East Central Europe

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  • The core area of ​​East Central Europe
  • Occasionally counted as part of the rest of East Central Europe
  • Under East-Central Europe is defined as the East Central Europe .

    Assignment in parlance

    A clear definition of the geographical regions West and East Central Europe hardly makes sense because the historical development and the development status of the states located there would have to be taken into account.

    The language used in Western and Central Europe roughly reflects the following assignment of states:

    In terms of landscape, Eastern Austria belongs to Eastern Central Europe, the assignment of Austria to Western Central Europe is politically and geographically rooted in the mid-twentieth century. Physically, the border between the Alps and the Bohemian Massif can be seen here. This limit corresponds roughly to the climatic limits of the Atlantic area of influence to the Pannonian climate .

    Western and Central Europe in this broader sense together correspond approximately also the term Central Europe or Central Europe , English Central Europe (CE) . Must be distinguished this cultural geography region from economic policy term CEEC Central and Eastern Europe  / CEE Central and Eastern Europe , a concept that is somewhat equivalent to the comprehensive herein East Central Europe or Eastern comprehensively to see.

    Membership criteria

    Central and Eastern Europe
    1. The largest pillar for the justification of the concept of East Central Europe and for the clear delimitation of this area from “geographical” Eastern Europe ( Russia , Ukraine, etc.) is denominational affiliation with the Western Church . In Poland, Hungary, etc., Catholicism is decisive (but Calvinism is also strongly represented in Hungary ). In contrast to this, the Orthodox faith is represented south and east of East Central Europe . The Archdiocese of Vilnius and the Archdiocese of Lviv have always been regarded as the eastern borders of Catholic Europe .
    2. Halecki defined a number of common structural features that constitute belonging to East Central Europe. The region is characterized by multiethnicity. In the Middle Ages and in the early modern period it was characterized by class liberty . At the same time, their social development was characterized by the emergence of the so-called second serfdom . East Central Europe was significantly shaped by the rule of the two great dynasties of the Polish-Lithuanian Jagiellonians and the Austrian Habsburgs . In the 19th century, East Central Europe was ruled from outside by three empires: the Prussian - German Empire , Tsarist Russia and Austria-Hungary . In opposition to the rule of these states, a pronounced ethnic and linguistic nationalism developed among the peoples of East Central Europe . Quite a few of these national movements were able to found their own nation-state after the First World War . In the interwar period , Eastern Central Europe was therefore characterized by the existence of numerous relatively powerless states, which then fell victim to the National Socialist European plans from 1939, only to fall under the dominance of the Soviet Union after 1945 with changed borders (typical example: Czechoslovakia ). After 1990, the new democracies of East Central Europe made up most of the countries that joined the EU in 2004 .

    In recent times, the countries of Eastern Central Europe have also set themselves apart from their eastern neighbors. The new dividing line can be identified by the new east and south borders (which coincide with the respective borders of the new EU states - Poland, Hungary, etc.) of the EU. The core area of ​​Eastern Central Europe are the countries of the Visegrád Group (Poland, Slovakia, the Czech Republic and Hungary). Their development towards EU accession became apparent earlier. In these states, a willingness to reform began within the socialist parties in the 1980s. In this way u. a. the Polish Solidarność gain a foothold. In Hungary, the reform policy (around Gyula Horn ) led to the lifting of the Iron Curtain . The rough border of East Central Europe is the (eastern) 24th degree of longitude. In his famous Berlin – Moscow report . Wolfgang Büscher writes a trip on foot :

    “The East is something that nobody wants. ... If I asked in Brandenburg where the East begins, the answer was: over in Poland, of course. When I asked in Poland, they said: The East begins in Warsaw, well, basically Warsaw is one of them. I was assured that western Poland and eastern Poland really couldn't be compared, that was something completely different, I'll see when I'm east of Warsaw. Another world - more provincial, poorer, dirtier. Just east. Ostig, as we say at home. Zonig. East of Warsaw, the answer was again beyond doubt: just up the road to Białystok. Everything to the left of her, to the west, is Catholic, and therefore well Polish. What is to her right is Belarusian Orthodox. "

    - Wolfgang Büscher

    Research institutes with a focus on East Central Europe

    East Central Europe was the central research topic of East Research . The important researchers included a. Karl Valentin Müller , Eugen Lemberg and the historian Hermann Aubin . Important research institutions were the Charles University in Prague and the Collegium Carolinum .

    See also




    Monographs and edited volumes

    In chronological order

    • Oskar Halecki : Border area of ​​the Occident. A history of East Central Europe. Müller, Salzburg 1952 (English original title: Borderlands of western civilization. ).
    • Oskar Halecki: Europe, borders and structure of its history. Gentner, Darmstadt 1957 (English original title: The Limits and divisions of European history. ).
    • Werner Conze : East Central Europe. From late antiquity to the 18th century. Beck, Munich 1992, ISBN 3-406-35985-X (2nd, unchanged edition, ibid 1993).
    • Ferenc Glatz: Minorities in Eastern Central Europe. Historical analysis and a political code of conduct. Europa Institut, Budapest 1993, ISBN 963-8312-05-X .
    • Jenö Szücs: The three historical regions of Europe. 2nd Edition. New Critique Publishing House, Frankfurt am Main 1994, ISBN 3-8015-0240-6 .
    • Hansjürgen Brachmann (Ed.): Castle - Castle Town - City. On the genesis of medieval non-agricultural centers in Eastern Central Europe (= research on the history and culture of Eastern Central Europe. Vol. 2). Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1995, ISBN 3-05-002601-4 .
    • Jerzy Kłoczowski: East Central Europe in the historiography of the countries of the region. Institute of East Central Europe, Lublin 1995, ISBN 83-85854-14-2 .
    • Hugo Weczerka (Hrsg.): Estates and sovereignty in East Central Europe in the early modern period (= historical and regional studies of East Central Europe. Vol. 16). Herder Institute, Marburg 1995, ISBN 3-87969-237-8 .
    • Joachim Bahlcke (Hrsg.): Freedom of the classes and state formation in East Central Europe. Supranational similarities in political culture from the 16th to the 18th century (= research on the history and culture of eastern Central Europe. Vol. 4). Universitäts-Verlag, Leipzig 1996, ISBN 3-931922-23-5 .
    • Rudolf Jaworski , Robert Luft (Ed.): 1848/49, Revolutions in East Central Europe (= Bad Wiesseer Meetings of the Collegium Carolinum. Vol. 18). Lectures at the conference of the Collegium Carolinum in Bad Wiessee 1990. Oldenbourg, Munich 1996.
    • Günter Prinzing , Maciej Salamon (Ed.): Byzanz und Ostmitteleuropa 950 - 1453 (= Mainz publications on Byzantine Studies. Vol. 3) Contributions to a table-ronde of the XIX. International Congress of Byzantine Studies, Copenhagen 1996. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1999, ISBN 3-447-04146-3 .
    • Inge Auerbach: Stands in East Central Europe. Alternatives to the monarchical principle in early modern times, Lithuania and Bohemia . Sagner, Munich 1997, ISBN 3-87690-694-6 .
    • Hans Lemberg (Ed.): East Central Europe between the two world wars. (1918-1939). Strength and weakness of the new states, national minorities (= conferences on East Central Europe research. 3). Herder Institute, Marburg 1997, ISBN 3-87969-257-2 .
    • Paul Robert Magocsi: Historical atlas of East Central Europe (= A history of East Central Europe. Vol. 1). 1. paperback edition, with corrections, 2nd printing. University of Washington Press, Seattle WA et al. 1998, ISBN 0-295-97445-1 .
    • Joseph Rothschild: East Central Europe between the two World Wars (= A History of East Central Europe. Vol. 9). 8th printing. University of Washington Press, Seattle WA et al. 1998, ISBN 0-295-95357-8 .
    • Ivo Bock, Kristiane Burchardi (eds.): Law and culture in East Central Europe (= analyzes of culture and society in Eastern Europe. Vol. 8). Edition Temmen, Bremen 1999, ISBN 3-86108-331-0 .
    • Peter Haslinger (Ed.): Boundaries in the head. Contributions to the history of the border in Eastern Central Europe (= Vienna Eastern European Studies. Vol. 11). Lang, Frankfurt am Main et al. 1999, ISBN 3-631-34830-4 .
    • Hans Lemberg (Ed.): Borders in East Central Europe in the 19th and 20th centuries. Current research problems (= conferences on East Central Europe research 10). Herder Institute, Marburg 2000, ISBN 3-87969-275-0 .
    • Heinz-Dietrich Löwe (Ed.): Minorities, regional awareness and centralism in East Central Europe (= Transylvanian Archive. Volume 3, Vol. 35). Böhlau, Cologne et al. 2000, ISBN 3-412-12799-X .
    • Jan Foitzik (Ed.): De-Stalinization Crisis in East Central Europe 1953 - 1956. From June 17th to the Hungarian popular uprising, political, military, social and national dimensions. Schöningh, Paderborn et al. 2001, ISBN 3-506-72590-4 .
    • Joachim Bahlcke Arno Strohmeyer (Ed.): The construction of the past. Historical thinking, tradition formation and self-portrayal in early modern East Central Europe (= journal for historical research. Supplement 29). Duncker and Humblot, Berlin 2002, ISBN 3-428-10795-0 .
    • Andreas R. Hofmann, Anno Veronika Wendland: City and Public in Eastern Central Europe 1900 - 1939. Contributions to the emergence of modern urbanity between Berlin , Charkiv , Tallinn and Trieste (= research on the history and culture of Eastern Central Europe. Vol. 14) Steiner, Stuttgart 2002 , ISBN 3-515-07937-8 .
    • Robert Born (ed.): The art historiographies in East Central Europe and the national discourse (= Humboldt writings on art and picture history. Vol. 1). Gebr. Mann, Berlin 2004, ISBN 3-7861-2491-4 .
    • Joachim von Puttkamer : East Central Europe in the 19th and 20th centuries (= Oldenbourg Grundriss der Geschichte. Vol. 38). Oldenbourg, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-486-58170-6 .
    • Christoph Augustynowicz : History of East Central Europe - an outline. 2., act. Edition, new academic press, Vienna 2014, ISBN 978-3-7003-1908-5 .

    Individual evidence

    1. ^ East Central Europe Profile , LpB Baden-Württemberg
    2. For example in Harms Handbuch der Geographie , List Verlag Munich
    3. http://www.lpb-bw.de/oe_eu/ostm_eu/ostm_eu.php3
    4. Rowohlt, 6th edition March 2007, p. 61 f.