Northeast Europe

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Under North Eastern Europe means the northern part of Eastern Europe . These include the states of Lithuania , Latvia , Estonia , the Russian exclave Kaliningrad (ie the Baltic region ) and the northern part of the rest of European Russia. The northern regions of European Russia include northwestern Russia and the Moscow area.

Northeast Europe

All of these areas are more northerly than many Scandinavian cities and have historically been referred to as " North " or " Northern Europe ". Saint Petersburg was called "Venice of the North", Vilnius , Moscow and even Kiev were called "Jerusalem of the North", Peter the Great was called the "great Nordic hero", Catherine the Great was called the "Semiramis of the North", the war between Russia and Sweden as the “ Great Northern War ”, and Stalin said to his soldiers after the German attack on the Soviet Union : “The fate of Northern Europe lies in your hands”. A well-known luxury train from Paris to Saint Petersburg was also called the Nord-Express .

Northeastern Europe was shaped by Finno-Ugric and Baltic tribes since pre-Christian times ; only in the late antiquity came Slavs added, especially East Slavs , the early Middle Ages Scandinavians and since the High Middle Ages German . Historically, this was a border area between the spheres of influence of various German powers (the Teutonic Order , the Hanseatic League (with the Hanseatic cities of Reval (now Tallinn) and Riga ), later Prussia and the German Empire ), Poland-Lithuania , the Kingdom of Sweden (until the 18th Century), and Russia (as Grand Duchy of Moscow , then the Tsarist Empire , later as the Soviet Union ) and was often fought over (including the Lithuanian Wars of the Teutonic Order , Great Northern War , First World War , Estonian War of Independence , Latvian War of Independence , Polish-Lithuanian War , Polish- Soviet War , World War II ). As a legacy of the Soviet era, Russian is now the dominant lingua franca in Northeastern Europe, although it remains very important in the Baltic States due to the Russian minorities. In northwestern Russia , however, there are still diverse, mainly Finno-Ugric minorities .

The following former eastern territories of the German Empire are in northeastern Europe:

However, there is no agreement on whether Northeast Europe should be viewed as an independent part of Eastern Europe.

The largest cities in the region are:

Research institutes with a focus on Northeast Europe



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