hungary up to 37 ° C and in the Balkans , the highest heat warning level prevailed in parts of the country, for example in Croatia , where 40.0 ° C was measured in Split-Kaštela in Dalmatia on July 18 , in Bosnia-Herzegovina , in Montenegro with 38.2 ° C in Podgorica on July 17th, as well as in Serbia with temperatures up to 38 ° C and in some areas in Romania with up to 39 ° C.

At that time, mighty low pressure gutters dominated the weather over northern Europe, which developed in the deep series Waldemar - Xaver - Yakari with slow train tracks from the British Isles to the Baltic States and controlled fault fronts over Central Europe. There were severe heat thunderstorms from Spain to the Baltic States, for example larger areas in Germany, Austria and Poland. In a local gust storm near Strasbourg , a scout meeting with 15,000 visitors had to be evacuated. A driving rain in the Neuchâtel Jura ( La Frétaz 31 mm / 10 min) reached proportions that only a few times were measured at all in Switzerland. On July 17, Innsbruck airport measured gusts of 115 km / h and Altenrhein airport 109 km / h, on July 19 Poznań in Poland 101 km / h, on July 20 Prievidza in Slovakia 112 km / h. Four hail fronts in just five hours devastated the Styrian communities of Pusterwald and Pölstal on July 19 .

Weather conditions 28./29. July: Azores high complex shifted to the north and low Andreas over Denmark, cold air westerly winds north of the Alps, warm air westerly wind belt south of the Alps (pressures above sea level / SLP bluish, 500 hPa level yellowish - corresponds to the high winds)

A new front was laid on the Alps and Carpathians from July 21 to 23, and it followed on July 24th and 25th. and on 26./27. July two - unusual for this time of year - Atlantic storm lows. These were called Zeljko and Andreas . This ended the heat with temperature drops of up to 15 degrees in a few hours in north-western Europe. She pushed the warm air in front of her again. In the Czech Republic, the hottest day of the year so far was recorded on the 22nd with 39.2 ° C in Husinec u Řeže not far from Prague. The 38.2 ° C measured in Dudince in central Slovakia in Slovakia was only 0.1 ° below the highest temperature ever recorded (Vysoká nad Uhom, 2007). Austria recorded values ​​of 37.9 ° C in Langenlebarn and Bad Deutsch-Altenburg as they did at the beginning of July.

In the high pressure influence south and east of the Pyrenees and Alps, the temperatures remained extreme, especially in Andalusia (up to over 38 degrees) and the Hungarian-Serbian-Romanian lowlands (several times 39.0 ° C in southern Hungary). The southern side of the Swiss Alps had the highest heat warning level until July 24th. In south-eastern Central Europe, the nights were particularly warm due to the cloud cover, in Tata (Komárom-Esztergom) a new all-time record of a tropical night was recorded on July 25 with a minimum of 25.2 ° C at dawn (before 24.0 ° C 1988), the daytime temperatures were around 35 ° C.

These cold fronts were again accompanied by severe storms from southern France to northern Russia and the Carpathian region . In the Blenio Valley in Ticino, on July 21, driving rain of 70 mm reached within an hour an intensity that has only been recorded a few times in Switzerland. After thunderstorms there was a heavy mudslide in the Rauris Valley in Salzburg on July 23rd , plus flash floods on July 24th in Lavanttal , Carinthia. Storm Zjelko on July 25th was the worst summer storm ever recorded in the Netherlands. Severe storms took place in Russia on July 26th and 27th, north-west of Moscow rain fell up to 50 mm during the night, in the city itself a 130-year record for this day was exceeded with 39.9 mm (39.1 mm 1883 ). This time, for example, hail projectiles the size of a golf ball were reported from Horb am Neckar (July 22nd) and the Bryansk Oblast (July 27th). A small tornado was sighted near Püspökladány in Hungary (July 26th).

Third phase at the end of July / August

Maximum temperature and temperature anomaly (deviation from long-term mean)
July 26–1. August: Heat in Southeast Europe
NWS-NOAA Europe Extreme maximum temperature JUL 26 - AUG 01, 2015.png
purple> +40 ° C
NWS-NOAA Europe Temperature anomaly JUL 26 - AUG 01, 2015.png
light red> +3 ° C
2nd-8th August: Third wave of north-eastern Central Europe
NWS-NOAA Europe Extreme maximum temperature AUG 02-08, 2015.png
dark red> +35 ° C
NWS-NOAA Europe Temperature anomaly AUG 02-08, 2015.png
red> +5 ° C
9-15 August: intensification in the east
NWS-NOAA Europe Extreme maximum temperature AUG 09 - 15, 2015.png
dark red> +35 ° C
NWS-NOAA Europe Temperature anomaly AUG 09 - 15, 2015.png
crimson> +7 ° C

On July 26th, the heat largely withdrew to the Mediterranean, but at the same time merged with the Central Asian heat, the Hoch Eva u. a. caused over Russia. In addition to southern Spain and the entire Mediterranean coast from Morocco to Syria, the Ukraine again reported temperatures well above 35 degrees, in Greece (41 ° C in Larisa , July 29th), western Turkey, Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria the measurements exceeded 40 again Degree limit, while the heat in Eastern Europe retreated to southern Russia. At that time, the temperatures gradually increased from a good 38 degrees in the eastern Mediterranean to almost 50 degrees in the Mesopotamian and on the Arabian Peninsula , e.g. For example, temperatures of up to 49 ° C were measured in Baghdad for several days. In the Maghreb , heavy Scirocco started again with 41 ° C on July 28th in southern Spain and Algiers and then with 42 ° C on July 30th in Tunis .

Around July 31st, Central Europe was under the high pressure of the Finchen high pressure , while a small Mediterranean – Alps – intermediate low led to some cooling in Spain and severe storms in Tuscany , especially in Florence . As a result, normal summer weather set in in the Mediterranean area with temperatures around 35 ° C.

The high stabilized over Eastern Europe. A new, powerful and a few days stationary deep complex over the British Isles to Northern Scandinavia, called Bonimir - Christian , again led subtropical warm air to Central Europe with its fronts, this time as a high-pressure wedge primarily to the east around the Alpine region. On August 3rd, temperatures rose beyond the Pannonian region to over 35 ° C in Poland, in eastern Germany and in the Baltic States. After a disturbance had passed through, the tropical air flowed in from the front on August 6, also west of the Alps.

In Vallon-Pont-d'Arc in Ardèche , 40.6 ° C was recorded on August 6 and 40.9 ° C the following day. On August 7th, Germany's record temperature of 40.3 ° C from the beginning of July was measured again in Kitzingen in Franconia . The Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research in Karlsruhe measured a new high of 41.2 ° C that day.

In Hungary , Poland and eastern Austria , partly also in eastern Germany, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia and northern Serbia, the highest heat warning level prevailed for up to 10 days continuously, in Hungary throughout the country. In the Czech Republic, the Czech weather service ČHMÚ measured the hottest days of the year to date with 39.3 ° C in Řež near Prague on August 7 and then with 39.8 ° C in Řež and Dobřichovice on August 8. Berlin- Kaniswall on August 7th and Wrocław in Poland on August 8th both recorded a new record for the measuring point with 38.9 ° C, as did Minsk in Belarus with 35.8 ° C (124 years of measurements).

Weather situation August 8th: Front across Europe ( Bonimir / Christian on the Polar Sea), coming low in front of Iceland, Azores
high foothills in front of the Biscay, Finchen over Ukraine, low Detlef forming over southern France

Detlef, the smaller high altitude core of the retreating low Christian , which moved south-east from the Alps via Italy, ended the heat in south-western Europe, but increased the influx of warm air over the Eastern Alps. Gwendolin stabilized as the new high in Eastern Europe . Tarifa in Cádiz, Spain, recorded a new record temperature of 35.4 ° C and then, for example, Morón de la Frontera (Seville) with a nightly minimum temperature of 26.6 ° C on the night of August 9, but also downtown Vienna with 26, 9 ° C in the night of August 10, new tropical night records. Topoľčany in Slovakia measured 38.2 ° C on 10th. The Detlef deep became a Mediterranean deep with an unusually strong southern trajectory of the Va – Vd characteristic and disintegrated over Malta.

Heavy local thunderstorms occurred again in front of the fronts. There were major landslides on August 5th in San Vito di Cadore near Cortina d'Ampezzo, and in the Carinthian Gail and Drautal valleys . In Jósvafő in northeastern Hungary, 50 mm of rain fell in 20 minutes, in Budapest hail up to 2.5 cm in diameter was reported. Heavy storms with floods and mudslides occurred on the 8th in the Sarganserland ( Weisstannental ), Tyrol ( Stubaital , Sellraintal ) and Salzburg ( Mittersill , Kleinarltal , Riedingtal ), on the 10th in Vorarlberg ( Gamperdonatal ). There were heavy thunderstorms on this day in the Stuttgart area as well as in Saarland , Rhineland-Palatinate and North Rhine-Westphalia . The high trough over Italy then caused severe storms on August 10th and 11th with storms and floods in Italy, especially in Campania , but also in Umbria and Tuscany . In Marina di Carrara there was another tornado, in Andria a severe hailstorm, in Rossano Calabro an enormous 230 mm of precipitation fell in 5 hours, 350 mm during the day.

Northern Hemisphere August 13 ( 500 hPa anomalies )

As a result, the weather situation changed: the Azores high extended to Newfoundland, the approaching Atlantic low did not move northwards beyond Iceland, over Eastern Europe and the Black Sea region unstable low pressure situations formed on the retreating high, and a high pressure bridge was built over Scandinavia (Hildegard– Isabell) to the Arctic Ocean. A new low (Eberhard) formed over the Bay of Biscay , which merged with the Iceland low . These fronts reaching as far as the Mediterranean region (local low Florian von der Biskaya over the Alps) initially directed the warm air to northern France with unusual south-eastern warm currents, but then brought - very slowly - gradually more massive cooling in Central Europe. At the same time, there was a northeastern cold air ingress via northern Russia to Poland, with cooling for Eastern Europe.

The hot air masses were again pushed together in the Pannonian-Carpathian region, with 37.8 ° C in Budapest- Újpest on August 13 and 26.1 ° C in Lágymányos , the hottest day and the warmest night ever recorded in the Budapest city area (previously 37.4 ° C in 1946 and 25.0 ° C in 1952). Temperatures rose similarly high in the neighboring areas of Slovakia and Serbia, in Moravia 35 stations (out of a total of 161 nationwide) measured a hot day on the 14th that had not been the case for 20 to 50 years, including Lučina 36.9 ° C.

The temperature fell in parallel across Central Europe by up to 20 ° C in a few days, for example in Montélimar in France with thunderstorms from 37 ° C on August 13th to 20 ° C on August 14th. or in Prague from 35.2 ° C on August 14th to 14.6 ° C on August 18th. The front also led to severe storms across Germany, some of which lingered for a long time, with storms, hail and floods, including 5–10 annual rain in the greater Stuttgart area . A foehn storm with up to 100 km / h set in over the western Alps on August 13th , on the 14th the pressure difference between the western and eastern halves of Switzerland was 8 hPa. The fronts also spread to the Adriatic region, especially with storms in Italy in Bologna or Rome , and in Croatia in Istria and on Kvarner on August 15th. In space Wielkopolska and Lower Silesia intense storms occurred on 15 August. Then, in a relatively narrow band from the northern Balkans to the German North Sea coast, intensive rains set in, in Budapest on August 17 with 80 mm in just one hour and 139 mm in 51 hours, that is twice the average amount in August, or 90 .2 mm on the same day in Hurbanovo , the highest daily amount recorded there since measurements began in 1876 and also almost twice the monthly amount. Also in a strip from Saxony to North Rhine-Westphalia fell in Germany up to 150 mm 16-19. August and caused severe thunderstorms to flood because of the parched soil. A small low altitude above the upper Adriatic continued to lead to intense rain in northern Italy and the Western Balkans.

Fourth phase in late August / early September

Maximum temperature and temperature anomaly (deviation from long-term mean)
16.-22. August: Normal heat in south-western and eastern Europe, abnormal heat in Scandinavia and north-eastern central Europe
NWS-NOAA Europe Extreme maximum temperature AUG 16 - 22, 2015.png
dark red> +35 ° C
NWS-NOAA Europe Temperature anomaly AUG 16 - 22, 2015.png
pale red> +3 ° C
23-29 August: Heat and warmth in almost all of Europe
NWS-NOAA Europe Extreme maximum temperature AUG 23 - 29, 2015.png
crimson> +30 ° C
NWS-NOAA Europe Temperature anomaly AUG 23 - 29, 2015.png
light red> +5 ° C
August 30th - September 5th: heat wave in eastern Europe
NWS-NOAA Europe Extreme maximum temperature AUG 30 - SEP 05, 2015.png
dark red> +35 ° C
NWS-NOAA Europe Temperature anomaly AUG 30 - SEP 05, 2015.png
crimson> +7 ° C
6-12 September: End of the heat wave around the Aegean Sea
NWS-NOAA Europe Extreme maximum temperature SEP 06 - 12, 2015.png
purple> +40 ° C
NWS-NOAA Europe Temperature anomaly SEP 06 - 12, 2015.png
Shades of blue below average

The stable high (Isabell) continued over Scandinavia , with midsummer temperatures as far as Norway , where the summer had been largely rainy so far. Frosta in North Trøndelag (Central Norway) measured on August 19 with 28.8 ° C temperatures like Rome at the time. The cold snap did not reach areas such as Pomerania and Western Pomerania .

Then there was a southerly current in front of the mighty Icelandic low of the previous days, with over 35 degrees in Portugal and Spain from August 17th, up to 33 degrees in the hair dryer locations in southwestern France and up to 30 degrees in southeast England on August 22nd.

Weather situation August 24th: lows Gerald (near Ireland), Hans (English Channel), Immanuel (Atlantic); High pressure bridge from Africa to Isabell over northern Russia.

A recent Biscaya – North Sea – Scandinavia deep complex (Gerald – Hans – Immanuel) with a connected Mediterranean low brought heavy rainfall on the western and southern edge of the Alps and floods and mudslides in the Hérault ( Soumont 210 mm / 24 h) and on the Côte d'Azur . In south-east France, the situation escalated, particularly in Montpellier . In the Alps, foehn-like storm fields reached 120 km / h on the Gütsch or the Patscherkofel .

Behind these lows, a stable bridge developed again from the Azores high to the Isabell high, which had meanwhile migrated to Eastern Europe, and was given the name Jessica . Another heat wave reached Central Europe with a south-westerly high-altitude current and subtropical air, while a low-pressure channel as an air mass boundary stretched from the central North Atlantic via northern Germany to the Black Sea.

In southern Italy up to 35 degrees were measured from August 24th, and up to 38 degrees in inland Spain from August 25th. Then the heat expanded again to the Baltic States and the Black Sea (High Karma , then Jessica there) and reunited with the Middle East heat. Up to Latvia , over 30 degrees were measured and over 35 degrees again in several areas of the Balkans , in Romania , southern Ukraine and the Krasnodar - Caucasus region of southern Russia.

It was not until August 30 that the fault zone controlled by the Scandinavian lows Hans / Immanuel , which had previously been located in a west-east direction over Central Europe, began to cool from the Iberian Peninsula, which slowly ended this last heat wave of the meteorological summer. The sustained south-westerly current shifted the warm air to eastern Europe. Before the cold front, on September 1st, from the Baltic Sea to the Pannonian Plain, the hottest September day ever recorded was recorded in many places, locally even new all-time highs, for example 33.3 ° C in Görlitz in Saxony (one degree above the previous peak value from 1947 ). With foehn winds, the temperature from the Austrian foothills of the Alps to the Weinviertel exceeded 35 degrees, the highest value was measured in Pottschach on the edge of the Alps at 36.0 ° C. In the Czech Republic, Vráž in South Bohemia reported 36.5 ° C on August 31, and Javorník in Silesia the next day 37.4 ° C (well above the previous highest September value of 32.2 ° C on September 6, 2008). In Michalovce in the eastern Slovak lowlands the temperature was 36.4 ° C. Dombegyház on the Hungarian-Serbian border also set a national September record of 36.9 ° C. Temperatures above 35 degrees and higher warning levels prevailed in southeastern Serbia and Macedonia until September 5. The next day, the heat wave on the front of the low pressure gully around Athens penetrating south across the Balkans reached around 40 degrees for several days.

A smaller deep complex Jonas / Kalle over the North Sea , Baltic Sea and then the Baltic States , which had formed from the previous fault zone, produced violent thunderstorms with widespread severe thunderstorms, storms, hail and floods, especially at the air mass limit in the Mediterranean area, for over a week. The temperatures fell again in a short time by 15 to 20 degrees. August 31st to September 1st an extensive storm cell formed over southwest France , with gale-force gusts (152.6 km / h, Le Montat in the Lot , the highest wind peak ever measured there), from northern Europe only isolated local severe storms were reported , for example in the district of Aurich in East Frisia and Saxony . In Emmerich am Rhein , crows were struck by a very sudden hail, a rare phenomenon. Then there were heavy hailstorms in the Tyrolean Inn Valley on September 3rd. From September 3rd to 4th, a storm cell fell more than a month's average of rain in southern Spain and the Balearic Islands . They then moved with heavy rain over Provence and northern Italy , there was hail up to the size of a chicken egg on September 5th in Naples . Another larger thunderstorm area (mesoscale convective system) brought driving rain up to 100 mm / 3 h on September 8th in Calatabiano (Sicily), 90 mm / 24 h on Kerkyra (Corfu , Ionian Islands) and then heavier precipitation in Serbia .

Fifth phase in mid-September

Maximum temperature and temperature anomaly (deviation from long-term mean)
13-19 September: Abnormal heat in the Balkans and Eastern Central Europe.
NWS-NOAA Europe Extreme maximum temperature SEP 13 - 19, 2015.png
dark red> +35 ° C
NWS-NOAA Europe Temperature anomaly SEP 13 - 19, 2015.png
deep red> +9 ° C
20.-26. September: Abnormal heat in Russian Eastern Europe and the Black Sea region.
NWS-NOAA Europe Extreme maximum temperature SEP 20 - 26, 2015.png
crimson> +30 ° C
NWS-NOAA Europe Temperature anomaly SEP 20 - 26, 2015.png
crimson> +7 ° C

The highs Lajana and Maybrit , which had already formed in the third week of August and mid-September near Newfoundland and Greenland from the Azores high , slowly moved over the British Isles and Scandinavia to northern Russia in the course of mid and late September, only with autumn warmth connected. From there, a high-pressure bridge was built between the Mediterranean lows into the North African region, which again led to occasional summer temperatures from Switzerland to Eastern Europe with strong foehn winds from September 9th.

Temperature anomaly in the Russian area, 20. – 26. September

From September 14th, the temperatures in the foothills of the Alps , in Eastern Austria , the Carpathian Basin and then the Eastern European Plain rose gradually over 30 degrees. The Alpenföhn reached on 16 September hurricane force so on Gütsch km 172 / h (17.9.) In Weissbad  AI (Ebenalp) 135 km / h (16.9.), The Patscherkofel  (Tir.) 156 km / h (16.09.) , in the valleys 119 km / h in Brülisau  AI (16.9.), 136 km / h in Innsbruck-Olympisches Dorf  (16.9.) and still up to 100 km / h in Vienna  (18.9.), with widespread storm damage. In Austria, Gumpoldskirchen recorded a new record of 35.5 ° C on the 17th half of September; over 30 degrees were only recorded this late in the year in the entire history of measurements (in Vienna 1947 , 2003 , 1961 and 1867 ). In the central Balkans and later on the lower Danube , the heat then reached well over 35 degrees. So reasonably Szeged 36.4 ° C on 17 and Körösszakálon 37.2 ° C on 18 September each new national record. In the southern and eastern Carpathians the temperatures were up to 10 ° C above the normal weekly mean of these days, in some places the highest values ​​of this year were measured, on the Italian lower Adriatic ( Abruzzo , Molise and Puglia ) on September 17th even above 40 degrees, there also the highest September temperatures ever recorded. The warmth reached the Baltic States and Scandinavia again . The heat lasted in the Carpathian Basin until September 19 and then withdrew with Hoch Lajana into the Aegean – Black Sea area. Around September 25, it reached the Moscow area and the White Sea area with high Maybrit and large southern currents and stayed in the Russian Black Sea and Volga area until the beginning of October .

In front of the advancing fronts of a deep Atlantic complex - Leo , Michael and ex-Henri , a tropical storm in the Central Atlantic - there were 11-13. September in southern France ( Épisode méditerranéen ) massive precipitation, with 256 mm / 24 h in Valleraugue ( Gard ), 242 mm / 6 h in Grospierres ( Ardèche ) and over 110 km / h storm in Nice . The following front, which pushed the heat away from south-east Europe, brought storms on September 16 from Portugal via northern Spain, central France (135 km / h in Saint-Dizier , Champagne-Ardenne and Clamecy , Burgundy), south-east England, western Germany to southern Sweden. Another Adriatic low (Patrik) led on 21./22. September led to heavy precipitation and tornadoes in the Aegean region.

This was followed by another stable European high, Netti , in Central Europe only associated with autumn temperatures, but again up to over 30 degrees in Portugal and southern Spain.

Climatological relationships

CPC-NCEP-NOAA 500-hPa Hight Anomalies 06APR2015-05JUL2015 .gif
500-hPa altitude anomalies in the longitude-time diagram , April to June (45 ° N – 60 ° N, 5-day moving average; red: highs, blue: lows): Partly regular westerly wind drift, blockades in May, June, July around 180 ° (Pacific, center) and around 0 ° −100 ° (Atlantic / Europe both edges of the picture and Central Asia)

A special feature of this heat wave is the preceding series of large and difficult to predict temperature fluctuations in Europe in the course of spring. At the beginning of May, a heat wave had reached temperatures of almost 45 degrees in Spain (44.4 ° C in Carcaixent , South Valencia) and claimed human lives, in Central Europe it reached 30 degrees. This heat wave ended with violent storms. After that, there was again continuous rain, sub-zero temperatures and snowfall down to the lowlands in the alpine region with strong ice men . In some areas this month was the gloomiest May in the last 25 years. June brought another hot period with up to 35 degrees in Central Europe and again severe thunderstorms. The subsequent cold of the sheep in the second half of June - surprisingly according to the medium-term forecasts - with an ingress of polar cold air again led to temperatures well below 10 degrees (0.3 ° C in Obertauern , 1772 m, on June 24th). It was the warmest global May and June that have been recorded since the beginning of worldwide coherent and consistent weather records in the 1880s.

Location of the action centers , July 4, 2015 ( 200-hPa altitude anomalies ): Worldwide heat and cold events

At the same time there was also the eastern edge of the European heat wave, in the area of Central Siberia - Caspian Sea (47.2 ° C, Ashgabat in Turkmenistan, June 30) to Pakistan (49 ° C in June) and then in Siberia and in the north of the People's Republic of China ( up to 40 ° C in mid-July) and to the Middle East (52.5 ° C in Mitribah , Kuwait , July 17; Mahschahr , Iran, 46 ° C, August 1) and in Northeast Africa (46 ° C in southern Egypt in mid-August) abnormal heat, with severe forest fires in Siberia in the area of Lake Baikal . Also in North America ( northwest ; several times 45 ° C, June 28), where after years of drought there was also one of the most intense forest fire years in recent history, in Mexico (up to 40 degrees at the end of August) and in Japan (38.5 ° C in Jōetsu Takada, July 13th) there were heat waves at the same time. Colombia (42.2 ° C, Urumitia , July 1) and Thailand (41.1 ° C, Kamalasai , July 1) also reported the hottest July day since the start of the recording . In Africa July was the second hottest (after 2002) and in South America the fifth hottest in measurement history. On the other hand , New Zealand and Australia recorded unusual cold in the southern winter there in mid-July (snowfall in the Blue Mountains as not for 20 years). Overall, both July and August - like the two previous months - were the hottest ever worldwide, August in particular in Europe, Africa and South America.

From May there was an extensive blockade situation throughout the northern hemisphere , which was particularly pronounced over the Pacific and led to an abnormal course of the jet stream , westerly wind drifts as well as fixed highs and heat waves on four continents. Contrary to the prognoses, the indices of the North Atlantic and Arctic Oscillation fell sharply, a sign of polar cold air flowing in towards Europe due to a too weak Azores high; but this did not reach the continent due to the blockade, but remained over the central Atlantic. The last such regularly occurring hemispheric blockade situation led to a major cold spell in North America , a winter heat in Siberia, and storm surges and floods in Europe in the winter of 2014 .

500 hPa anomalies in the northern hemisphere July 14: disintegration of the polar low into several nuclei and abnormal high reaching high at the North Pole; a largely global belt of heat along the middle and low latitudes (expanded Hadley cell )

From the second decade of July, a mighty polar high determined the weather for Europe. As a result, the tropical Hadley cell expanded to medium latitudes. At the same time, the West African monsoon system (Guinea monsoon) intensified . This steered tropical air masses across the Sahara to the Mediterranean. As a result, the center of the heat shifted from the western to the central and then the eastern Mediterraneum.

At the beginning of August a heavily blocked omegalage set in again between the Atlantic lows and a cold air drop-like low over Siberia, with the warm air advancing over the White Sea to the North Pole ; there the 850 hPa temperatures were above 0 ° on August 7, for example, and thus at the level of Ireland or that of the West Siberian lowlands east of the Urals . The Azores high, however, had shifted into the western Atlantic to about 35 ° north latitude, this corresponds to the height of North Carolina − Gibraltar. The jet stream was subsequently displaced to more northerly latitudes of 40–60 ° up to the level of Newfoundland – Biscay – Northern Scandinavia. On August 6th, an abnormally strong Sahara dust outburst towards South America was observed.

The end phase was marked by blocked North Atlantic highs, with the jet stream still shifting extremely far north.

Sea temperature around July 8, 2015 (anomaly of the week): In addition to the Pacific, there is also overheating of the Mediterranean and Caspian Seas

The overall weather situation is seen as a symptom of the ongoing El Niño event, which has been active since April, increased into autumn and only turned into a La Niña event in May 2015. A connection between the intensity of the heat event and global warming is considered the state of research. Due to the El Niño influence and the high characteristics of the Azores, the Atlantic hurricane season was largely canceled, it was one of the weakest for many years. The Pacific typhoons, on the other hand, are more frequent than average.

The course of the heat wave in July could be predicted well in the medium term (10–14 days) with the European IFS model of the ECMWF / ECMWF , while the CFS / GFS model of the American NOAA-NCEP showed poor results. The medium- term climatology, even in the ensemble, is outside of what was expected, and long-term forecasts from spring - for example with regard to the hurricanes - have been corrected several times.

In addition to numerous local daily values ​​that occurred across Europe, which were the highest since the beginning of the respective records, - already foreseeable in the middle of July - for example in Spain, Austria, Switzerland and northern Italy, July 2015 became the hottest July and one of the hottest of all months at all, including the August months. In eastern Germany, for example in Berlin and Dresden , August 2015 was the hottest August in 208 years, with 13 to 14 hot days (locally up to 17 in southeast Brandenburg), the old hot day records from August 1944 were also surpassed. August 2015 was very similar to July 2006 , which even brought up to 21 hot days in Lusatia . Midsummer in Berlin as a whole (July and August 2015) was - albeit just barely - the warmest since 1834 before midsummer 1994. However, the three-month interval from June to August ( meteorological summer ) was only the third highest in Europe since 2012, after 2003 and 2010. The low rainfall is also abnormal. This means that we can speak of an event of the century on a larger scale .


Heat-related excess mortality has been found in several countries across Europe . The worst hit were Spain and Switzerland, but also Italy, France, Belgium and Greece. Direct heat victims were only reported sporadically, but there were numerous fatal swimming accidents, especially in Eastern Central Europe and the Baltic States . Special emergency plans for health problems caused by excessive, prolonged heat have been activated in Spain, the Netherlands and France, among others.

The storms and thunderstorms associated with the heat wave caused damage amounting to billions (150 million euros alone on July 8 in Carinthia, one of the worst thunderstorm / hail damage events in the region). They called in Italy (July 8, August 5, August 10), Hungary (July 8), Austria (July 9, July 21), Poland (July 19), the Netherlands (July 26 ), The Czech Republic (July 26) and France (August 23, September 16) human lives.

The heat wave also exacerbated the humanitarian grievances in the refugee problem at the time . It hit North Africa as well as the crisis area in the Middle East, where droughts and the Syria / IS conflict caused millions of people to flee, and the temperatures there of over 50 degrees caused life-threatening conditions. The South and East Central European countries, which are the typical first asylum states, were also affected. Their reception camps were completely overcrowded: Well over 200,000 refugees have come to Greece since spring, and around 100,000 to Italy across the Mediterranean. From July onwards, there was an uncontrolled migration to Central Europe, especially the situation on the Balkan route via Greece - exacerbated by the economic crisis there - escalated, from several hundreds at the beginning of summer, the daily transit numbers rose to several thousands at the beginning of autumn. At numerous borders, including within the EU, border controls had to be resumed, sometimes even with the support of the military. Hungary put up a border fence with Serbia during the summer . Macedonia declared a state of emergency in late August. Even in Austria and Germany, which was the destination of the majority of these refugees, the situation was chaotic in some places.

In the entire Mediterranean area, but also in more moderate Europe, the drought became an increasing problem, especially in those areas where the annual rainfall has been far below the average due to the heat waves in spring, for example in Portugal and Spain, in almost all of France, in the middle Germany, Northern Italy, Eastern Austria or the Ukraine and Belarus, but also in Ireland, which was not affected by the heat.

Across Europe, crop failures also reached billions. The Austrian hail insurance company estimated the total agricultural damage from heat to be 170 million euros and a further 40 million euros from storms. Viticulture is an exception , the heat widespread expectation of a fully ripe harvest and a great vintage of reserve wines . But here too there were more severe hail losses, the Chablis in Burgundy was particularly affected shortly before the harvest.

Many streams recorded historical low water, here for example the Upper Rhine in Rheinhessen between Nierstein and Nackenheim in mid-August 2015

With the drought, the river levels also fell, the Elbe, for example, had a 50-year low water level , and shipping obstacles also increased on the Rhine and Danube , but there were more moderate due to the intermittent thunderstorms in the catchment area. The Po ran extremely low water in July.

A special feature of the weather event was the overheating of the Mediterranean . In mid-July, the surface water temperatures in the Tyrrhenian Sea off southern Italy were already extensively at 30 ° C and in a third of the entire sea surface from Gibraltar to the Levant over 28 ° C, peak values ​​in individual bays reached 34 ° C. (In 2003 32 ° C were measured in places off the Balearic Islands in August). At the end of July there was a fish death in the Tyrrhenian Sea off Tuscany. However, feared severe storms for autumn due to the stored energy did not materialize. Overheating also became a problem in continental waters, with Lake Constance at over 26 ° C as warm as never before.

Algal bloom in the North Sea July 1st; there had already been one at the beginning of June.

Forest fires broke out in Europe , including a forest fire near the Chernobyl nuclear power plant that exploded in 1986 . Ukrainian and Russian authorities said that no increased radioactivity was detected. In the first half of July there were some forest and wildfires in southwest Germany. The situation in the Mediterranean area remained under control towards the end of July, for example in Greece, which has not been abnormally affected by the heat so far, with numerous bushfires, one just outside Athens , as well as in Italy and in the eastern Adriatic region in Croatia, Albania and Macedonia. Serious fires raged in Portugal and Spain in mid-August. Fears of extensive forest damage from the general heat and drought did not materialize, however, the windthrow from Storm Niklas at the end of March and others during the summer remained the main damage event of the year, remained the main reason for the high forest damage in the region, while the bark beetle infestation remained at a low level (2003, for example there had been severe beetle damage after winter storm Uschi and summer heat ).

In Germany, there was heat damage to the roadway on various autobahns at the beginning of July , which resulted in full closures and speed limits. In Essen , some tram sets got stuck in the softened bitumen . In the Upper Palatinate , the Cham – Waldmünchen and Cham – Lam railway lines suffered serious track faults and lengthy closures in mid-July. In Austria, a broken track occurred at the beginning of July on the Arlberg and Ausserfern Railway in Tyrol, which was quickly repaired.

According to the French network operator RTE , there were numerous power outages due to network overloads caused by cooling systems at the beginning of the first heat wave. On June 30th, nearly a million French households were without electricity. Later there were multiple major network failures across Europe due to the storms.

See also

Web links

Commons : Heat wave in Europe 2015  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. For Europe and the Tunisian-Algerian coastal country, in the deserts of Northwest Africa, the temperatures are sometimes over 50 ° C.
  2. a b c d e Julio, el mes más cálido de los últimos treinta años . rtve → Noticias → El Tiempo , August 5, 2015; Hottest July ever: Spain sizzled in record month . TheLocal.es, August 6, 2015.
  3. a b This value was already exceeded during the heat waves in Europe on July 14, 2017 with a new national record of 47.3 ° C in Montoro , CO.
  4. a b c Tom Di Liberto: Summer heat wave arrives in Europe . NOAA, Climate.gov: Event Tracker , July 14, 2015.
  5. ^ Heat in large parts of Europe . MeteoSwiss, July 3, 2015; with the Meteoalarm card for July 3rd.
  6. a b Heat wave comes from the southwest: in Spain up to 41 degrees! Felix Blumer on srf.ch/meteo, July 1, 2015.
  7. Amazingly warm for early July . Christoph Hartmann, DWD: Topic of the day , July 4, 2015.
  8. a b New heat wave is rolling in . MeteoSwiss, July 14, 2015.
  9. a b c d e The FU Berlin only names those action centers that are weather-effective in Germany. The highs and lows of the Mediterranean and Southeastern Europe are typically not taken into account. See naming for weather events: naming in Germany .
  10. Heat stress higher on humid days . ZAMG Klima News , July 23, 2015 - Analysis of the humidity for Austria in early summer.
  11. a b Previsioni Meteo, il gran caldo continua: Iuglio da incubo ma attenzione al maltempo di fine mese… Peppe Caridi on MeteoWeb.eu, July 17, 2015 - with maps of the medium-term forecasts, 2nd half of July.
  12. a b c d e Cooler phases, especially in north-western Spain 3rd – 9th, 12th – 24th, 26th – 29th, 2nd – 4th
  13. a b c Episode de très fortes chaleurs en France . Météo-France: Actualités , July 16, 2015.
  14. For the phase from August 4th, Meteoalarm only reported a maximum of yellow for Germany.
  15. a b c Weather records - air temperature. German Weather Service, accessed on August 12, 2015 .
  16. a b German heat record set: 40.3 degrees in Kitzingen, Franconia. Spiegel Online, August 7, 2015, accessed August 7, 2015 .
  17. a b c End of the heat wave in sight - an interim balance . MeteoSwiss, July 23, 2015; July with record heat . and The warmest month ever - the overview . MeteoSwiss, July 30th resp. 4th August 2015.
  18. a b New record values ​​before the end of the heat wave . MeteoSwiss, July 7, 2015.
  19. a b c Allerta Meteo, “esplodono” i primi violenti temporali al nord / est. Super caldo al centro / sud, picchi di +40 ° C . Peppe Caridi, MeteoWeb.eu, July 8, 2015.
  20. a b Meteo Italia, semper più caldo. Ecco le temperature di oggi: +39 ° C a Forlì, Cosenza, Foggia e Guidonia . Peppe Caridi on MeteoWeb.eu, July 17, 2015; Le temperature di oggi in Italia: Foggia Cosenza e le più calde con + 40 ° C, poi Taranto e Mantova con +39 ° C . Peppe Caridi on MeteoWeb.eu, July 18, 2015 Domenica rovente sull'Italia, l'incubo continua: Cosenza semper la più calda con + 40 ° C . Peppe Caridi on MeteoWeb.eu, July 19, 2015.

  21. a b c d July 2015 on record course; . Warmest July in measurement history . ZAMG Climate News , 29th resp. July 31, 2015.
  22. a b The 38.6 ° C that were reported from Gars am Kamp in Lower Austria were withdrawn as questionable by the ZAMG;
    Gars was a heat pole! Or not? in Niederösterreichische Nachrichten online, July 29, 2015.
  23. a b c d Hőség a rekordok tükrében . OMSZ Hírek , July 6, 2015; Több recordot is megdöntött a hőség . OMSZ Hírek , July 7, 2015; Közel a hőség vége .. OMSZ Aktuális időjárás , July 7, 2015; Ismét megdőlt a melegrekord . OMSZ Hírek , July 8, 2015 ('News: Heat Records') - Hungary's values ​​are poorly documented, especially for the first half of the 20th century.

  24. ^ A b Météo Algérie annonce une canicule à partir de mardi. ( Memento of the original from July 21, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. tsa-algerie.com, June 22, 2015 (announcement of a heat wave, for Tuesday 23rd).  @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.tsa-algerie.com
  25. Forecast for Thursday June 25th, 2015 12 UTC . DWD weather map, website of the Free University of Berlin; Weather situation as of June 25, 2015, 12 UTC . Central Institute for Meteorology (ZAMG).
  26. a b cf. Frank Strait: Why Our Tropics Are Quiet And Will Be For A While . On AccuWeather.com, June 28, 2015 - Analysis of the weather conditions at the beginning of the heat wave with a focus on the Central Atlantic.
  27. Forecast for Mon 29.06.15 12 UTC . DWD (first day of naming the high); Weather situation as of June 29, 2015, 12 UTC . ZAMG.
  28. Weather from July 1, 2015, 12 UTC . ZAMG.
  29. a b First climatological assessment of the heat wave in July 2015. ( Memento of the original from September 23, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. German Weather Service (pdf) - with map of maximum temperature July 1, 2015.  @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.dwd.de
  30. a b La ola de calor deja las máximas más duras de los últimos 50 años . Marga Guillamón in: el Día online, Córdoba , July 12, 2015.
  31. a b La excepcional ola de calor podría durar dos semanas más . In: el Periódico online, July 8, 2015.
  32. a b Angelique Chrisafis: Concern on continent as heatwave set to drive temperatures beyond 40C. In: theguardian.com. June 30, 2015, accessed July 6, 2015 .
  33. ^ Jon Erdman: Heat Records Shattered in Germany, France, The Netherlands; Relief In Sight For Europe Heat Wave . Wunderground.com News Stories , July 7, 2015.
  34. a b Vague de chaleur: des températures record . Meteofrance Actualités , July 2, 2015 - with Écart à la normal 1981-2010 de la température maximal quotidienne (temperature deviations ).
  35. ^ Nombreux records de temperature ce week-end . Meteofrance Actualités , July 6, 2015.
  36. On the record - observing a 'heatwave' . Met Office News Blog , July 7, 2015.
  37. a b c d Jeff Masters: All-time July National Heat Records Fall on Three Continents . Wunderground.com, July 3, 2015.
  38. Hittegolf 2015 duurde zes dagen! Vanaf woensdag kortstondige dip, maar zomer blijft! zwartewaterkrant.nl, July 6, 2015.
  39. a b Weather station Karlsruhe Hertzstraße. see section Archive . Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research), accessed on July 6, 2015 .
  40. Decade records (maximum and minimum temperature values) in German cities. July . Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research), July 6, 2015, accessed on July 6, 2015 .
  41. How hot was it at the beginning of July 2015 in Freiburg and Karlsruhe compared to the record days in August 2003? Wetterzentrale, July 7, 2015, accessed on August 7, 2015 .
  42. Summer in Germany: Kitzingen sets a new heat record. In: Spiegel Online. July 6, 2015, accessed July 6, 2015 .
  43. a b Weather in Germany in July 2015: July 2015 was clearly too warm and broke many temperature records in the region . DWD, August 2, 2015; Review July 2015: the midsummer month of extremes . Wetteronline.de, July 30, 2015.
  44. One of the most extreme heat weeks in 150 years . MeteoSwiss, July 2, 2015.
  45. ^ Conclusion of the heat wave in July 2015 . Media release, MeteoSwiss, 7 July 2015.
  46. Sammanfattning av årets första värmebölja. ( Memento of the original from September 24, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.smhi.se archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. SMHI blogg , July 6th, 2015 (Swedish Meteorological Service: 'Summary of this year's first heat wave').
  47. Forecast for Sat 04.07.15 12 UTC . DWD; Weather situation as of July 4, 2015, 12 UTC . ZAMG.
  48. a b c Heat waves in the northern hemisphere . Adrian Leyser, DWD: Topic of the day , July 3, 2015 - with a map of the thunderstorm zone of July 2.
  49. a b Zelo topli noči in jutri s 6. na 7. in 7. na 8. julij 2015 . (PDF) ARSO, July 8, 2015 (meteo.si: Podnebje> Izredni dogodki ; Slovenian Meteorological Service: 'Climate> Extraordinary Events: Very Warm Night and Tomorrow Day');
    Vročina in neurja od 1st to 9th july 2015 . (PDF) ARSO, Ljubljana, July 14, 2015 (ibid., 'Heat and storms July 1-9, 2015') - detailed analysis.
  50. Omega high over Austria . ORF.at, July 3, 2015.
  51. Letošní rok depending zatím nejteplejší v historii měření na Zemi . Radek Tomšů on ČHMÚ: infomet.cz, July 12, 2015.
  52. Extrémny character počasia v júli bude po krátkom prerušení pokračovať . SHMÚ Actuality , July 14, 2015.
  53. a b Extreme heat . ZAMG Weather News , July 3, 2015.
  54. ↑ You sweat out? Tobias Reinartz, DWD: Topic of the day , July 5, 2015.
  55. Hírek a Meteorologia világából. Hőség és heves zivatarok Németországban . OMSZ, met.hu, July 4, 2015 (Hungarian Weather Service, 'News: Heat and violent storms in Germany') - with several satellite images of the storm front over Germany (texts in Hungarian).
  56. Storm over South Westphalia: hailstones the size of tennis balls . In: Siegener Zeitung online, July 5, 2015.
  57. Forecast for M0 07/06/15 12 UTC . DWD; Weather situation as of July 6, 2015, 12 UTC . ZAMG.
  58. a b Stigao je: Preznojavamo se samo od pogleda na kartu meteoalarma! Dnevnik.hr, July 7, 2015; Cod Roşu de Caniculă, în vestul ţării . jurnalul.ro, July 7, 2015.
  59. Forecast for Wed 07/08/15 12 UTC . DWD.
  60. a b Közel a hőség vége .. OMSZ Hírek , July 7, 2015 (Hungarian Weather Service, 'News: End of the Heat') - with maps of the front line over Pannonia.
  61. a b c Heat records in Innsbruck, Vienna and parts of Lower Austria . ZAMG Climate News , July 8, 2015.
  62. Cooling off, but hardly any thunderstorms - abroad there were tornadoes and one death . In: Aargauer Zeitung online, July 8, 2015.
  63. Ondata di caldo in Romania: i superati 40 ° C a Bucharest . Meteoweb.eu, July 10, 2015.
  64. Storms with hurricane gusts cause enormous damage . Adrian Leyser, DWD: Topic of the day , July 8, 2015.
  65. Jump in temperature - severe storms over Bavaria. ( Memento of July 10, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) BR online, July 8, 2015
  66. a b c Elena Ugrin: After record breaking heat wave Germany ravaged by huge hail, flash floods and tornadoes . In: The Watchers , July 8, 2015;
    The Arabian heat wave was a side effect of the May heat wave in India .
  67. Storm with 88,000 lightning strikes and hailstones the size of tennis balls . In: Der Standard online, July 9, 2015
  68. a b c Tornado tra Dolo e Mira, in provincia di Venezia . RTI, meteo.it, undated (approx. July 8); Maltempo, un morto nel Veneziano Tromba d'aria e devastazioni . In Corriere del Veneto online, July 8, 2015.
  69. a b Heat wave and storm caused death and material damage in Hungary . In: Pester Lloyd online, July 9, 2015.
  70. Many power outages after thunderstorms . tirol.orf.at, July 8, 2015.
  71. a b c Severe storms: passers-by injured in Villach . kaernten.orf.at, July 8, 2015; After a storm: the big cleaning up . kaernten.orf.at, July 9, 2015; Storm damage in Carinthia estimated at 150 million euros . In: Kleine Zeitung online, July 10, 2015; Storm: 150 million euros in damage . kaernten.orf.at, July 10, 2015.

  72. A július 8-ai front gyors mérlege . OMSZ Hírek , July 7, 2015.
  73. ^ Framersheim - a place, a storm . In: Die Welt online, July 8, 2015.
  74. Heavy storms over Styria . steiermark.orf.at, July 8, 2015.
  75. ^ Framersheim - a place, a storm . In Die Welt online, July 8, 2015;
    Downburst in Framersheim leaves enormous damage . Angelo D Alterio on unwetteralarm.com, July 8, 2015.
  76. Récord histórico de temperatura en Zaragoza: 44.5 degrees . In: El Pais online, July 8, 2015.
  77. La ola de calor será la segunda más larga en la península desde 1975 . In: el Economista online, July 13, 2015 - overview of record values.
  78. Forecast for Fri 07/10/15 12 UTC . DWD; Weather situation as of July 10, 2015, 12 UTC . ZAMG.
  79. Deep Thompson and High Clara . Johanna Anger, DWD: Topic of the day , July 10, 2015.
  80. a b Severe weather: Numerous fire service operations . salzburg.orf.at, July 12, 2015.
  81. a b c d Forecast for Tue 14.07.15 12 UTC . DWD; Weather situation as of July 14, 2015, 12 UTC . ZAMG.
  82. Forecast for Sat 07/18/15 12 UTC . DWD; Weather situation from July 18, 2015, 12 UTC . ZAMG.
  83. New episode de fortes chaleurs in France . Météo-France: Actualités , July 15, 2015 - with forecast animation of temperatures in Europe 15–19. July.
  84. It has been officially declared over with regard to the emergency plan and the warning level has been lowered to yellow.
    Españoles, la ola de calor ha terminado . In: eL Huffington Post , July 16, 2015.
  85. ^ Météo: Canicule et sirocco au menu les jours de l'Aïd . TunisieNumerique.com, July 16, 2015.
  86. Caldo eccezionale sulle cime Alpine: +7 ° C ai 4,560 metri della Capanna Margherita . Peppe Caridi on MeteoWeb.eu, July 16, 2015
  87. Temperature minime in Italia: nuovo record assoluto per Torino con oltre +27 ° C . CentroMeteoItaliano.it, July 16, 2015.
  88. Vročina in neurja v obdobju od 11. to 26. julija 2015 . (PDF) ARSO, Ljubljana, July 31, 2015 (meteo.si: Podnebje> Izredni dogodki ; Slovenian Meteorological Service: 'Climate> Extraordinary Events: Heat and Storms of July 11-26 , 2015') - detailed analysis.
  89. Forróság - szombaton zivatarokkal, vasárnap száraz déli széllel . OMSZ Aktuális időjárás , July 18, 2015 ('Weather: Heat'),
  90. a b c Weather worldwide - heat wave in southeast Europe and summer monsoon . The heat wave section in South and Southeast Europe continues. Ronny Büttner in Wetter24.de, July 19, 2015.
  91. Tropical heat wave in region, 'red' meteoalarm in place . inserbia.info, July 19, 2015.
  92. Koliko nam je srpanj bio vruć? DHMZ: Priopćenja , July 31, 2015 (Croatian weather service: 'Press releases: How hot was our July?') Praćenje klime> Ocjena mjeseca, sezone i godine > Srpanj 2015 , DHMZ (climate archive).
  93. Splićani noć proveli na 30 ° C, more kod Dubrovnika 28 ° C! In: Večernji list , July 19, 2015.
  94. a b Метеоролози упозоравају: Стиже врели талас, најтоплије у Новом Саду. In: РТВ, rtv.rs, July 18, 2015.
  95. România sub cod portocaliul de Canicula, furtuni şi vijelii . jurnalul.ro, July 19, 2015.
  96. Forecast for Fri 17.07.15 12 UTC . DWD; Weather situation on July 17, 2015, 18 UTC . ZAMG.
  97. Forecast for Sun 19.07.15 12 UTC . DWD; Weather situation from July 19, 2015, 18 UTC . ZAMG; Rain forecast July 20th. 00 UTC , MeteoAm; in Caldo, umidità e disagio termico: le previsioni dell'aeronautica militare fino al 25 luglio (folder) . MeteoWeb.eu, July 19, 2015.
  98. Meteo Weekend: afa opprimente su tutte le regioni, domenica rischio temporali sulle Alpi . Daniele Ingemi on Meteoweb.eu, July 17, 2015 - with explanatory maps.
  99. a b c d Previsioni Meteo, ecco le cause all'origine della persistenta del gran caldo sull'Italia . and in addition Allerta Meteo: la “Cella di Hadley” si spinge sul Mediterraneo, pericolosissima area di convergenza con violenti temporali in Europe . Daniele Ingemi on Meteoweb.eu, 19th resp. July 20, 2015 - with explanatory maps.
  100. Current weather: pure midsummer: heat up to 37 degrees, then thunderstorms . In: Focus online, July 17, 2015 (updated several times).
  101. Another heavy thunderstorm in Carinthia . In: Kurier online, July 17, 2014; Severe weather: fire brigade in constant use - thunderstorms ensured numerous missions in Tyrol and Vorarlberg . OE24.at, July 18, 2015; Storm after tropical temperatures . In: Die Presse online, July 20, 2015 (Tyrol, Styria).

  102. a b Emergency storms in Poland: two dead and several injured . In: Weser Kurier online. 20th July 2015.
  103. Violents orages: une deuxième nuit au Zénith pour les 15,000 scouts . In: L'Alsace online, July 18, 2015.
  104. Heavy downpour in the Neuchâtel Jura . MeteoSwiss, July 18, 2015.
  105. ^ Heat, thunderstorms - Southwest / Central Europe - July 16-19 , 2015, wettergefahren-fruehwarnung.de , July 22, 2015, Section 19.7. , Table of selected peak wind gusts (see web links ).
  106. ^ Pölstal and Pusterwald disaster area . Steiermark.ORF.at, July 21, 2015;
    Weeks after the storm, still disaster area . Steiermark.ORF.at, August 14, 2015.
  107. Forecast for Wed July 22, 2015 12 UTC . DWD; Weather situation as of July 22, 2015, 18 UTC . ZAMG.
  108. a b Forecast for Sat 25.07.15 12 UTC . DWD; Weather situation as of July 25, 2015, 18 UTC . ZAMG.
  109. Current weather and warning situation / Topic of the day: Storm low ZELJKO is approaching Germany. Home page. (No longer available online.) DWD, July 24, 2015, archived from the original on July 24, 2015 ; Retrieved July 26, 2015 ( topic of the day ). The wind, the wind, the heavenly child . DWD Topic of the Day , July 25, 2015 - Analysis of the storm Zeljko.
  110. a b Cooling off due to thunderstorms . MeteoSwiss, July 22, 2015.
  111. a b Hőség, ma több, pénteken kevesebb zivatarral . and Hol dörög az ég? both OMSZ Időjárási helyzet , July 22, 2015 - Analysis maps of the front over Europe and Hungary.
  112. Coldest day in almost 2 months . MeteoSwiss, July 29, 2015.
  113. 22. července - nejteplejší den od začátku roku . ČHMÚ, Pavel Borovička: News in infomet.cz, July 22, 2015 (Czech Meteorological Service).
  114. včera bolo najteplejšie v Dudinciach . Shmu> Aktuality , July 22, 2015 (Slovak Weather Service).
  115. 37.9 degrees: heat wave has reached its peak . noe.orf.at, July 22, 2015.
  116. Csütörtökön record meleg zivatarokkal . OMSZ Időjárási helyzet , July 22, 2015; Hőség a rekordok tükrében (július 23-25.) . and Megdőlt mind az országos, mind a budapesti melegrekord . OMSZ Hírek , 22. resp. 23rd July 2015.

  117. Rekorddöntő, meleg éjszaka . OMSZ hírek , July 25, 2015.
  118. a b c Autumn Intermezzo in July: "Zeljko" is approaching storm "Andreas". Press release dpa, July 26, 2015 (for example on welt.de ).
  119. Heat and violent thunderstorms in Ticino . MeteoSwiss, July 21, 2015.
  120. 38.6 degrees - heat wave reached its peak on Wednesday . In: Today online, July 22, 2015 - ticker for the progress of the storm front; Storm: Several lightning casualties and severe damage . In: Kronen Zeitung online, July 24, 2015; Storms end hot spell in Austria . oe24.at, July 25, 2015.

  121. ^ Giant mudslide in Rauris . salzburg.orf.at, July 24, 2015; Mudslides near Rauris: 5,000 people cut off from the environment . In: Der Standard online, July 24, 2015.
  122. Million damage after a storm . kaernten.orf.at, July 24, 2015; Lavantal: "There has never been such a storm". In: Kleine Zeitung online, July 25, 2015.
  123. Zwaarste zomerstorm ooit in Nederland . In: BNR Nieuwsradio . July 25, 2015.
  124. a b В Москве побит 132-летний рекорд по осадкам. ДНИ, dni.ru, July 28, 2015; Москве побит рекорд по осадкам 1883 года.  ( Page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. STORMnews.ru, July 28, 2015.
    @1@ 2Template: Dead Link / stormnews.ru  
  125. a b Летний микс: ливни, грозы и жара. Метеовести, Meteovesti.ru, July 29, 2015 ('Summer mix: showers, thunderstorms and heat').
  126. Violent storms are raging over Germany . RTL.de, July 23, 2015.
  127. Tornádó Püspökladány mellett . OMSZ Hírek , July 26, 2015.
  128. Forecast for Tue 28.07.15 12 UTC . DWD; Weather situation as of July 29, 2015, 0 UTC . ZAMG.
  129. Hullámzó frontálzóna - kontraszt jelentős hőmérsékleti . OMSZ Időjárási helyzet , July 29, 2015 (Hungarian Meteorological Service: 'Wavy frontal zone - significant temperature contrast ').
  130. Прогноз погоди в Україні на 25 липня: спека посилиться до +36 . Ukr.Media, July 25, 2015 ('Weather forecast for Ukraine: heat up to +36').
  131. The heat remains: Still up to over 40 ° C in Greece . griechenland.net, 29 July 2015.
  132. ^ Heat wave returns to southern Romania; Bucharest is under code orange . Andrei Chirileasa on Romania-Insider.com, July 28, 2015.
  133. 'Code orange' heat wave warning in Bulgaria expanded for July 30 . In: The Sofia Globe online, July 29, 2015.
  134. Sweltering Iraq declares four-day weekend from Thursday . Reuters UK, July 29, 2015.
  135. ^ Tunisie: Le retour de la canicule . Kapitalis.com, July 29, 2015.
  136. Forecast for Sat 08/01/15 12 UTC . DWD; Weather situation as of August 1, 2015, 18 UTC . ZAMG.
  137. Italy: Injured in storms in Florence . In: Der Standard online, August 2, 2015.
  138. Forecast for Tue 04.08.15 12 UTC . DWD; Weather situation as of August 4, 2015, 12 UTC . ZAMG.
  139. Hosszú hőhullám előtti zivataros vasárnap . OMSZ Időjárási helyzet , August 1, 2015 (Hungarian Meteorological Service).
  140. a b Forecast for Fri 07.08.15 12 UTC . DWD; Weather situation as of August 7, 2015, 12 UTC . ZAMG;
    Modèles - Archives des réanalyses du NCEP: 7 août 2015 . meteociel.fr (especially Température et flux 850hPa (Hem.Nord))
  141. Despite the heat, the blog does not fail today . And hottest day of the year in northern Switzerland . MeteoSwiss, 6th resp. 7th August 2015.
  142. Folytatódó kánikula, tarkítva zivatarokkal . and Lehet az eddiginél is melegebb? OMSZ Időjárási helyzet , 6th and 11th August 2015 - Analysis Maps of Europe.
  143. Retour sur le pic de chaleur du 5 au 7 août . Météo-France: Actualités , August 7, 2015.
  144. ^ Continued extreme heat in the eastern half of Austria . ZAMG: Weather News , August 7, 2015.
  145. Today the heat record is shaking . derStandard.at, August 8, 2015.
  146. 7. srpen - zatím nejteplejší den roku 2015 . ČHMÚ, Pavel Šimandl: News in infomet.cz, August 7, 2015.
  147. 8. srpen- další (zatím?) Nejteplejší den roku 2015 . ČHMÚ, MartinTomáš: News in infomet.cz, August 8, 2015.
  148. We Wrocławiu padł record! Termometry pokazały 38.9 stopnia . vyborza.pl (wroclaw.gazeta.pl), August 8, 2015.
  149. ^ A b Jon Erdman: All-Time Record Heat in Germany; Relief on the Way . Wunderground.com, August 16, 2015.
  150. Температурные рекорды за 7-9 августа 2015 г. pogoda.by, August 10, 2015 ('Temperature records for August 7-9, 2015').
  151. a b Forecast for Sun 09.08.15 12 UTC . DWD; Weather situation as of August 10, 2015, 00 UTC . ZAMG.
  152. a b Forecast for Wed 08/12/15 12 UTC . DWD; Weather situation as of August 12, 2015, 12 UTC . ZAMG;
    Modèles - Archives des réanalyses du NCEP: 12 août 2015 . meteociel.fr.
  153. a b Establecida una nueva marca histórica de calor en Jaén . ideal.es, August 10, 2015.
  154. After a tropical night came a storm . In: Wiener Zeitung online, August 10, 2015.
  155. Enormný výskyt supertropických dní a tropických nocí na Slovensku v lete 2015 . Shmu Aktuality , August 11, 2015 (, Enormous occurrence of super tropical days and tropical nights in Slovakia in the summer of 2015 ').
  156. a b Allerta Meteo, ciclone nel basso Tirreno: tempeste di pioggia e tornado nelle prossime 24-36 ore al Centro / Sud . meteoweb.eu, August 11, 2015 - with analysis image.
  157. a b Severe storms: three dead after landslide in northern Italy . orf.at, August 5, 2015.
  158. Storms caused many missions in Upper Carinthia . In: Kurier online, August 5, 2015.
  159. Egyhavi csapadék egy óra alatt . OMSZ Hírek ; and Hosszú hőhullámra hangolva . OMSZ Időjárási helyzet ; both August 5, 2015 ('News: A monthly amount of precipitation in one hour' and 'Weather situation: Long heat waves in prospect').
  160. Heat remains, storms trigger mudslides . In: Kurier online, August 9, 2015.
  161. Valley cut off from the environment due to storms . 20min.ch, August 9, 2015.
  162. Rear Stubai Valley accessible again . tirol.orf.at, August 8, 2015.
  163. Violent storms keep emergency services on their toes . In: Salzburger Nachrichten , August 9, 2015.
  164. Storms led to mudslides . In: Kleine Zeitung online, August 10, 2015.
  165. Current weather . In: Focus online, 9. – 11. August 2015 (ticker).
  166. a b c d Maltempo, allerta temporali si sposta a Sud-est. Trombe d'aria, allagamenti e alberi abbattuti . In: Repubblica online, R.it, August 10, 2015.
  167. Highest warning level: Severe storms in southern Italy: vacationers evacuated . In: Kleine Zeitung online, August 12, 2015;
    Alluvione in Calabria: Rossano e Corigliano ko, una “tempesta perfetta” . meteoweb.eu, August 12, 2015.
  168. ^ Tempesta nella notte la Calabria è sott'acqua. ilGiornale.it, August 13, 2015.
  169. a b Forecast for Sun 16.08.15 12 UTC . DWD; Weather situation as of August 16, 2015, 12 UTC . ZAMG.
  170. a b A vasárnapi és hétfői özönvíz és okai . OMSZ Hírek , August 18, 2015 ('The flood of Sunday and Monday and its causes').
  171. a b Megdőlt a budapesti melegrekord (August 13th) . and Budapesti és országos hőmérsékleti minimum record (VIII. 14.) . OMSZ Hírek , August 13th and 14th, 2015.
  172. Koniec vlny horúčav . Shmu Aktuality , August 14, 2015 (, news: End of the heat wave ').
  173. Dnešní maximální teploty . ČHMÚ: infomet.cz, August 15, 2015.
  174. Fraîcheur sur l'Hexagone . MeteoFrance Actualités , August 14, 2015.
  175. Výrazné ochlazení . ČHMÚ: infomet.cz, August 18, 2015.
  176. a b Thunderstorms are cooling down Germany . Newsticker on Welt.de (updated content, accessed August 15, 2015);
    Current weather: Weather service warns of storms in Bavaria . News ticker on focus.de Panorama (updated content, accessed August 15, 2015);
    Central Germany: Thunderstorms end extreme heat ( memento of the original from August 17, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
    Info: The @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.mdr.de archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . mdr.de, August 15, 2015;
    Heavy rain draws a path of devastation. ( Memento of the original from September 24, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
    Info: The
     @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.stuttgarter-zeitung.de archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. dpa, in stuttgarter-zeitung.de, August 17, 2015.
  177. Again hot and storm in western Switzerland . And yes, that's it, the lightning drove the heat away! MeteoSwiss, August 13th and 14th, 2015.
  178. ^ A b Thunderstorms, storms and rain over Poland, the Czech Republic and Italy . Süddeutsche Zeitung , August 16, 2015, accessed on August 26, 2020 . .
  179. Storms in Italy leave 14 injured . nachricht.at/apa, August 16, 2015.
  180. Stiglo Nevrijeme: U Istri tuča napravila veliku štetu, munje izazvale požare . and Nevrijeme u Hrvatskoj: Kiša 'potopila' neke gradove, vjetar nosio stolice dnevnik.hr , August 15 and 16, 2015.
  181. a b Po horúčavách výdatné zrážky . and Výdatné a intenzívne atmosférické zrážky na juhozápadnom a západnom Slovensku, po predchádzajúcom suchu a horúčavách . SHMÚ Currentity , August 17 and 18, 2015 (' Heavy rainfall after the hot weather' and 'Abundant and intensive rainfall in southwest and west Slovakia, after previous drought and heat') - with analysis maps.
  182. a b Forecast for Wed 08/19/15 12 UTC . DWD; Weather situation as of August 20, 2015, 00 UTC . ZAMG.
  183. a b Europe: Curious weather distribution . wetteronline.de weather ticker August 19, 2015.
  184. Soon and in July there are several days . ( Memento of the original from August 21, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / met.no archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. NMI, met.no: Nyheter , August 3, 2015.
  185. Finværet varer and varer and varer . TV2.no, August 20, 2015 ('Nice weather lasts and lasts and lasts').
  186. a b Forecast for Sat 08/22/15 12 UTC . DWD; Weather situation as of August 22, 2015, 12 UTC . ZAMG.
  187. Las Temperaturas se mantienen este lunes por debajo de los 35 ° . Video, el Pais online, August 17, 2015.
  188. a b Forecast for Tue 25.08.15 12 UTC . DWD; Weather situation as of August 25, 2015, 12 UTC . ZAMG.
  189. a b c autumnal . MeteoSwiss, August 24, 2015; with thunderstorm saucepan Mediterranean area .
  190. a b c Retour sur les pluies intenses du 23 août dans l'Hérault . Météo-France: Actualités , August 24, 2015;
    Three dead in storms in southern France . euronews.com, August 23, 2015.
  191. a b Forecast for Fri 28.08.15 12 UTC . DWD; Weather situation as of August 28, 2015, 12 UTC . ZAMG.
  192. Three types of clouds . MeteoSwiss, August 26, 2015; with high pressure area "Jessica" determines the weather .
  193. From midsummer to early autumn . DWD: Topic of the day , August 30, 2015.
  194. ^ Meteo, Italia divisa in due: pioggia al Nord, caldo al Sud . agi.it, August 24, 2015.
  195. Una masa de aire africano disparará las temperaturas en Euskadi a partir de hoy . elCorreo.com, August 27, 2015.
  196. a b c d e Forecast for Mon 31.08.15 12 UTC . DWD; Weather situation as of August 31, 2015, 12 UTC . ZAMG.
  197. a b c d Forecast for Wed 02.09.15 12 UTC . DWD; Weather situation as of September 2, 2015, 12 UTC . ZAMG.
  198. ^ New heat wave hits Romania . romania-insider.com, August 31, 2015.
  199. Peak values ​​of up to 33 degrees: heat records at the start of September . Wetteronline.de, September 1, 2015.
  200. New September heat record in Austria . In: Der Standard online, September 1, 2015 (APA).
  201. a b Dnešní teplotní extrémy (31/8/2015) . and Rekordně teplé 1. září 2015 . ČHMÚ: infomet.cz News , August 31st resp. September 1, 2015 (Czech Meteorological Service: 'Today extreme temperatures' and 'Record temperature').
  202. character pocasia na Slovensku v lete 2015 . SHMÚ> Actuality , July 22, 2015.
  203. Megdőlt az országos és a fővárosi melegrekord, utóbbi szeptemberi csúcs is . OMSZ Hírek , September 1, 2015 ('National and capital city record ';
    and Új országos és fővárosi minimum hőmérsékleti record (IX. 1.) . On the minimum temperature of the previous night and Szerdán ismét megdőlt a napi melegrekord . On the following day).
  204. a b c d Forecast for Sat 05.09.15 12 UTC . DWD; Weather situation as of September 5, 2015, 12 UTC . ZAMG.
  205. ^ Alert issued over air pollution in Athens . ekathimerini.com, September 3, 2015;
    With 40 ° C into the weekend - Hellas is heating up . griechenland.net, September 3, 2015;
    Καύσωνας την Κυριακή . Zougla.gr, September 6, 2015.
  206. a b c Forecast for Tue 08.09.15 12 UTC . DWD - the strong Mediterranean lows are difficult to read on this map;
    Weather situation as of September 8, 2015, 12 UTC . ZAMG.
  207. a b Retour sur les orages du 31 août . MeteoFrance: Actualités , September 1, 2015;
    Orages: deux morts, plusieurs blessés et des milliers de foyers privés d'électricité . And Direct. Orages: plus de 10 millions d'euros de dégâts dans le Tarn-et-Garonne . Liveticker, francetvinfo, September 1, 2015.
  208. ^ Severe weather: Streets in East Friesland under water . In: Ostfriesen Zeitung online, September 1, 2015.
  209. Damage after a thunderstorm: Thunderstorms with hail are raging around Meissen. ( Memento of the original from July 12, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.mdr.de archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. MDR.de, September 1, 2015.
  210. Emmerich - Severe weather: hailstones kill 60 birds in the Rheinpark . RP-Online.de, September 1, 2015.
  211. Hailstorms caused millions in damage . Tirol.ORF.at, September 4, 2015.
  212. Storm over the Balearic Islands | Apocalypse Mallorca . In: Bild online, September 6, 2015;
    Spain: Heavy storms brought up to 300 liters of heavy rain. ( Memento of the original from October 16, 2017 in the Internet Archive )
    Info: The
     @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.fruchthandel.de archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. In: Fruchthandel online, September 11, 2015.
  213. a b Extreme hail storm over Naples . Udo Baum in: Wetter.net, September 6, 2015.
  214. a b c Forecast for Thu 09/10/15 12 UTC . DWD - the strong Mediterranean lows are difficult to read on this map;
    Weather situation as of September 10, 2015, 12 UTC . ZAMG.
  215. a b c Severe storms on the Mediterranean . Frank Abel on Wetter24, September 10, 2015.
  216. Severe weather in Sicily: roads become raging rivers . wetter.de, September 9, 2015.
  217. Marad a Hűvös idő, szerdán északon több felhővel . And Földközi-tengeri ciklon érkezik… . OMSZ: Aktuális időjárás , 8. resp. September 9, 2015 ('Weather: Cool on Wednesday, clouds' or 'Mediterranean cyclone arrives ...').
  218. a b Forecast for Sun 13.09.15 12 UTC . DWD - the strong Mediterranean lows are difficult to read on this map;
    Weather situation as of September 13, 2015, 12 UTC . ZAMG.
  219. ↑ Drops of cold air trigger thunderstorms . MeteoSwiss, July 10, 2015.
  220. a b Foehn-like and warm in summer . Curtain up for the sun . As well as the calm before the foehn storm . MeteoSwiss, September 12, 13 and 15, 2015.
  221. a b Midsummer returns for two days . In: Kurier online, September 15, 2015.
  222. a b Marad a nyárias idő . And Kevesebb felhő, egyre több helyen 30 Fok feletti hőmérséklet . OMSZ: Aktuális időjárás , 14. resp. September 16, 2015 ('Weather: It remains summery' or 'Fewer clouds, temperatures above 30 degrees').
  223. a b forecast for Thursday, 09/17/15 12 UTC  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Toter Link / www.met.fu-berlin.de   , DWD; Weather situation as of September 17, 2015, 12 UTC . ZAMG.
  224. Wind briefly creates tropical temperatures: foehn storm in the valley. ( Memento of the original from October 23, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.tegernseerstimme.de archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Nicole Posztos on TegernseerStimme.de, September 17, 2015
  225. a b c d Today it will be up to 27 degrees! Foehn storm blows away the golden autumn . and fallen trees, railway lines and roads interrupted: foehn storm rages in Graubünden . Blick.ch, 16. resp. September 17, 2015;
    Föhn drives temperatures up . In: Der Landbote online, September 16, 2015.
  226. a b Damage from foehn storm . Tirol.ORF.at, September 16, 2015.
  227. ^ Tyrol: Railway closures and power outages after Föhnsturm . In: Kleine Zeitung online, September 17, 2015;
    Numerous storm damage in Pinzgau: A total of 39 missions for Salzburg fire brigades . Salzburg24.at, September 18, 2015;
    Nope: fire brigade operations in Tulln due to foehn storm . fireworld.at, September 17, 2015;
    Föhnsturm chased through Vienna at 100 km / h . Österreich.at, September 18, 2015.
  228. Record value for the second half of September . And rarely over 30 ° C so late in the year . ZAMG Weather News , both September 17th, 2015.
  229. a b Szombaton búcsúzik a szeptemberi nyár . OMSZ: Aktuális időjárás , September 18, 2015 ('Weather: On Saturday farewell to summer in September').
  230. Ismét megdőlt a melegrekord . Még egy éjjeli melegrekord (IX. 18th) . And Új napi melegrekord! OMSZ: Hírek , 17th resp. 18th September 2015.
  231. Caldo record al Centro-Sud: fino a +40 gradi su Abruzzo, Molise e Puglia . centrometeoitaliano.it, September 17, 2015.
  232. a b Forecast for Mon 21.09.15 12 UTC . DWD; Weather situation as of September 21, 2015, 12 UTC . ZAMG.
  233. a b c Forecast for Sat 26.09.15 12 UTC . DWD; Weather situation as of September 26, 2015, 12 UTC . ZAMG.
  234. a b c d Deux épisodes méditerranéens successifs . MeteoFrance: Actualités , September 14, 2015.
  235. Orage et fortes pluies: douze départements en vigilance orange . In: Le Monde online, September 12, 2015.
  236. ^ Bob Henson: TD 9 Forms in Central Atlantic . Section Flash-flood death toll rises in Utah; Henri's remnants sock Europe. Wunderground.com, September 16, 2015 - there also especially on Europe: Comment 561. barbamz, September 17, 2015 01:44 PM GMT.
  237. a b Hurricane gusts rage in France: three dead . Wetter.de, September 17, 2015.
  238. ^ Henri to Fuel Flooding Rain, Damaging Winds From Spain to UK . Eric Leister on AccuWeather.com, September 16, 2015.
  239. Stor förödelse i Norge - nu kommer Henri hit . Expressen.se, September 16, 2015.
  240. Severe storms in Greece - tornadoes in the Aegean Sea . Wetter.de, September 22, 2015.
  241. Forecast for Thu 01.10.15 12 UTC . DWD; Weather situation as of October 1, 2015, 12 UTC . ZAMG.
  242. a b A death in a heat wave in Spain . In: OÖ Nachrichten online, May 14, 2015; 44.4 degrees: heat wave claims first deaths in Spain. Kleine Zeitung , May 15, 2015, accessed on June 25, 2020 . ; Heat in Spain: New records . Claudia Salbert on Wetter24.de, May 15, 2015 - there also on the problem of unreliable measured values ​​for Spain.

  243. a b c May review: one of the gloomiest of the last 25 years . ZAMG Climate News , May 29, 2015.
  244. a b Climate Bulletin May 2015 . (PDF) MeteoSwiss, June 9, 2015 (pdf).
  245. 1000 firefighters on duty in severe weather . Nachrichten.at, May 6, 2015.
  246. a b June 2015: above-average warm, sunny and dry . ZAMG Climate News , June 29, 2015.
  247. Partly severe storm damage from Tyrol to Lower Austria . Salzburg24.at, June 9, 2015; Storm: massive damage to agriculture . Nachrichten.at, June 15, 2015.
  248. Sheep's cold: often reliable, currently not in sight . ZAMG Climate News , June 9, 2015.
  249. a b c Arctic Oscillation Analysis and Forecasts: June 24, 2015 . Atmospheric and Environmental Research (aer), blog entry, accessed July 6, 2015 - on this date a too cool situation was forecast for Eastern Europe-Central Asia for the time of the heat wave; see. in particular Figure 5. Forecasted surface temperatures (° C; shading) from 29 June - 3 July 2015 and Figure 6. 4–8 July 2015 ; the heat in the American North Pacific, on the other hand, was calculated correctly.
  250. May 2015 was warmest May on record for globe; March – May and year-to-date also record warm. Global Summary Information - May 2015 . NOAA Climate reports , June 18, 2015.
  251. June 2015 was warmest June on record for globe; first half of 2015 also record warm. Global Summary Information - June 2015 . NOAA Climate reports , July 20, 2015; Weather: June 2015 worldwide with a temperature record . Udo Baum on Wetter.net, July 21, 2015; June 2015 was the warmest June ever . Wetter.de, July 21, 2015.

  252. ^ A b Jeff Masters: Unprecedented June Heat in Northwest US Caused by Extreme Jet Stream Pattern . Wunderground.com, June 29, 2015 - with a Northern Hemisphere anomaly map for June 28, 2015.
  253. a b A million French without electricity . klimaretter.info, July 1, 2015 - with a map from the NOAA National Center for Environmental Prediction.
  254. Elena Ugrin: Intense heat wave brings record breaking temperatures to central Asia . In: The Watchers , July 2, 2015.
  255. ^ Heat Wave Bakes Central, North China . CRIenglish.com, July 14, 1014
  256. Caldo infernale in Medio Oriente: +52.5 ° C a Mitribah in Kuwait, battuto il record mondiale della Death Valley . Daniele Ingemi on MeteoWeb.eu, July 18, 2015 - the information as a world record is that of the previous year's high.
  257. ^ Tom Di Liberto: Late July's stupefying heat indexes in southwest Iran . NOAA, Climate.gov: Event Tracker , August 14, 2015.
  258. Heat wave in Egypt kills 95 in one week . euronews.com, August 16, 2015.
  259. Global weather - thunderstorms put an end to the heat wave, three tropical storms in Southeast Asia. ( Memento of the original from July 7th, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Section 3. Still exceptionally hot in the western US . Dennis Dalter on wetter24.de, July 5, 2015.  @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.wetter24.de
  260. ^ Northwest Heat Wave By the Numbers: Dozens of Monthly and All-Time Record Highs . Nick Wiltgen on Weather.com, July 8, 2015.
  261. Christopher C. Burt: Pacific Northwest on Track for Warmest Summer on Record . Wunderground.com, August 1, 2015.
  262. Continúa ola de calor en 24 Estados . planoinformativo.com, August 27, 2014.
  263. 14 Dead, More Than 6,000 Hospitalized In Japan Heat Wave . Sean Breslin on Weather.com on July 22, 2015.
  264. a b July 2015 was warmest month ever recorded for the globe. Global oceans record warm for July; January-July 2015 so record warm. Global Summary Information - July 2015 . NOAA Climate reports ;
    Global Analysis - July 2015 . NOAA-NCDC Climate Monitoring ;
    Chris Dolce: July Was Hottest Month Ever Recorded; 2015 Still on Pace as Warmest Year . wunderground.com, August 20, 2015.
  265. Temperature records broken around the country . In: Scoop Sci-Tech , scoop.co.nz, July 13, 2015
  266. Elena Ugrin: Cold snap breaks temperature records across New Zealand . In: The Watchers , July 14, 2015.
  267. Australia: The heaviest snowfall in 20 years . Wetter.de, 20 July 2015.
  268. ↑ Onset of winter in Australia: There is a kangaroo standing in the snow. Spiegel Online , July 17, 2015, accessed August 17, 2015 .
  269. a b c Global average temperature record high for August, June-August, and January-August; Separately, global oceans and global land were both highest on record for these periods of time. Global Summary Information - August 2015 . And Regional Analysis - August 2015 . both NOAA Climate reports .
  270. ^ Jeff Masters: Unprecedented June Heat on Four Continents; Wimbledon Roasts in Record Heat . Wunderground.com, July 1, 2015.
  271. ^ Adrian Leyser: The riddle of the North Atlantic "cold air bubble" . DWD: Topic of the day , August 26, 2015.
  272. a b c CSU, NOAA Update Atlantic Hurricane Outlooks. Section in Bob Henson: Soudelor Makes Beeline for Taiwan . ;
    Tropical Atlantic - Believe It Or Not - It Really Is Hurricane Season. Section in Steve Gregory: Major Typhoon Soudelor Heading for Taiwan . Both in: Dr. Jeff Master's Wunderblog , wunderground.com, 5th resp. August 6, 2015 - on the Saharan dust there in particular Gregory, Fig. 11: The TPW (Total Precipitable Water) Loop and Fig. 12 Specialized 'Dust' focused imagery and Fig. 13: Specialized 'Dust' analysis / forecast .
  273. Current El Niño forecast by MeteoSwiss . MeteoSwiss, July 9, 2015.
  274. El Niño continue de se renforcer . MeteoFrance, July 28, 2015.
  275. Lars Kirchhübel: El-Niño - "A Christ Child" influences the world climate - Part 1 . and part 2 . DWD: Topic of the day , 9 and 11 August 2015.
  276. Vers un episode El Niño de forte intensité . Météo-France: Actualités , August 28, 2015.
  277. Early detection of heat waves . MeteoSwiss, July 4th, 2015.
  278. Weather forecast until at least the end of July 2015: And the heat death greets forever! Kaltwetter.com, July 14, 2015 - with a discussion of the weather models.
  279. Exceptionally hot summer. ZIB2, ORF, July 16, 2015.
  280. July 2015 on record course . MeteoSchweiz, July 15, 2015 (blog entry on the topic of climate ).
  281. Another hot day . MeteoSwiss, July 16, 2015.
  282. In Catalonia 3.0 ° C warmer, but exceeded by 2003; Catalunya vive el segundo julio más cálido desde que hay registros . elPeriodico.com, August 5, 2015.
  283. a b Forte siccità, incendi, crisi idrica del fiume Po - Verso il Luglio più caldo di semper. Gli effetti del caldo africano. ( Memento of the original from July 20, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. RTI, meteo.it, undated (around July 16).  @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.meteo.it
  284. Heat waves: 2015 was one of the most extreme years in measurement history . ZAMG Klimanews , August 13, 2015.
  285. wetterzentrale.de .
  286. ^ Federal Statistical Office: Mortality, Causes of Death .
  287. Excess mortality during the warm summer of 2015 in Switzerland . Archived from the original on February 8, 2017. Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Retrieved November 10, 2017. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / smw.ch
  288. Henrik Bang: EURO MOMO .
  289. Hot debate about heat-free . In: Tiroler Tageszeitung online, July 9, 2015 - two deaths on construction sites in Styria can be directly attributed to the heat; In Austria it is customary to give heat-free from 35 ° C on open construction sites , but it is by no means mandatory for the employer, which has been criticized by employers' associations.
  290. dozens dead bathing in East Central Europe and the Baltics. dpa report, July 6, 2014 (so on merkur.de ).
  291. Madrid, en "maxima alerta sanitaria" por la ola de calor . ABC.es, July 10, 2015.
  292. National heat plan in the Netherlands comes into force. In: wdr2.de. June 30, 2015, accessed February 3, 2019 .
  293. plan national canicule 2015 . travailler-mieux.gouv.fr.
  294. ^ Joseph Bamat: France takes steps to avoid repeat of deadly 2003 heat wave. In: france24.com. July 1, 2015, accessed July 6, 2015 .
  295. Elena Ugrin: Intense heat wave spreading through Europe, temperatures rising above 40 ° C. In: The Watchers. June 30, 2015, accessed July 6, 2015 .
  296. Severe Weather: One Fatality and Floods . vorarlberg.orf.at, July 22, 2015.
  297. Refugees are rushing to Europe - the current hot spots . In: Salzburger Nachrichten online, salzburg.com, Dossier , August 21, 2015.
  298. ^ Refugees - Fatalities in the Mediterranean . Infographic on the article Refugee boat capsized . In: Salzburger Nachrichten . August 6, 2015, Chronicle , p. 21 (APA / ION, as of 4.8.).
  299. Thousands of refugees are fleeing Greece towards the north . In: Deutsche Wirtschafts Nachrichten online, July 18, 2015.
  300. Refugee crisis: Macedonia declares a state of emergency - military on duty . In: Focus online, August 20, 2015
  301. ^ A b c Heat wave on the continent hits crop yields (rain is the problem in Ireland) . Ciaran Moran on agriland.ie, July 28, 2015.
  302. France: Point sur la sécheresse des sols superficiels on 17 July 2015 . and
    Bilan de la sècheresse des sols superficiels on June 22nd 2015 . MeteoFrance Actualites , 17th resp. July 24, 2015.
  303. For Germany, some sources speak of the worst drought in 50 years, although the Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research shows in its drought monitor an even greater dryness of the ground for spring and early summer 2014:
    Drought: In Germany it has not been as dry as it has been in 50 years . Spiegel.de, August 10, 2015;
    Drought Monitor Germany . Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research (updated content and map archive; accessed August 14, 2015):
    Klaus-Peter Wittich, Franz-Josef Löpmeier: Brief overview of the drought in Germany in June 2015 . ( Memento of the original from September 23, 2015 in the Internet Archive ; PDF)
    Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. dwd.de, as of June 19, 2015; accessed July 26, 2015. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.dwd.de
  304. Drought damage in the millions . ORF.at, July 23, 2015.
  305. Climate change: New unprecedented record of desert days in Austria . Press release Austrian Hagelversicherung, APA OTS0081, 10 August 2015;
    Agriculture: 170 million euros in damage from heat . In: Der Standard online, September 4, 2015.
  306. Winegrowers expect a good wine year despite the heat . In: Salzburger Nachrichten . September 4, 2015, Austria, p. 10 .
  307. Orages: les vignobles de Chablis et Irancy touchés par la grêle . ledauphine.com, September 1, 2015;
    Storms in Chablis damage Premier and Grand Cru vineyards . yoopress.com, September 3, 2015.
  308. Elbe has less water than it has for 51 years . In: Sächsische Zeitung online, August 6, 2015.
  309. Baden-Württemberg: No improvement in sight when the water is low . In: Die Welt online, August 12, 2015;
    South Hesse: Low water causes problems for ships . echo-online.de, August 12, 2015.
  310. Low tide: delays in shipping . noe.ORF.at, August 11, 2015;
    Low water level in the Danube: compulsory break for freight shipping. ( Memento from October 24, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) BR.de, August 12, 2015.
  311. Extremely warm Mediterranean . In: Tagesschau online, wetter.tagesschau.de, July 28, 2015;
    Allerta Meteo, incredibili anomaly dei mari italiani: bollenti fino a +30 ° C, è un innesco pericolosissimo . and L'Italia circondata da una vasta piscina di acque molto calde, ecco come si dissiperà questo enormous “serbatoio di energia potentialiale” . Daniele Ingemi in MeteoWeb.eu, 18th resp. July 20, 2015;
    For the problem itself, see for example: Double threat to the Mediterranean - climate change hits the sea particularly hard due to warming and acidification . MedSeA Project on scinexx.de: Wissen aktuell , June 16, 2014, accessed July 19, 2015.
  312. Mediterranean reaches record temperature: highest temperature in over 50 years - peak not yet reached - experts warn of storms in autumn . In: Der Standard online, August 25, 2003.
  313. ^ Massive fish deaths in Tuscany . In: Der Standard online, July 29, 2015.
  314. Mediterranean bathtub in Europe: water sometimes over 30 degrees . wetteronline.de, August 5, 2015.
  315. Tobias Reinartz: "High Impact Weather" or: The bear is pounding on the Mediterranean! DWD: Topic of the day , August 31, 2015.
  316. Lake Constance is warmer than ever - a new record of 26.1 degrees in the water . In: das allgäu online , all-in.de, August 13, 2015.
  317. ^ The North Sea Abloom . NASA Earthobservatory: Images , July 5, 2015;
    The North Sea Abloom . NASA: Image of the Day. , July 6, 2015.
  318. Forest fire at Chernobyl contained . In: Kurier online, July 2, 2015.
  319. Midsummer temperatures and forest fire risks in southwest Germany . Paysages blog note on LeMonde.fr, July 19, 2015, accessed on July 22, 2015.
  320. ^ "Hellish" situation: Violent forest fires are raging in Greece . In: Der Spiegel online, July 17, 2015; Forest fires under control in Greece . ORF, July 19, 2015.
  321. Incendi boschivi in tutta Italia: 90 i Roghi, il Sud il più colpito . MeteoWeb.eu, July 18, 2015.
  322. Satelitske slike požara na otoku Korčuli i poluotoku Pelješcu, 20. and 21. srpnja 2015 . DHMZ, Zanimljivosti i obavijesti , July 21, 2015 - Satellite images of the fires on Korcula and Peljesac.
  323. Weather: Forest fires in the Balkans . Wetter.net, July 22, 2015.
  324. Severe forest fires are raging in Portugal and Spain . Christoph Debets in Euronews.com (Reuters, EFE, Radio y Televisión Española), August 11, 2015.
  325. ↑ The best conditions for the bark beetle . In: Kleine Zeitung online, August 25, 2015.
  326. Forest owners fear a strong pest year . In: Salzburger Nachrichten . August 25, 2015, local section Stadt und Land , p. 8 .
  327. For example: Forest damage in Tyrol 2015. ( Memento of the original from August 15, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / tirol.lko.at archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Agriculture Chamber of Tyrol, February 24, 2016.
  328. ↑ Speed limit on motorways due to heat remains in place. In: Südwest Presse , July 6, 2015. Accessed July 6, 2015; Full closure due to blow-ups on the motorway: heat bursts concrete joints on A9. In: Mitteldeutsche Zeitung , July 6, 2015. Accessed July 6, 2015; Heat in Berlin The city has a fever. In: Der Tagesspiegel , July 5, 2015. Retrieved July 6, 2015.

  329. Heat wave: trains get stuck in the street . In: RP Online , July 3, 2015.
  330. Route closure due to heat damage ( memento of the original from July 21, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . Oberpfalzbahn.de, undated, accessed on July 17, 2015; Track faults in Bavaria - repairs take 4 days longer . Mittelbayerische.de, undated, accessed on July 17, 2015.  @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.oberpfalzbahn.de
  331. Track damage from heat . TV update from July 21, 2015.
  332. Heat stopped the Arlberg and Ausserfernbahn . tirol.orf.at, July 3, 2015.