1981

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1981
Columbia (space shuttle)
Launch of the Space Shuttle Columbia
Wojciech Jaruzelski (1968)
The Polish general Wojciech Jaruzelski proclaims martial law on television.
Anwar as-Sadat
The Egyptian President Anwar as-Sadat is killed in an assassination attempt.
Bucks Fizz win the Eurovision Song Contest with Making Your Mind Up .
Annual dedications
United Nations : " Ataturk Year " and " International Year of the Disabled "
Flower of the year (Germany): yellow daffodil
Bird of the Year (Germany): Black Woodpecker
Word of the year : zero solution
1981 in other calendars
From urbe condita 2734
Armenian calendar 1429-1430
Ethiopian calendar 1973-1974
Badi calendar 137-138
Bengali calendar 1387-1388
Berber calendar 2931
Buddhist calendar 2525
Burmese calendar 1343
Byzantine calendar 7489-7490
Chinese calendar
 - era 4677-4678 or
4617-4618
 - 60 year cycle

Metal monkey (庚申, 57) -
metal rooster (辛酉, 58)

French
revolutionary calendar
CLXXXIX - CXC
189-190
Hebrew calendar 5741-5742
Hindu calendar
 - Vikram Sambat 2037-2038
 - Shaka Samvat 1903-1904
Iranian calendar 1359-1360
Islamic calendar 1401-1402
Japanese calendar
 - Nengō (era): Shōwa 56
 - Kōki 2641
Coptic Calendar 1697-1698
Korean calendar
 - Dangun era 4314
 - Juche era 70
Minguo calendar 70
Modern Olympics XXII
Seleucid calendar 2292-2293
Thai solar calendar 2524

The year 1981 was mainly dominated by the peace movement . The Cold War , which had relaxed somewhat after the end of the Vietnam War with the fatigue of those involved, regained its rhetorical sharpness. In 1979, two years earlier, Soviet troops had marched into Afghanistan under Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev , which drew the world's attention to Central Asia . At the same time, the US lost its outpost there with the Islamic Revolution in Iran . The SALT II talks between the great powers had failed, so NATO relied on its double decision . With Ronald Reagan , a Republican became President of the United States in 1981 , whose stated aim was to win the arms race against the Warsaw Pact . The divided Europe should play a key role as the basis for medium-range nuclear missiles .

Against this background, peace rallies took place in Germany and throughout Europe in 1981, the largest of which, on November 21 in Amsterdam , attracted 400,000 people. The protests were part of a larger underground culture that included the environmental movement , anti-nuclear activists and the squatter scene.

Events

Poland

As a reaction to the desolate situation in the People's Republic of Poland , a new, independent trade union, Solidarność , was founded in 1980, to which around 10 million out of 16 million workers already belonged in November 1980 (see also the August strikes ). After the first strikes, hardliners in the Politburo were exchanged for moderate politicians; after that the situation eased. Nevertheless, the Soviet Union and the CPSU ( ruled by Leonid Brezhnev from 1964–1982 ) increased the pressure on the PVAP to fight the “ counterrevolution ” and repeatedly organized maneuvers near the Polish borders.

In the spring of 1981 there were repeated violent clashes between state organs and trade union activists. As the economic situation deteriorated further, wildcat strikes increased. In this decisive phase the tried and tested mediation options of the Church in Poland were also limited because the assassination attempt on Pope John Paul II had been carried out in May and Primate Stefan Wyszyński also died on May 28 .

After the first state congress of Solidarność in September 1981 decided on an even stronger political commitment and sent a message to all workers in the other socialist countries, the PVAP leadership finally decided on the confrontation course. At the 4th Central Committee Plenum from October 16 to 18, party leader Stanisław Kania was replaced by General Wojciech Jaruzelski, who is a hardliner defense minister . Despite Solidarność's willingness to compromise, the night of December 12th and 13th, 1981, the military and security organs took power in Poland. General Jaruzelski announced the imposition of martial law in a televised address . The union's leadership was arrested in Gdansk and its chairman, Lech Wałęsa (later President of Poland), was placed under house arrest. Regional leaders, heads of works committees and opposition intellectuals, a total of several thousand people, were interned in camps. It was not until July 1983 that martial law was officially repealed.

Egypt

The Egyptian President Anwar as-Sadat was assassinated on October 6th during a military parade. Sadat had already isolated Egypt in the Arab world in 1979 through the Israeli-Egyptian peace treaty . He made additional internal enemies when he cracked down on numerous Muslim and Coptic organizations and student groups in September and there were around 1,600 arrests. In addition, Egypt got into an economic crisis. The Islamic clergyman Omar Abdel-Rahman , who was later convicted for his role in the attack on the World Trade Center in 1993, supported the attack with a fatwa .

The attack could be followed live on television. As a Mirage fighter plane overflight distracted the crowd, a troop carrier pulled up in front of the President's box and a lieutenant stepped forward. While Sadat got up to receive the salute, the assassins got out of the truck, threw grenades and shot the president. In the following exchange of fire, seven people were killed, including the Cuban ambassador, and 28 were injured, including the Foreign Minister and later UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali .

Gambia

The Gambia was rocked by a violent coup in 1981. In the aftermath of the coup, the Gambia and Senegal signed a treaty on December 12, 1981, which provided for the unification of the armed forces, the currency and the economic area in the Confederation of Senegambia . This confederation existed from February 1, 1982 to September 30, 1989, when the Gambia left the federal government.

Annual dedications

Politics and world events

January

Kurt Furgler

February

Brokdorf nuclear power plant

March

  • March 2 : Defense Minister Ahmed Badawi and 13 other senior military officials die in a helicopter crash in Egypt .
  • March 2nd : The Spanish soccer player Enrique Castro (Quini) is kidnapped and freed by the police on March 25th .
  • March 2 : A Boeing 720 operated by the Pakistani airline PIA with 137 passengers and 11 crew members is hijacked and forced to land in Kabul ; The kidnappers demand the release of 90 political prisoners held in Pakistan, shoot a passenger on March 6th and land the plane again in Damascus on March 9th - 54 Pakistani prisoners are released and flown to Syria.
  • March 3 : At the 26th party congress of the CPSU , Leonid Brezhnev is confirmed as general secretary and the entire party leadership is confirmed in their offices.
  • March 4 : German President Karl Carstens visits India (until March 9), where he meets Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and other leading politicians.
  • March 5 : In Nuremberg , 141 people are arrested after vandalism at a demonstration in the KOMM cultural center .
  • March 5 : Two Turkish diplomats are killed by Armenian bombers in Paris .
  • March 6 : The then 31-year-old Marianne Bachmeier shoots the alleged murderer of her daughter Anna in the Lübeck district court room.
Reichstag building in 1982

April

Start of Columbia

May

Richard v. Weizsacker

June

July

August

September

Egypt's President Anwar as-Sadat (1918–1981)

October

November

H. Schmidt and E. Honecker on December 12th at Döllnsee

December

economy

science and technology

Humber Bridge

Culture

Cover of the album The Wall
Logo of the series "Dallas"
The old opera in Frankfurt

society

The women's museum in Bonn

religion

Joseph Ratzinger, 1988

Sports

For entries of athletics world records, see the respective discipline under athletics .

Disasters

  • January 27th : The passenger ferry Tampomas II , which caught fire the day before, sank in the Java Sea . Of the presumably more than 1,200 people on the ship, 672 were rescued, 147 dead were rescued, 373 people known by name remained missing after the marine casualty .
  • February 14 : 49 people died in a fire in a nightclub in Dublin .
  • June 6 : 235 people are killed in a railway accident in the Indian state of Bihar .
  • June 11th : Train accident in Erfurt-Bischleben. 14 people were killed.
  • June 11 : earthquake measuring 6.9 in Iran , killing approx. 3,000
View of the hotel lobby of the Hyatt Regency Crown Center Hotel in Kansas City the day after two connecting corridors collapsed

Minor accidents are listed in the sub-articles of Catastrophe .

Nobel Prizes

Nicolaas Bloembergen

Alternative Nobel Prizes

music

Logo of the station MTV

Born

January

Jamelia
Alicia Keys
Clara Morgane
Elijah Wood
Justin Timberlake

February

Paris Hilton
Joseph Gordon-Levitt
Jan Böhmermann

March

Samuel Eto'o
Matthias Schweighofer
Julia Stiles

April

Bjørn Einar Romøren
Hayden Christensen
Caro Emerald
Jessica Alba

May

Andrea Barzagli
Cosma Shiva Hagen
Iker Casillas

June

Natalie Portman
Nora Tschirner
Simon Ammann

July

Milow
Fernando Alonso

August

Miracle Laurie
Meghan Markle (2018)
Vanessa Amorosi
Roger Federer
Christina Obergföll

September

Beyoncé Knowles
Collien Elmen-Fernandes
Christina Milian
Serena Williams

October

Zlatan Ibrahimović
Heikki Kovalainen

November

Joe Cole
Natasha Bedingfield

December

Britney Spears
Amy Lee
Sienna Miller
Haley Paige

Day unknown

Died

January

Lanza del Vasto

February

Bill Haley & his Comets, 1954

March

April

Leo Kanner around 1955
Hans Söhnker (1946)

May

Wilhelmine Lübke at the diplomatic reception in 1968
Bob Marley , 1980

June

Carl Vinson
Zarah Leander, 1938

July

Marcel Breuer, 1957

August

Paddy Chayefsky

September

Tadeusz Baird

October

Anwar as-Sadat, 1980

November

December

Day unknown

Individual evidence

  1. spiegel.de: The communists caught in the trap

Web links

Commons : 1981  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files