جمهوريّة تشاد (Arabic)
République du Tchad (French)
Jumhūriyyat Taschād (Arabic)
|Republic of Chad|
Motto : «الاتحاد ، العمل ، التقدم»
« Unité, Travail, Progrès »
" Unity, Work, Progress "
|Official language||Arabic and French|
|Form of government||republic|
|Government system||Presidential system|
|Head of state , also head of government||
|population||15.4 million (as of 2018)|
|Population density||10.28 inhabitants per km²|
|Population development||+1.86% (2017)|
gross domestic product
|Human Development Index||0.404 ( 186th ; as of: 2018)|
|currency||CFA franc BEAC (XAF)|
|independence||August 11, 1960
(from France )
|National anthem||La Tchadienne|
|National holiday||August 11th (Independence Day)|
|Time zone||UTC + 1|
|ISO 3166||TD , TCD, 148|
The Republic of Chad [ tʃat, tʃaːt ] ( Arabic جمهوريّة تشاد, French République du Tchad [ tʃad ]) is a landlocked country in Central Africa . It borders on Libya in the north, Sudan in the east, the Central African Republic in the south and Cameroon , Niger and Nigeria in the west .
Despite a long-term economic boom from the beginning of oil production in 2003, Chad remained one of the poorest and most underdeveloped countries in the world. In 2019, it was ranked 187th out of 189 countries in the Human Development Index .
The country name "Tschad" can be used in German both in the neuter grammatical gender ("today's Tschad", "in, nach Tschad") and in the masculine gender ("der Tschad, im Tschad"). According to Duden , an article can be used or not for the state of Chad. The use of the state name in the male gender predominates in common parlance. The nationals are called Tschader or Tschaderin in German.
Chad includes the eastern part of the Chad Basin with most of Lake Chad . The basin (including the lake) takes up 90% of the country's area. The highlands of Ennedi (1,450 m) and the Wadai massif (1,320 m) rise above the Chad Basin in the east , the volcanic mountains of the Tibesti (3,415 m Emi Koussi , highest point in the Sahara) and the Erdi plateau rise in the north -Ma . In the northern center of the country lies the lowest point in the country, the Bodélé Depression .
Chad stretches from the dry deserts of the Sahara in the north, through the climatic and vegetation zones of the Sahel and Sudan (thorn bush and dry savannas, on the rivers also flood savannas and gallery forests ) to the area of dry forests in the extreme south (because of the agricultural Usefulness in colonial times called Tchad utile ).
The country is generally influenced by the West African monsoons in the summer and the Harmattan trade winds in the winter months. In the south of the country there is an almost tropical, humid climate with up to 1,100 mm of precipitation , while in the north there is a desert climate with large daily temperature differences and extremely rare precipitation with 20–40 mm of precipitation per year.
The country is hydrologically dominated by the Chad Basin . Apart from smaller areas in the north and northeast and a small piece in the extreme southwest, all precipitation in the country flows to Lake Chad in the southwest of the country. Since the northern half has a desert climate, all watercourses that regularly carry water are in the south of the country. They are largely influenced by the hydrology of the Central African Republic and the country's largest rivers, the Shari and the Logone . Their catchment areas extend in the south of the country to the north equatorial threshold and create extensive wetlands within the savannah landscape.
Otherwise there are only a few wadis in the north of the country . There are still rivers on the edge of the Benue catchment area in the extreme southwest and interactions with the hydrology of North Cameroon. There is the former outflow of what is now the endorheic Lake Chad; in earlier times about 1/3 of Chad was flooded by the lake ( mega-Chad ) and all watercourses in the country drained via the Benue into the Niger .
Flora and fauna
The flora and fauna of Chad are generally considered to be little explored and poorly documented. Chad is divided into three bioclimatic and five biogeographical zones. The bioclimatic zones are the Sahara, the Sahel and the Sudan savannas. The biogeographical zones form the mountainous region of the Tibesti, the dune and stone deserts of the southern Sahara, the savannas around Lake Chad and its tributaries, the dry savannas of the Sahel and the wet savannas of the Sudan. From this mixture of the different bioclimatic and biogeographical regions one of the most species-rich flora and fauna developed within the greater regions of the Sahel and Sudan. Forests, for example, covered an area of 11,921,000 hectares in 2011 , which corresponded to around nine percent of the country's area; however, forest shrinkage is considerable as a result of uncontrolled or illegal deforestation. The volume of the standing and flowing waters of Chad is estimated at over 500 billion cubic meters, the volume of Lake Chad in 1992 was approx. 18 billion cubic meters.
A total of 4,318 plant species and 722 animal species were documented in Chad up to 2007. Of these, 71 plant, 4 mammal, 1 reptile, 1 bird and 16 fish species are endemic and only known from Chad. Three species of tortoise occurring in Chad are on the list of endangered animal species, these are the spurred tortoise ( Centrochelys sulcata ), the softshell turtle Cyclanorbis senegalensis and the Cyclanerbis elegans . 16 animal and plant species are classified as threatened species by the IUCN . Information about fungi , insects , lichens , bacteria and algae is not available or only very limited. Only intensive studies on Lake Chad are known of the algae flora. Over 1,000 species of algae were documented in it, including over 100 species of phytoplankton . These form the food basis for a rich fish fauna that includes 136 species. In Chad, for example, the Nile perch ( Lates niloticus ), predatory catfish ( Clarias sp. ), African bones ( Heterotis niloticus ), tilapia ( Tilapia spp. ), Oreochromis niloticus and the puffer fish Tetraodon lineatus occur. In addition, around 120,000 tons of fish are caught annually in the waters of Chad. 532 bird species have been documented of the avifauna . This number includes 354 breeding and 155 migratory bird species, 117 of the latter are of Palearctic origin. The wetlands of Lake Chad and along the Logone, Bahr Aouk and Salamat rivers are among the world's most important resting and wintering areas for migratory birds in the northern hemisphere. The mammal fauna of Chad is very rich and almost all tourist flagship animal species are found. So among others lions ( Panthera leo ), cheetahs ( Acinonyx jubatus ), giraffes ( Giraffa camelopardalis ). The population of the African elephant ( Loxodonta africana ) in Chad is estimated at around 3,000 specimens. But relatively unknown mammals such as the giant eland ( Taurotragus derbianus ) or the African manatee ( Trichechus senegalensis ) also have their home in Chad. The West African subspecies of the black rhinoceros ( Diceros bicornis longipes ), which once occurred in Chad, is now considered extinct. Of the reptiles, 52 species are documented, including the Nile crocodile ( Crocodylus niloticus ), steppe monitor ( Varanus exanthematicus ), representatives of the real pythons ( Python ) and the Nile monitor ( Varanus niloticus ).
Most of Chad is covered by the hyperarid areas of the central and southern Sahara. These areas take up more than 50% of the country's area and are sparsely populated. Larger settlements can only be found in this region in areas with aquifers that are close to the surface or protruding to the surface , the oases . The designations of the landscape correspond to the landscape, sand dune areas are called Erg , rock and stone deserts are called Hammada . Rain falls in this region only one or two months a year. The amount of precipitation varies from 25 to 100 mm per year. There are fewer than 400 plant species in this region, but the fauna is far more diverse than assumed in previous decades. South of the 100 mm isohyte line, the vegetation in the southern Sahara changes for a few months each year. It is a transition zone from the Sahara to the ecoregion of the Sahel, the WWF calls this transition zone the South Sahara steppe . It can be found in Chad in southern Erg Kanem, in the regions of Ouadi Achim-Rimé, Fada Archei and the Wadai mountain plateau. It extends from the 100 to the 200 mm isohyte line and is on average only 100–300 km wide. Due to the summer rainfall, a steppe can develop whose dominant grasses belong to the genera Eragrostis , Aristida and Stipagrostis . This grass steppe is interspersed with herbs and bushes of the genera Tribulus , Heliotropium and Pulicharia . In this ecoregion, trees can only be found in the wadis and areas with aquifers close to the surface, such as the Moilo lakes in Erg Kanem and the Guelta d'Archei .
The Tibesti mountains occupy a biogeographical island location in the Sahara. The flora and fauna of the mountains are generally regarded as relics from the humid age of Nigéro-Chadia, whereby the flora is specially adapted to the altitude and the gradient in these mountains. The landscape names in Tibesti come from Arabic, the Tedaga and Dazaga languages. Wadis are known as Enneri and mountain peaks on the Emi. Aided by the higher rainfall, from 100 to 600 mm per year, 568 plant species can develop in this ecoregion, including representatives from the genera of the mallow , hibiscus , rhynchosia and tephrosia . The real date palm ( Phoenix dactylifera ) and the doum palms ( Hyphaene ) are of particular economic importance . However, the endemism is low, only the endemic Ficus teloukat , a representative of the figs, is known. It grows on the dry southern mountain slopes. The mammalian fauna of all three ecoregions resembles one another due to the aridity, so in the Tibesti there are the mane jumpers ( Ammotragus lervia ) and in the other two the Dorkas gazelles ( Gazella dorcas ), Damaga gazelles ( Nanger dama ), Kaphasen ( Lepus capensis ), several species of gerbils ( Gerbillinae). For the saber antelope ( Oryx dammah ) the area around the Ouadi Achim-Rimé was the last retreat, it is now considered extinct in the wild.
The Sahel savannas generally extend from the 200 to the 600 mm Isohyete line . It is in this Savannah form to dry and briar savannah the mainly with trees of the genus Acacia ( Acacia are interspersed). For this reason it is referred to as the Sahel Acacia Savannah by the WWF . The region around Lake Chad and the firki plains form their own biomes in the Sahel region in Chad. On average, 250 mm to 500 mm of rain fall each year. In the Sahel savannas, the grasses Cenchrus biflorus , Schoenefeldia gracilis and Aristida stipoides make up a large part of the plant biomass, while the most common tree species are Acacia tortilis , Acacia laeta , Commiphora africana , Balanites aegyptiaca and Boscia senegalensis . Endemism is generally low in the Sahel.
Chad is one of the largest nature reserves on the continent , the 77,950 km² Ouadi Rimé – Ouadi Achim nature reserve . Other protected areas for flora and fauna are the Fada Archei nature reserve , the Binder-Léré wildlife reserve , Sena-Oura National Park , Manda National Park and the approximately 3000 km² large, south-east Zakouma National Park . Chad is a signatory to the Ramsar Convention , in the course of cooperation with the organization, the Lake Chad Basin Commission and the WWF , an area of 12,405,068 hectares was declared a protected area in wetlands of international importance by 2008 . These are the protected areas of Lake Fitri , Plaine de Massenya , Partie tschadienne du lac Tchad , Plaines d'inondation des Bahr Aouk et Salamat , Plaines d'inondation du Logone et les dépressions Toupouri and the Binder-Léré wildlife reserve.
The population of Chad has increased about tenfold since the end of colonization in 1910–1912. Under French rule in 1930 it was 973,600. In 1961, 94,000 people lived in the capital, which was called Fort-Lamy at that time , and 2.675 million people in the country, who kept 4.5 million sheep and 4 million cattle. The 2009 census showed a population of 11,039,873 people. However, only 10,941,682 people were actually counted. The remaining 98,161 people in the Sila and Tibesti regions are an estimate. Of the residents at that time, 5,452,483 were male and 5,587,390 (50.6%) were female. Of the 10,941,682 people counted, 368,066 were still nomadic. Including 120,933 in the Barh El Gazel region and in six other regions between 20,000 and 33,000 people each. Of the 10,941,682 people recorded in the census, 10,666,833 were citizens of Chad. Of the remaining 274,849 people, the majority were refugees from the neighboring countries Sudan (215,912 people), Central African Republic (35,946 people) and Nigeria (6174 people). Only around 3800 people were not from Africa. By 2015, the population of Chad had increased to 13.2 million. For the year 2050, according to the UN's mean population forecast, a population of over 35 million is expected.
Infant mortality is 11.7% and child mortality is 20%. In 2015, a third of the population was malnourished. There is one doctor for every 50,000 people. In particular, the lack of medical supplies is one reason that malaria in particular , but also meningitis , cholera and measles epidemics claim thousands of deaths every year. At the beginning of the 2000s, doctors without borders in particular provided help here . Life expectancy in Chad was 51.7 years from 2010 to 2015, making it one of the lowest in the world.
The population of Chad is made up of almost 200 different ethnic groups, most of which also speak their own languages or dialects. The largest ethnic group among the (2009) 10,666,833 citizens of Chad are the Sara living in the south with (2009) 2,836,371 members (26.1% of the local population) who traditionally cultivate fields on cleared islands and fish. They were followed by the (Chad) Arabs with 1,378,777 members. Other important ethnic groups with more than 500,000 members are the Kanembou / Bornu / Buduma (902,872), Wadai / Maba / Massalit / Mimi (765,942), Gorane (739,819) and Massa / Musseje / Musgum (515,685). Bagirmi speakers live in the south and south-west (2009: 139,799), and Hausa in the border area with Nigeria . In the sparsely populated north lived mostly nomads and semi-nomads like the Tubu . In the west also Kanembu and the Kanuri in the northwest. About 9% of the total population are Sudan Arabs , who mostly live from trade and livestock farming. Arabized groups, however, make up 38% of the population.
The different peoples of the country can be divided into two broad groups: the Arabized and Islamized peoples in the north and the Christian-animist groups in the south. As in many other countries along the Sudan zone, there is a marked contrast between north and south. In the course of history the political emphasis has shifted. Before the colonization of the area, Muslim nomads and semi-nomads from the north dominated the south for almost a millennium, which was mainly used for supplies for the slave trade . During the colonial era, the balance of power was reversed: the conquest of the country by France began in the south and southwest, making the sedentary Sara the first to receive European education. As a result, a - partly Christian - elite developed there, from which the first President N'Garta Tombalbaye came from. In the Islamic north it was felt as an affront that black African administrative officials were now taking on important regional posts. A few incidents that sparked unrest that led to civil war in Chad were therefore sufficient.
In 2017, 3.3% of the population was born abroad. Most of them were refugees from Darfur in Sudan and the Central African Republic.
Over 120 languages and dialects are spoken. The most important languages are the two official languages Arabic ( Chadian Arabic and Sudan Arabic ), which is spoken by at least 26% of the total population as a mother tongue or second language, and French , which is only spoken by an educated minority - as well as Sara .
About 62% of the population speak Sudan languages (including 20% Sara and 5% Bagirmi and Kraish together), about 14% Chadian languages (including Kotoko ), 6.5% Saharan languages ( Dazaga , Tedaga , Zaghawa ) and 1.6% the m'óum. Other languages are Maba (Wadai), Wabumba, Mbum , Matuszi and others. In the cities, Arabic is clearly ahead of Sara as the first language (31.9% to 23.5%), in the countryside Sara has the upper hand (23.9% to 18.8%). Overall (2009) 69.0% of the urban population and 41.8% of the rural population speak Chad Arabic. Second most important language is Sara, which is spoken by 30.4% of the urban population and 26.5% of the rural population.
At the 2009 census, 6,392,040 people or 58.4% of the total population were Muslims , mainly those of the Sunni school of Maliki. Only 438,831 people or 4.0% of the population still follow traditional African local religions . The majority of the indigenous ethnic groups in the south of the country are now Christians , namely 3,787,668 people or 34.6% of the total population. Of these, 2,026,152 or 18.5% were Catholics and 1,761,516 or 16.1% were Protestants . The Muslims mostly live in the north and in the center of the country, the Christians and followers of traditional religions live mainly in the south of Chad. Probably the number of followers of the local religions is higher than indicated in the census. It is noticeable that the proportion of non-denominational people is high in precisely those regions (Mandoul, Mayo Kebbi Est, Mayo Kebbi Ouest, Moyen-Chari and Tandjilé) in which an above-average number of members of the local religions are at home. Between the 1993 and 2009 censuses, Muslims and Protestants grew proportionally. In contrast, the proportion of Catholics, adherents of local religions and those with no religious affiliation fell.
N'Djamena has a university founded in 1971, the N'Djamena University . Traditionally, Christian schools have an important function, especially in the south. The state school system is still suffering from the effects of the decades of chaos. Islamic Koran schools and madrasas , which are being built in Chad with foreign help, especially from the Middle East, have recently increased . The mean school attendance for over 25s in 2015 is 2.3 years and is one of the shortest in the world. The educational expectation of the current generation is 7.3 years.
The high population growth of 2.5 percent annually forms an inhibition threshold for the implementation of general compulsory schooling : compulsory schooling is only formal, especially in rural areas it is hardly observed. Accordingly, according to the 2009 census, the literacy rate is only 22.5%. Of those aged 15 and over, 54.7% of the urban population could neither read nor write (45.1% of men and 65.4% of women). In rural areas, 84.7% of the population were illiterate (76.9% of men and 91.6% of women). Of the alphabets (1,215,998 people) 1,008,580 (or 82.9%) could only read and write in French and 149,453 (12.3%) only in Arabic. Another 25,376 people (or 2.1%) read and speak both of these languages. Literacy in other languages is low.
Central African monarchies
Later larger Islamic empires emerged on Lake Chad , in the south also the state of Baguirmi , the Logone city-states and the sultanate of Wadai . The empire Kanem-Bornu stood out in particular, which encompassed almost the entire area of today's Chad and represented a confederation of the two states Kanem and Bornu , which also extended into the area of today's states Nigeria and Niger .
The first precise knowledge of the region for Europeans was provided by the explorers of the 19th century: Friedrich Konrad Hornemann (1800), Dixon Denham (1823), Johann Heinrich Barth , Adolf Overweg (1850), Eduard Vogel and Gustav Nachtigal (1855).
French colonial times
France in particular began to penetrate the individual kingdoms and sultanates. First attempts were made to achieve a loose French supremacy over these states through protectorate agreements with the respective monarchs. At the latest from the end of the 19th century, however, the violent military occupation and finally the colonization of the Wadai began .
In 1900, after defeating the Afro-Arab usurper Rabih ibn Fadlallah in the Battle of Kusseri, France established the military territory of the countries and protectorates of Chad. In 1908, this merged with the colony of Chad in the administrative region of French Equatorial Africa . In 1911, the Franco-German Morocco-Congo Agreement (November 4, 1911) expanded the colony to include the intermediate river area between Shari and Ba-Ili with the Bongor post . Between the world wars, the colony of Chad received its current borders.
On April 25, 1946, the Constituent National Assembly of France passed the Loi Lamine Guèye , according to which from June 1, 1946, all residents of the overseas territories, including Algeria, had the same civil status as the French in France or the overseas territories, including women and men were allowed to choose. The right to stand as a candidate was not expressly mentioned in the law, but it was also not excluded. In the elections to the French National Assembly as well as for all local elections in all of Africa except Senegal, a two-class suffrage was in effect until 1956. Under French administration, the loi-cadre Defferre , which was introduced on June 23, 1956, introduced universal suffrage and thus the right to vote for women . This was confirmed with independence in 1960.
In 1958, Chad received its first constitution . The Territorial Assembly approved the country's autonomous status as a member of the Communauté française . The country gained independence on August 11, 1960. François Tombalbaye from the south became the first president.
The Republic of Chad
In 1966 the Muslim FROLINAT - Front national de libération du Tchad ("National Liberation Front of Chad") was founded against Christian-Sudist dominance and a civil war began that lasted into 1994. In 1969 France intervened on the side of Tombalbaye. Libya, Algeria and Sudan, on the other hand, supported FROLINAT. In 1973 Libya occupied the Aouzou Strip.
In 1975 General Félix Malloum overthrew Tombalbaye and became president, while Hissène Habré became prime minister . In 1976 there was a break between Muammar al-Gaddafi and Habré. Goukouni Weddeye fought with Gaddafi against the central government.
In 1979 Habré switched sides to Weddeye. N'Djamena was conquered and the Gouvernement d'Union Nationale de Transition (GUNT) under Weddeye came to power. In 1980 there was again a break between Habré and Weddeye (" Second Battle for N'Djamena "). Thereupon Libya intervened at Weddeye's request, Weddeye and Gaddafi announced the unification of Chad with Libya in 1981 . Gaddafi withdrew his troops under French pressure, however. Habré was then able to oust Weddeye with Egyptian , Sudanese and American help.
In 1982 N'Djamena was conquered by Habré, the so-called Second Republic began (1982 to 1990), during which there were serious human rights violations. In 1983, Chad was de facto divided into two at the 16th parallel. Libyan military was present in the north, particularly in the Aouzou Strip .
From 1986 to 1987 the Chadian government troops went on the offensive. The French military operation Épervier began . The Libyan troops were driven out of all bases except for the Aouzou Strip. In 1989 the Treaty of Algiers on the peaceful settlement of the Aouzou border conflict was signed.
In 1990 a hearing on the Aouzou conflict began before the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in The Hague . Habré was overthrown by Idriss Déby by the armed opposition of the Mouvement Patriotique du Salut and driven to flight, Déby took N'Djamena.
In 1993 the National Conference adopted the transitional constitution, parliament and government. In 1994 the Aouzou Strip was again awarded to Chad by the International Court of Justice.
In December 1994 / January 1995, a voter registration took place, the implementation and results of which are objected to and canceled by the Supreme Court. The existing election calendar became obsolete again and the transition phase was extended by another year until April 8, 1996. In 1996 there was also a constitutional referendum, after which the new constitution came into force.
On July 3, 1996, runoff elections between Déby and Wadel Abdelkader Kamougué took place. The determination of the official final result by the Cour d'Appel on July 14, 1996 certified Déby 69% and Kamougué 31% of the votes. In the parliamentary elections of the beginning of 1997 the following final result was recorded: MPS 66 seats, URD 29, UNDR 14, UDR 4, RDP and PLD 3 each, AND 2 as well as UNRT, CNDS, FAR, ACTUS 1 seat each.
President Déby was re-elected in May 2001. In December 2001, the government and the rebels in Tibesti signed a peace agreement.
Sudanese refugees have been fleeing the conflict in Darfur to Chad since 2003 . The conflict takes increasingly transferred to the Chad, the Janjawid -Reitermilizen from Darfur are active now in the Chadian border areas.
On December 23, 2005, Chad officially declared a "state of hostility" ("état de belligerence") with Sudan due to the conflict in the western Sudanese province of Darfur . This was preceded by an attack by Chadian rebels on the border town of Adré with more than 100 dead. Chad accuses Sudan of supporting the rebels, but attaches importance to not having made a declaration of war .
In the middle of April 2006 the civil war broke out again. France is participating to a small extent - for the time being - on the side of the Déby government . The capital, N'Djamena , was reached by the rebel vanguard of the Front for Change (FUC). However, this first attack was repulsed by the regular troops with artillery and tank support. Hundreds of people died within a few days. On April 14, 2006, Chad broke off diplomatic relations with Sudan. Two days later, the country withdrew from talks in Darfur, led by the African Union . At the same time, N'Djamena demanded that a new host country should be found for the meanwhile 200,000 refugees from Darfur in Chad.
In November 2006, a state of emergency was declared for large parts of Chad. A peace treaty was reached with the FUC shortly afterwards, but other rebel groups increasingly gained control of the east of the country. On October 26, 2007, through the mediation of Libya, a ceasefire agreement was signed between President Déby and four rebel groups. To protect the civilian population and especially the refugees from the Darfur region, it was decided to set up a United Nations mission ( MINURCAT ), whose tasks were initially to be carried out by military units of the European Union .
Just a few weeks after the ceasefire was signed, fighting broke out again between government forces and the rebels in the eastern provinces. At the end of November 2007, the rebel organization UFDD declared a state of war against French and other foreign units. Despite this warning, at the end of January 2008 the EU approved the deployment of a multinational military unit, EUFOR Tchad / RCA , in Chad. France took the lead and provided more than half of the soldiers; Austria had promised a contingent of 160 soldiers.
Shortly before the planned start of the EU mission, the implementation of which was subsequently suspended, rebels launched a new offensive in which they penetrated the capital N'Djamena. The fighting forced thousands of people to flee to neighboring Cameroon . At the same time, the evacuation of foreign citizens began; the United States has evacuated its embassy in N'Djamena. In 2008, following a statement by the UN Security Council , France considered intervening in favor of the government. For the time being, the rebels largely withdrew from the capital.
On March 15, 2009, the EUFOR Tchad / RCA bridging mission ended and responsibility was transferred to MINURCAT.
In 2013, troops from Chad took part in Opération Serval .
The radical Islamist terrorist militia Boko Haram is active in parts of Chad.
In the 2019 democracy index of the British magazine The Economist, Chad ranks 163 out of 167 countries, making it one of the authoritarian states. In the country report Freedom in the World 2017 by the US non-governmental organization Freedom House , the country's political system is rated as “not free”. According to the report, the country's political system is among the most repressive in the world.
According to the constitution of April 14, 1996, Chad is a presidential republic with a multi-party system. The legislature lies with the bicameral parliament, which consists of a national assembly and a senate . The National Assembly has 125 members elected for a period of four years, the members of the Senate are elected for six years, but the Senate has not yet been established. The most important parties include the Patriotic Welfare Movement (MPS), the Union for Renewal and Democracy (URD) and the National Union for Democracy and Renewal (UNDR).
The head of state and commander-in-chief of the army is the president, who has extensive executive powers and is directly elected for a period of five years. Executive power is exercised by the Council of Ministers under the direction of the President. There was a prime minister until May 2018 . In 2005, President Idriss Déby initiated a constitutional amendment to allow the President a third instead of the previously possible two terms.
- 1960–1975 François Tombalbaye
- 1975–1979 Felix Malloum
- 1979 Lol Mohammed Chawa
- 1979-1982 Goukouni Oueddei
- 1982–1990 Hissène Habré
- since 1990 Lieutenant General Idriss Déby
Chad is considered an unstable state. State institutions such as administration, education and health care are hardly developed. The refugees, who have been coming from the Darfur region of the eastern neighboring country Sudan, have been confronting Chad with additional problems that cannot be overcome without international help . At the beginning of 2004, their number was already around 130,000.
Corruption is widespread in Chad. According to the Corruption Index 2010 of the organization Transparency International (TI), Chad ranks 171st out of 178 countries recorded. However, the north-south contradiction also dominates domestic politics: the north of the country, which is inhabited by Islamic-Arabized and Berber ethnic groups, feels disadvantaged compared to the black-African-Christian-animist south, which has had a predominant position since colonial times.
According to Amnesty International and the US State Department, even in 2009, although a UN peacekeeping mission was stationed there, the situation in eastern Chad was marked by human rights abuses and instability. Civilians and humanitarian aid workers were abducted and murdered. Women and girls have been exposed to rape and other forms of violence. The authorities did not take appropriate measures to protect the civilian population against attacks by criminal gangs and armed groups. Suspected political opponents were illegally arrested, arbitrarily detained and tortured or otherwise ill-treated. Human rights defenders and journalists continued to face intimidation and harassment. Thousands of people were left homeless because their homes were demolished.
Children continued to be used as soldiers in Chad. UNICEF estimates that 53% of all 5-14 year old children in the country have to do work. Chad is also a country of origin for child trafficking in the Central African Republic, Nigeria, Cameroon and Saudi Arabia.
There have also been repeated violent attacks and discrimination against people based on their sexual orientation and gender identity ( LGBT ).
Chad has little diplomatic presence around the world. Diplomatic missions include all of Chad's neighboring states. The country is a member of the United Nations (UN), the African Union (AU) and the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC). The governments of Chad traditionally have good relations with the former colonial power France, which often provides military assistance to the respective government in situations similar to civil war.
Relations with neighboring countries are often strained, as there was a decade-long conflict with Libya over the Aouzou strip in the north. Relations with Sudan have been strained since the outbreak of the Darfur conflict (see the section on civil war). When the civil war raged in Chad, neighboring Cameroon took in numerous civil war refugees.
Chad also maintains diplomatic and economic relations with the USA. On October 10, 2003, oil production began under the leadership of ExxonMobil and with the support of the World Bank in the Doba Basin in southern Chad. This is transported to the Atlantic coast of Cameroon via a 1050-kilometer pipeline and shipped there. This is seen as a geopolitically significant move by the USA and criticized from a human rights and ecological point of view. The People's Republic of China has also expanded relations with Chad due to its interest in oil. Relations with China have been developing dynamically since 2006. The People's Republic supplies Chad with weapons, among other things.
Since 2012, Chad has been divided into 23 regions. The division of the north-eastern province of Ennedi into a western or eastern administrative unit (administrative seat West-Ennedi: Fada; East-Ennedi: Am-Djerass) is not yet taken into account in the adjacent map.
- Chari baguirmi
- Hadjer Lamis
- Wadi Fira
- Barh El Gazel
- Ennedi-Est / Ennedi-Ouest
- Logone Occidental
- Logone Oriental
- Mayo Kebbi Est
- Mayo Kebbi Ouest
- Ville de N'Djamena
At the 2009 census, of 11,039,873 people, 2,404,145 (21.8%) lived in urban settlements and 8,635,728 in rural areas. In 2016, 22.6% of the population lived in cities or urban areas. The 10 largest cities are:
Due to the civil war and long periods of drought, Chad is one of the poorest countries in the world. 80% of the population live in absolute poverty. The population can only survive through subsistence farming - the few economically developed elements are only organized by the state. Along with Somalia and Sierra Leone , Chad is one of the only economies in the world in which the majority of gross domestic product is still generated in the agricultural sector (50.1% in 2016).
In the ranking according to the UN Human Development Index, Chad ranks 186th out of a total of 188 countries (as of 2016). 55 percent of the urban population and 87 percent of the rural population live below the subsistence level. The gross domestic product per capita in 2016 was 2,245 international dollars in purchasing power parity and thus higher than in the neighboring states of Mali (2,266), Niger (1,107) and the Central African Republic (652), which is mainly due to the oil demand in the country, which however only a small part of the population benefits. In 2016, Chad experienced a severe recession due to lower raw material prices.
In the Global Competitiveness Index , which measures a country's competitiveness, Chad ranks last out of 140 countries (as of 2018). In 2018, the country ranks 162nd out of 180 countries in the index for economic freedom .
All GDP values are given in US dollars ( purchasing power parity ).
(purchasing power parity)
|1.90 billion||3.04 billion||4.41 billion||5.77 billion||7.12 billion||16.09 billion||16.69 billion||17.70 billion||18.60 billion||19.51 billion||22.44 billion||22.93 billion||25.41 billion||27.30 billion||29.71 billion||30.56 billion||28.96 billion||28.55 billion|
GDP per capita
(purchasing power parity)
(as a percentage of GDP)
Chad is a member of the CFA franc zone and its currency is the CFA franc (FCFA, in French: Franc de la Communauté Financière d'Afrique), specifically the CFA franc BEAC . One euro corresponds to 655.957 FCFA, 1,000 FCFA corresponds to 1.5244 EUR. The inflation rate is currently over 9%, in 2007 it was around 4%.
Around 90% of the population live from agriculture , i.e. arable farming and cattle breeding . They mainly operate subsistence farming . However, Chad is also dependent on international support (for example in the form of food). Peanuts, grains and other vegetables are also grown. This is hardly sufficient for self-sufficiency. Due to the desert spreading to the south and the associated crop failures, this development is likely to worsen. Some other crops are cotton, rice and tobacco.
For a long time, the country was considered to be poor in mineral resources; rock salt and soda in particular were mined . In 2003, the production of crude oil from an oil field near Doba that was only discovered in the late 1990s began. According to an agreement between the government and the World Bank , 80% of the income from the extraction of crude oil is to be used for projects in the social and infrastructure sector and thus benefit the entire population. For this purpose, 31 million euros were transferred to the World Bank for the first time in July 2004, which in turn distributes this money for specific projects in the country. 10% of the income is to be paid into a fund for future generations. In total, revenues of around 1.6 billion euros are forecast by 2023 (20 years). At the end of 2005, however, parliament dissolved the fund to pay outstanding civil servants' salaries, and a change in the law made it possible for the security and justice sectors to receive money from the oil revenues. The use of the funds is monitored by a specially created committee made up of parliamentarians, lawyers and representatives of civil society . However, this committee does not have the power to sanction, so that due to corruption, large parts of the investment funds seep away and an efficient fight against poverty has so far not been achieved.
The main trading partners are France , Cameroon and Nigeria . The most important export goods are cotton (with an export share of 40%) and, since 2003, oil. Peanuts make up about 1–2% of exports. Imported goods include fuels, vehicles, sugar , grain and textiles .
The state budget in 2016 comprised expenditures of the equivalent of 2.163 billion US dollars , which was offset by income of the equivalent of 1.626 billion US dollars. This results in a budget deficit of 5.7% of GDP .
The national debt in 2016 was 51.2% of GDP.
In 2006, the share of government expenditure (as a percentage of GDP) was as follows:
In the 2017 press freedom list published by Reporters Without Borders , Chad was ranked 121st out of 180 countries. According to the NGO report, the press freedom situation in the country is "difficult".
The blogger and citizen journalist Tadjadine Mahamat Babouria aka “Mahadine” was arrested in 2016 for criticizing corruption and the poor economic situation on Facebook, among other things.
There is a state national radio and television program. The state radio diffusion Nationale Tchadienne RNT broadcasts from the capital N'Djamena in French, Arabic and local languages.
In 1998, DJA FM became the country's first private radio broadcaster. He has suffered government repression in the past. In 2002 there were two medium wave and 4 VHF stations.
The following newspapers exist in Chad: N'Djaména Hebdo from N'Djaména, Tchadien, Afrik, Afrol en Espaniol and the Afrol News.
The infrastructure is poorly developed. With a size of 1,284,000 km² - in terms of size, Chad ranks 20th worldwide and is around 3.5 times the size of Germany - there were only a good 2,000 km of paved roads at the end of 2014; 6,000 km are planned. According to official figures from 2006, the oil consortium led by ExxonMobil has transferred 537 million US dollars to the government of Chad as licenses and fees since 2003. Of that, about $ 300 million, or 55%, was spent on improving the infrastructure.
Chad's water supply is nowhere near sufficient. According to the WHO and UNICEF, access to clean drinking water , a UN human right since 2010 , was only available to 51% of the country's population as of 2014.
On the whole, the country can be culturally divided into a predominantly Arabized Islamic area in the north and a black African-Christian, partly animistic area in the south. While the Arabized population mostly practices semi-nomadic cattle breeding, the inhabitants of the south predominantly cultivate arable land.
There is only one commercial cinema and no professional actors. Mahamat-Saleh Haroun attracted attention with his two films Abouna - Der Vater (2002) and Daratt (2006), which were shown at several international film festivals and in arthouse cinemas . In it he describes life in Chad in the 2000s. While Abouna - The Father is about two young people who are looking for their father who has suddenly disappeared, Daratt describes a son who is looking for his father's murderer.
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