|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Association municipality :||Rhine-Selz|
|Height :||84 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||19.34 km 2|
|Residents:||8451 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||437 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postcodes :||55279, 55283|
|Area code :||06133|
|License plate :||MZ , BIN|
|Community key :||07 3 39 043|
|City structure:||2 districts|
|Association administration address:||Sant'Ambrogio-Ring 33
|City Mayor :||Jochen Schmitt ( FWG )|
|Location of the city of Nierstein in the Mainz-Bingen district|
Nierstein is a town in the Mainz-Bingen district in Rhineland-Palatinate . Since July 1, 2014, it has been part of the Rhein-Selz Association , the largest of which it is with around 8,400 inhabitants. According to state planning, Nierstein is designated as a middle center.
Nierstein is located in Rheinhessen on the Rhine , approx. 12 kilometers south of Mainz and 25 kilometers north of Worms . Neighboring communities within the Rhein-Selz community are Selzen , Köngernheim and Friesenheim in the west, Dalheim , Dexheim and the city of Oppenheim in the south and Mommenheim in the north and the communities Lörzweiler and Nackenheim, which are part of the Bodenheim community . In Nierstein, the Flügelsbach , which also flows through the Schwabsburg district, flows into the Rhine. On the other side of the Rhine to be located Trebur belonging grain sand .
City districts and residential areas
The city is divided into the two districts of Nierstein and Schwabsburg . The Schwabsburg district was an independent municipality until 1970 and takes its name from Schwabsburg Castle . The residential areas Haus Müller, Haus Ullrich, Im Ried and Paterberghof also belong to the Nierstein district .
Between 1953 and the end of 2009, the US armed forces maintained around 75 hectares of barracks near Dexheim with residential, utility and administrative buildings. Although the area was completely in the urban area of Nierstein ( district Schwabsburg), the barracks bore the name US Army Anderson Barracks Dexheim . This area was vacated and the Mainz investor, building contractor Wolfram Richter, took over the area and plans - together with the city of Nierstein and the Rhein-Selz municipality - to turn it into an industrial park; this so-called Rhein-Selz-Park is being planned.
Around Nierstein, sections of the Permian ( Rotliegend period) emerge in which animal tracks that are 290 million years old can be seen. Above Nierstein there is a steep slope, known as the “ Roter Hang ”, made of red clay and sandstone, which extends from the northern Nackenheim to the western Schwabsburg. Due to the porosity of the rock, vines planted here have particularly deep roots, which results in very mineral wines. See paragraph viticulture .
Early history to 1900
2000 years ago there was a Roman settlement on the site of today's Nierstein , which was called Bauconica Nova . Nierstein was first mentioned in a document in 742. The Franconian caretaker Karlmann (Karolinger) , a son of Karl Martell , gave the Marienbasilika in Nierstein and its accessories to the diocese of Würzburg, which was established in 741 . The imperial village , located on the old royal estate , was first pledged in 1315 by Ludwig the Baier to the Archbishop of Mainz and then in 1375 to Ruprecht von der Pfalz . In 1451 the vineyards of the Counts von Katzenelnbogen are mentioned in the Walpe . In the 17th century , parts of Nierstein were destroyed during the Thirty Years' War and the War of the Palatinate Succession . In 1797 Nierstein fell to France. From 1816 Nierstein belonged to the Grand Duchy of Hesse .
The twentieth century
After the German defeat in World War I , Nierstein was occupied by French troops from 1919 to 1930. The Grand Duchy of Hesse , to which Nierstein belonged, became the People's State of Hesse after the duke's abdication on November 9, 1918 . The German empire turned into a democracy. The NSDAP made itself the spokesman for the numerous opponents of this new democratic constitution for the Germans , and in Nierstein it gained a strong influence in comparison to other Rheinhessen communities. Local councils and associations were brought into line.
The members of families of Jewish descent were most exposed to persecution by the Nazis and those from all walks of life who sympathized with them. In 1928 there were still around 80 Jewish people living in Nierstein. Immediately after January 30th, 1933, they were ostracized and ostracized by the majority society. From April 1, 1933, they were gradually robbed of their existence. Some managed to flee abroad. The preliminary climax of the persecution was the Reichspogromnacht , during which, on the orders of Hitler's SA and SS groups, in association with local authorities, attacked their Jewish fellow citizens. The men were then transported to concentration camps for several months. At least 32 Jews from Nierstein were murdered at the time of the Holocaust . Three committed suicide.
The last crime occurred on March 21, 1945, a few hours before the Allies occupied Nierstein in the form of the Americans. On the Nierstein side of the Rhine, it came on the grain of sand to a shooting of six innocent civilians by Nazi officials. The victims were unpopular critics of the regime and a woman of Jewish descent from Nierstein and Oppenheim.
Just one day later, one of the largest river crossings in a war by the 3rd US Army ( George S. Patton ), the XII, began between Oppenheim and Nierstein ( Rhine crossing near Nierstein in 1945 ) . US Army Corps ( Manton S. Eddy ), 5th Infantry Division (United States) under Stafford LeRoy Irwin with 6 battalions, 15,000 soldiers, 2,500 vehicles, including inflatable boats, assault rafts and floating tanks. The German defense troops were completely surprised by the noiselessly approaching boats at night. And so it became one of the bloodiest river crossings in military history. To commemorate this event, a memorial was erected on the banks of the Rhine in 2017.
On December 15, 1947, a US military aircraft Douglas DC-3 of the type C-47, called the Raisin Bomber, crashed in the vineyards near Nierstein. Both pilots were killed.
From 1972 until its dissolution in 2014, Nierstein belonged to the Nierstein-Oppenheim association , and since then to the newly formed Rhein-Selz association.
From 2013 to 2015, 54 stumbling blocks were laid on the initiative of the local history association.
- Sundheim (16th century)
The town of Sundheim, which was once in the south (Old High German sunt = "south") at the gates of Nierstein, is still reminiscent of the street name "Hinter Sundheim". Sundheim (or Suntheym) was located in the south of today's center on the Flügelsbach.
- Schwabsburg (July 1, 1970)
The name Schwabsburg carried over from Schwabsburg Castle to the previously existing settlement in the Mark Nierstein. In the Middle Ages, the villages of Dexheim, Schwabsburg and Nierstein formed a community that was administered by the Niersteiner Rittergericht. The community was directly subordinate to the empire . After 1400 these places came under the rule of Electoral Palatinate and lost their imperial freedom.
The Rhineland-Palatinate Council of Ministers decided on March 12, 2013 to grant the local community of Nierstein "city rights". The certificate of appointment was presented in a ceremony on June 7, 2013. In Rhineland-Palatinate, city rights do not have any advantages over other municipalities.
The development of the population of Nierstein in relation to today's urban area; the values from 1871 to 1987 are based on censuses:
The city council (until 2013 municipal council) in Nierstein consists of 24 council members who were elected in the local elections on May 26, 2019 in a personalized proportional representation, and the honorary city mayor (until 2013 local mayor ) as chairman.
The distribution of seats in the city council:
- FWG = Free Voting Group Nierstein-Schwabsburg
- NEW = Voter Group Nierstein Committed and Independent e. V.
City Mayor is Jochen Schmitt (FWG). In the runoff election on June 16, 2019, he was able to prevail with a share of 64.57% of the vote and is the successor to Thomas Günther, who was no longer a candidate.
Former local mayor (until 2013) and city mayor:
- Andreas Licht (SPD, 1945-1946)
- Gustav Strub (1946–1966)
- Friedhelm Schneider (SPD, 1967–1972)
- Paul Hexemer (SPD, 1972–1979; 1st alderman 1958–1972)
- Wolfgang Engel (FWG, 1979–1999)
- Thomas Günther (CDU, 1999-2019)
coat of arms
|Blazon : "A red-armored black eagle in gold, a red star above each wing."|
|Reasons for the coat of arms: All seals of this famous wine village show the imperial eagle. The SIGILLVM VNIVERSITATIS IN NERSTEIN (impressions from 1272 to 1660) each with a six-pointed star; the SIGILLVM VNIVERSITATIS IN NIERSTEIN 1576, which is referred to in a document from 1592 as the joint court seal for Nierstein, Dexheim and Schwabsburg, without stars; the S (IGILLVM) VNIVERSITATIS IN NERSTEIN, a larger cut of the oldest seal (imprint from 1652) with stars; the SIGILL (VM) VNIVERSITATIS IN NIERSTAIN (imprint from 1624, here referred to as secret seal) without stars and likewise the NIERSTEINER COURT INSIGEL (imprints from 1710 to 1785) without stars. Illustrations by Kissel and Brilmayer , in colors by Otto Hupp .|
Culture and sights
The amateur paleontologist Arnulf Stapf (father) and Harald Stapf (son) show in the built-up of them Paleontological Museum Nierstein rare footprints of insects , amphibians and reptiles from the Permian , mostly in Rotliegenden found by Nierstein and its surroundings, as well as fossils from all over the world. Since some of the items are unique, international specialists like to visit the institution, which is well worth seeing.
Town center and noble houses : The old town center of the formerly free imperial village of Nierstein consists of the triangle Marktplatz, Fronhof and Tempelhof, which surrounds the Protestant Martinskirche surrounded by a defensive wall , in its place the Franconian administrative center (hall), the Carolingian Palatinate and the Ottonian royal court was standing. Baroque aristocratic courts determine the street scene and are reminiscent of a historical era in Nierstein's local history, when around two dozen aristocratic families were resident here as fiefdoms directly from the empire and determined events through the imperial offices of the bailiff , the mayor or the castle men , as lay judges of the knight's court or the ecclesiastical broadcasting court . The courtyards were - and mostly still are today - connected to each other and to the royal court by a branched underground system of defensive corridors. The former noble houses of the Barons von Knebel and Hundt von Saulheim (oldest half-timbered house) as well as the Knebel von Katzenelnbogen and Waldbott von Bassenheim families , the Metternichhof (oldest secular building and oldest noble court ), the Haxthäuser Hof (baroque mansion), archway and side wings are to be emphasized the lock von der Leyen and the Dalberg -Herding'sche lock (in the chapel featured wall and ceiling paintings, which on behalf of the chatelaine Josépha Ursula of herding , by Jacob Götzenberger in Nazarene were created).
Above the community, the 11.3 m high watchtower is the highest vantage point in the vineyards. For its construction, the stones from the broken king's chair between Nierstein and Lörzweiler were used, where in 1024 the royal assembly elected Konrad II to be the first salier on the German royal throne. The Catholic Kilian's Church, visible from afar, on a hill jutting out towards the Rhine Valley, defines the silhouette of Nierstein, which until 2011 was impaired by the high factory buildings of a former malt house . After the planned redesign of the area, the former Dalberg-Herdingsche Schloss (at least the house chapel, which is well worth seeing), located on the site of the malt house, will be made accessible again.
Sironabad : In 1802, the remains of a Celtic / Roman spring sanctuary around 2000 years old were discovered not far from the banks of the Rhine on the road to Oppenheim. Its reconstruction can be viewed today.
Near Nierstein is located on the other side of the Rhine far from the access road grain sand Geinsheim at Lake Constance transmitter in Meßkirch-Rohrdorf. It was dismantled in the 1970s and rebuilt in Nierstein in 1981 .a transmission system for FM of BWRs, the triangular a 138 meter high, guyed lattice steel mast with Cross section used as antenna support. This transmission mast was originally part of the directional antenna of the
The largest club in the city of Nierstein is the Turnverein Nierstein 1901 e. V. with over 1200 members. It should be mentioned here that the dance group "Magic Fire" in 2005, in addition to the title of Rhineland-Palatinate master, was also German master and European champion in the category show dance character youth.
Another large association of the city of Nierstein is VfR Nierstein 1911 e. V. In addition to two senior and many youth soccer teams, the VfR also has a successful karate department, which has already won one or two titles during the German championships.
Other clubs are the 1. FC Schwabsburg 1958 e. V., the gymnastics club 1903 Schwabsburg, the singing club "Harmonia" 1865 Nierstein e. V., the men's choir 1884 Schwabsburg, the CVJM Nierstein, the riding and driving club Nierstein und Umgebung e. V, and the history association Nierstein e. V, who publishes the "Niersteiner Geschichtsblätter" annually.
Every year the winegrowers festival takes place on the first weekend in August. Until a few years ago it was known nationwide for a historic wine village built on the market square in the style of a large castle. At the end of the 1990s, however, the necessary renovation of the buildings was refused for financial reasons and the appearance was increasingly adapted to other wine festivals in the region with many individual wine stands.
in the growing area
|Rank according to
vineyards in 2017
|White wine||red wine|
|Ingelheim am Rhein||13||642||51||49|
|Bingen am Rhein||15th||566||74||26th|
|Source: Leaflet Viticulture 2018. State Statistical Office Rhineland-Palatinate, Bad Ems, May 2018|
Annually recurring events in the wine season
- April 30th: Maypole Festival
- May 1st : 3-tower wine hike from Nierstein through the surrounding vineyards to the Trutzturm, the Schwabsburger Schlossturm and the Niersteiner watch tower
- Mid-May: Wine festival and curb in the Schwabsburg district
- June: Park of Pleasures
- Second weekend in June: Wine presentation in the Roter Hang vineyard
- First weekend in July: Wine on the Rhine
- First weekend in August: Historic wine festival
- First weekend in September: Niersteiner curb and wine festival
- Second weekend in September: days of open wineries and wine cellars
Economy and Infrastructure
Nierstein is significantly shaped by viticulture and with 742 hectares of vineyards, 77% of which are white wine and 23% red wine, the fourth largest wine-growing community in Rheinhessen and the ninth-largest wine-growing community in Rhineland-Palatinate . The municipality is also the namesake for the Nierstein area .
The second largest branch of the economy is tourism, in addition to numerous day visitors, it is particularly geared towards hiking, wine and cycling tourism. The municipality of Nierstein-Schwabsburg currently has 7 hotels and 24 guest houses, many of them in renovated wine-growing farms.
The federal highway 9 runs through Nierstein (approx. 23,500 vehicles per day, as of February 25, 2017), which is closed to truck transit here, and the federal highway 420 begins (approx. 13,500 vehicles per day, as of February 25, 2017) . February 2017). Since the summer of 2012 there have been plans for a bypass, on July 25, 2013 the Structural and Approval Directorate South from Neustadt an der Weinstrasse issued the spatial planning decision and decided on "Option 5c". In the Federal Transport Infrastructure Plan 2030 , on the one hand a tunnel project for the B 9 with a length of 1.2 km and on the other hand a new route for the B 420 which will no longer run through the narrow town center, but south of Nierstein to the Rhine and there into the B 9 should flow. The previous intersection of the B 420 underpass is to be completely closed and renovated for two years from 2020.
Nierstein is on the Mainz – Ludwigshafen railway line . The Hessian Ludwigsbahn opened the section and the station on March 23, 1853. The category 5 double-track station is located near the banks of the Rhine.
From 1900 to 1951 Nierstein was the separation station for the 10 km long Nierstein-Undenheim-Köngernheim railway line branching off here into the Rhineland-Hesse hinterland. The line was popularly known as the Valtinche . Today the route in Nierstein is a green strip with a sidewalk along the ring road, further in the hinterland a cycle path.
Since November 1, 1900, a port railway has been running to the banks of the Rhine, which has since been shut down , and remains of the track are still there.
- Paul Frank (1922–2016), last mayor of Schwabsburg, first mayor, a total of 25 years in office, 39 years member of the local council, honorary citizen of the Nierstein community. 1990 Honored with the Freiherr-vom-Stein plaque of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate for many years of local political activity.
- Wolfgang Engel (1933–2012), mayor, honorary citizen of the Nierstein community, holder of the Federal Cross of Merit .
sons and daughters of the town
- Johann Wilhelm Wernher (* 1767; † 1827 in Nierstein) was a councilor, mayor , lawyer , privy councilor and court president and winemaker in Nierstein and became known as a judge of the Schinderhannes trial . In 1804 he acquired the Rodensteiner / Haxthäuser Hof and made it the permanent seat of the family in Rheinhessen. Under Johann Wilhelm Wernher's descendants, several were active in Rhine-Hesse historical research, notably in Nierstein and Oppenheim.
- Philipp Wilhelm Wernher (born January 12, 1802 in Nierstein; † October 6, 1887 in Nierstein), son of Johann Wilhelm Wernher, was a Hessian liberal politician and winemaker . Colleague of Heinrich von Gagern , member of the state estates of Hessen-Darmstadt , the pre-parliament , the Frankfurt National Assembly , the Erfurt Union Parliament , district council in the Oppenheim district and director of the Darmstadt state debt repayment fund . Member of the Hessian First Chamber.
- Friedrich Kessel (born April 1, 1897 in Nierstein, † March 24, 1978 in Nierstein), skipper, captain and politician, member of parliament in the Weimar Republic
- D. Theo Sorg , (born March 11, 1929 in Nierstein; † March 10, 2017 in Blaubeuren), Protestant pastor and from 1988 to 1994 regional bishop of the Evangelical Church in Württemberg
- Ernst-Günter Brinkmann (* 1943), member of the Rhineland-Palatinate state parliament from 1987 to 2006
Rheinhessen wine queens :
- Heike Schmitt, 1977/1978 and 30th German Wine Queen 1978/1979
- Lisa Bunn, 2008/2009
Personalities who have worked on site
- Siegfried Schuch (* 1956 in Mainz) German conservationist (NABU), business educator
- Peter W. von Weymarn (* 1936 in Reval / Estonia), winemaker and president of the VDP 1972–1978
- Karl Johann Brilmayer . Rheinhessen in the past and present, Gießen 1905, pp. 343–348.
- Hildegard Frieß-Reimann; Sigrid Schmitt Hrsg .: Nierstein: Contributions to the past and present of an old imperial village . Commissioned by the Nierstein community and the Nierstein Local History Working Group, Verlag der Rheinhessische Druckwerkstätte, Alzey 1992, ISBN 3-87854-088-4 .
- Wolfgang Kemp: The Jewish community in Nierstein . In Hildegard Frieß-Reimann; Sigrid Schmitt Hrsg .: Nierstein: Contributions to the past and present of an old imperial village . Commissioned by the Nierstein community and the Nierstein Local History Working Group, Verlag der Rheinhessische Druckwerkstätte, Alzey 1992, ISBN 3-87854-088-4 . Placed online in the Alemannia Judaica portal . 
- Wolfgang Kemp: Documentation Oppenheimer and Niersteiner Jews 1933–1945 . Corrected, supplemented and significantly expanded new edition. Verlag der Rheinhessische Druckwerkstätte, Alzey 2009, ISBN 978-3-87854-221-6 .
- Wolfgang Kemp History of the Jewish community in Nierstein and its synagogue on the Alemannia Judaica homepage
- Literature about Nierstein in the Rhineland-Palatinate State Bibliography
- History Association Nierstein (Hrsg.): Niersteiner Geschichtsblätter, an annual journal since 1997, Nierstein  .
- History Association Nierstein (Ed.): The Haxthäuser Hof - An Adelshof with History, Nierstein 2016, ISBN 978-3-9817898-0-5
- History Association Nierstein (Ed.): I enjoy the vine in abundance. The Metternichhof - Nierstein's oldest Adelshof, Nierstein 2019, ISBN 978-3-9817898-4-3
- Web presence of the city of Nierstein
- History of Nierstein at regionalgeschichte.net
- The history association Nierstein reported in November 2015 about the laying of stumbling blocks in Nierstein.
- Project: New construction of the Nierstein bypass (B 9)
- State Statistical Office of Rhineland-Palatinate - population status 2019, districts, communities, association communities ( help on this ).
- State Statistical Office Rhineland-Palatinate - regional data
- State Statistical Office Rhineland-Palatinate (ed.): Official directory of the municipalities and parts of the municipality. Status: January 2018 [ Version 2020 is available. ] . S. 107 (PDF; 2.2 MB).
- Staab, Franz: Nierstein in the Middle Ages (until 1375), in: Hildegard Friess-Reimann / Sigrid Schmitt (eds.): Nierstein - Contributions to the past and present of an old imperial village , Alzey 1992, 36–58, 38ff. Text and translation of the document of Emperor Ludwig the Pious from 822
- Erhard Nietzschmann: The free in the country. Former German imperial villages and their coats of arms. Melchior, Wolfenbüttel 2013, ISBN 978-3-944289-16-8 , p. 56.
- Entry Nierstein from Regionalgeschichte.net, accessed July 24, 2016.
- Heinz Leiwig : Finale 1945 Rhein-Main, Dusseldorf 1985, p 73
- I'm a Niersteiner: Rhine River Crossing Memorial commemorates the historic crossing of the Rhine. Allgemeine Zeitung of March 25, 2017, accessed April 12, 2017
- Homepage of the Nierstein History Association, Stolpersteine department
- Werner Lang, Heimatbuch Landkreis Mainz , Oppenheim 1967, page 21; Hildegard Friess-Reimann / Sigrid Schmitt (eds.): Nierstein - Contributions to the past and present of an old imperial village , Alzey 1992, page 103.
- Official municipality directory 2006 ( Memento from December 22, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) (= State Statistical Office Rhineland-Palatinate [Hrsg.]: Statistical volumes . Volume 393 ). Bad Ems March 2006, p. 190 (PDF; 2.6 MB). Info: An up-to-date directory ( 2016 ) is available, but in the section "Territorial changes - Territorial administrative reform" it does not give any population figures.
- Ministry of the Interior, for Sport and Infrastructure of the State of Rhineland-Palatinate: Nierstein municipality becomes a city
- Election results for City Council Nierstein 2019 , website of VG Rhein-Selz
- The Regional Officer Rhineland-Palatinate: Municipal elections 2014, city and municipal council elections
- The Regional Officer Rhineland-Palatinate: Local elections 2009, city and municipal council elections
- The regional returning officer RLP: direct elections 2019. see Rhein-Selz, Verbandsgemeinde, 13th line of results. Retrieved September 29, 2019 .
- Karl Ernst Demandt and Otto Renkhoff : Hessisches Ortswappenbuch. C. A. Starke Verlag, Glücksburg / Ostsee 1956, p. 132.
- Detailed information on the Nierstein Paleontological Museum
- History of the Martinskirche
- History Association Nierstein (Ed.): I enjoy the vine in abundance. The Metternichhof - Nierstein's oldest Adelshof, Nierstein 2019
- Historical Society Nierstein: The Haxthäuser Hof - A Adelshof with history, Nierstein 2016 (ed.)
- Structures in Nierstein
- Information based on our own measurements (Note: platform height 10.3 m. Information on the website of the Nierstein History Association is different)
- 3-tower wine hike in the vineyards around Nierstein
- Darmstädter Echo: 6th Park of Delights , Saturday, May 25, 2019, p. 19.
- Current situation: Spatial planning decision issued ( Memento of the original from March 6, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , Variant 5c ( memento of the original from April 9, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. und Kern: Land favors variant 5c when bypassing Nierstein ( memento of the original from April 9, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Press release Ministry of the Interior, Sports and Infrastructure, March 3, 2015
- Ulrich Gerecke: Life becomes a building site ; in Allgemeine Zeitung (Mainz) on February 25, 2017; P. 21
- Station category list 2017 ( Memento of the original from February 15, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- At the same time [on November 1, 1900] the track connection between the Nierstein station and Nierstein-Hafen is opened for wagonload traffic. The fees to be collected amount to one mark for the car, regardless of the weight it contains . (Eisenbahndirektion Mainz (Hrsg.): Collection of the published official gazettes from November 3, 1900. 4th year, No. 51. Announcement No. 481, p. 379f).
- Hartwig Lorenz: Mainz City Library. 14. Niersteiner history sheets. In: Laudatory speech for the honorary citizenship of Paul Frank. History Association Nierstein, January 2009, accessed on March 31, 2016 .