Hans-Dietrich Genscher

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Hans-Dietrich Genscher, 2013
Genscher's signature under the two-plus-four contract
Hans-Dietrich Genscher, 1983

Hans-Dietrich Genscher (born March 21, 1927 in Reideburg , † March 31, 2016 in Pech , municipality of Wachtberg ) was a German politician of the FDP . From 1969 to 1974 he was Federal Minister of the Interior . From 1974 to 1992 he was Federal Minister for Foreign Affairs and Vice Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany almost continuously : from 1974 to 1982 under the Chancellorship of Helmut Schmidt (SPD) and after the change of government from 1982 to 1992 under the Chancellorship of Helmut Kohl (CDU). This makes him the longest-serving Federal Minister in the Federal Republic of Germany. In addition, he was federal chairman of the FDP from 1974 to 1985.

Genscher is considered to be a key historical figure, as he stood up for overcoming the division of Europe and Germany, as well as the Cold War , with determination and great diplomatic skill . Become famous is his (unfinished) Speech "We have come to you to inform you that today your departure ..." (went the following words in general jubilation), with whom he on 30 September 1989 by the balcony of the Prague embassy to Thousands of GDR citizens who had fled there announced their departure by special train, which he had reached in long negotiations with the Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze .



Hans-Dietrich Genscher was the son of the lawyer Kurt Genscher ( Syndic of the Agricultural Association; † 1937) and the farmer's daughter Hilda Kreime († 1988). He grew up in a middle-class, rural and national-conservative milieu. In Halle (Saale) he attended the municipal reform school , where the family had lived since 1933. After his father's death, as a half-orphan and the family, it was difficult for him to lead a normal life.

Genscher had been an air force helper since 1943 , completed the Reich Labor Service (RAD) in the Harz Mountains and was commanded to the Ore Mountains from October to November 1944. In 1944, at the age of 17, he became a member of the NSDAP . According to his own statement, this was done via a collective application without his knowledge. Genscher wanted to become a reserve officer ; In January 1945 he therefore volunteered for the Wehrmacht , and according to his own statement, in order to avoid forced recruitment by the Waffen SS . He was drafted into a pioneer unit in Wittenberg . As a member of the "Wenck Army" , which was to be used in the Battle of Berlin , shortly before the end of the war in May 1945, he was captured as a private, first in the US and then in British captivity .

After his release in July 1945 he worked as a construction worker. From December 1945 he again attended the Friedrich Nietzsche Oberschule in Halle (Saale) (since 1946 Friedrich Engels Oberschule), where he took the supplementary school-leaving exam in March 1946 . In the winter of 1946/47 he became seriously ill with tuberculosis , which is why he stayed in a sanatorium for three months . Genscher suffered from the disease, which was incurable at the time, for the next ten years and was repeatedly forced to stay in hospital for longer periods. Nevertheless, from 1946 to 1949 he studied law and economics at the Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg and the University of Leipzig , which he completed in 1949 with the first state examination in Leipzig. Then he was a trainee lawyer at the district court in the higher regional court district of Halle until 1952 .

On August 20, 1952, Genscher moved via West Berlin to the Federal Republic of Germany, worked as a trainee lawyer at the Hanseatic Higher Regional Court in the Bremen Higher Regional Court district and passed the second state examination in Hamburg in 1954 . After that, he worked as an attorney's assistant and attorney in the law firm Dr. Frick, Büsing, Genscher and Dr. Müffelmann works in Bremen.

Party career

Genscher with his party friends Hildegard Hamm-Brücher , Otto Graf Lambsdorff (standing) and Wolfgang Mischnick , 1974

From 1946 to 1952 Genscher was a member of the LDP , the state association of Saxony-Anhalt . He has been a member of the FDP since moving to Germany. In 1954 he was elected deputy state chairman of the young democrats in Bremen. From 1956 to 1959 he was a research assistant in the FDP parliamentary group in Bonn .

From 1959 to 1965 he was FDP parliamentary leader , and from 1962 to 1964 federal manager of the FDP. In 1968 he was elected deputy federal chairman. From October 1, 1974 to February 23, 1985, he was finally federal chairman of the FDP. In 1982, during his tenure as party chairman, he turned from the social-liberal coalition to the coalition with the CDU / CSU. In 1985 he renounced the office of federal chairman. After his resignation as Federal Foreign Minister in 1992, Genscher was appointed honorary chairman of the FDP.

Documents about Genscher's activities as FDP federal chairman are in the archive of liberalism of the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom in Gummersbach .

Member of Parliament

Genscher was a member of the German Bundestag for the Bundestag constituency of Wuppertal I from 1965 to 1998 . He was always drawn into the German Bundestag via the state list of North Rhine-Westphalia . From 1965 until his entry into the Brandt government in 1969, he was parliamentary manager of the FDP parliamentary group.

Public offices

Federal Minister of the Interior 1969 to 1974

After the Bundestag election in 1969 , Genscher played a key role in the formation of the social-liberal coalition and was appointed Minister of the Interior in the federal government led by Chancellor Willy Brandt on October 22, 1969 . During his tenure, Israeli athletes were taken hostage during the Olympic Games in Munich in 1972 . Genscher made himself available as an exchange hostage, but this was refused by the Palestinian hostage-takers. After the bloody end of the hostage-taking, Genscher instructed the Federal Border Police on September 26, 1972 to set up the anti-terrorist unit GSG 9 . As a consensus politician, he founded the German Sports Conference in 1970 , in which, like a round table, all those responsible from the federal, state and local governments as well as the German Sports Association and the state sports associations worked together on an equal footing. In 2014 he described the failure of the hostage rescue as the low point of his career.

Federal Foreign Minister 1974 to 1992

Genscher with Research Minister Hans Matthöfer (left) and Federal Chancellor Helmut Schmidt, 1976
Visit of Erich Honecker in the Federal Republic of Germany 1987 , lunch with the Federal President on September 7, 1987.
V. l. to r .: Bangemann , Honecker, v. Weizsäcker, noon , bird , bridegroom , Genscher

After the resignation of Willy Brandt and the election of Walter Scheel as Federal President , Genscher was appointed Foreign Minister and Vice Chancellor in the Federal Government now headed by Helmut Schmidt . In this role he played a key role in the negotiations on the text of the CSCE Final Act in Helsinki . In December 1976 the General Assembly of the United Nations in New York accepted Genscher's proposal for an anti-terrorism convention, which, among other things, stipulated that demands from hostage-takers would not be accepted under any circumstances. In connection with the NATO double decision , Chancellor Schmidt and Foreign Minister Genscher mediated in Moscow, after which the Soviet leadership was ready to negotiate with the United States on intermediate nuclear forces (INF).

After the social-liberal coalition had been reconfirmed in the federal election in 1980 , Genscher worked from mid-1981 to end the coalition between the SPD and FDP - with the support of Federal Economics Minister Otto Graf Lambsdorff . The reason was the increase in differences between the coalition partners, outwardly particularly in economic and social policy. The decisive factor, however, is said to have been the increasing turning away from the NATO double decision. On September 17, 1982 Genscher resigned together with the other FDP federal ministers - as an interim solution he was temporarily succeeded by Helmut Schmidt (took over the ministerial office) and Egon Franke (as vice chancellor).

On October 1, 1982, the previous opposition leader Helmut Kohl was elected Chancellor by the majority of the FDP parliamentary group in a constructive vote of no confidence . On October 4, 1982, Genscher returned to the Federal Government as Foreign Minister and Vice Chancellor.

Hans-Dietrich Genscher (r.) Presents a piece of the Berlin Wall to President
George HW Bush (November 21, 1989)

From 1984 to 1985 he was President of the NATO Council and President of the Council of Ministers of the Western European Union . As foreign minister, he stood for a balancing policy between East and West and developed strategies for an active policy of détente and the continuation of the East-West dialogue with the USSR, as well as the growing together of the EC . Starting in 1987 in particular, Genscher campaigned for an "active policy of détente" as the West's response to Soviet efforts. He played a key role in European unification and in the success of German reunification, which he with his counterpart from the 1990 GDR , Meckel Markus negotiated. Initially, he was waiting for the consequent reunification plans of Chancellor Kohl. In the late summer of 1989 he obtained an exit permit for those citizens of the GDR who had fled to the West German embassy in Prague . He also advocated effective support for political reform processes, especially in Poland and Hungary . During a visit to Poland in January 1988, he met the chairman of Solidarność , Lech Wałęsa , to whom he assured the support of the Polish opposition in advocating democratic reforms. The funds used for this meant that his and Federal Chancellor Helmut Kohl's policy was sometimes referred to as checkbook diplomacy . Genscher took part in the first (Bonn), second (Berlin) and third (Paris) meetings of foreign ministers of the 2 + 4 talks on the external aspects of German unity. In November 1990 Genscher and his Polish counterpart Krzysztof Skubiszewski signed the German-Polish border treaty in Warsaw on the definition of the Oder-Neisse line as the Polish western border.

Economic Conference of the CSCE States, with Helmut Haussmann , 1990

His popularity in his home region around Halle (Saale) and the hope of a good development after the fall of the Wall meant that the FDP received 17.61% of the vote in the 1990 Bundestag election in Saxony-Anhalt and for the first time since 1957 (and that so far last time) an FDP candidate ( Uwe Lühr ) was able to win a direct mandate for the Bundestag.

Hans-Dietrich Genscher, 2008

In July 1984 he was the first Western European foreign minister to visit the Iranian capital Tehran since the Islamic revolution of 1979 .

The early recognition of the former Yugoslav republics of Slovenia and Croatia by the Federal Republic of Germany in December 1991 provoked criticism . This was coordinated exclusively with Austria , ran counter to an EC convention and was the first flagrant violation of the final act of the CSCE .

Before any recognition in Yugoslavia , the results of the Badinter Commission should be evaluated. Genscher was accused of significantly promoting the disintegration of Yugoslavia and of having contributed to the atrocities of the subsequent war. UN Secretary General Pérez de Cuéllar had warned the German government that recognition of Slovenia and Croatia would lead to an expansion of aggression in the former Yugoslavia.

On May 18, 1992, a few weeks after his 65th birthday, Genscher left the federal government of which he had been a member for a total of 23 years. At that time he was by far Europe's longest- serving foreign minister.

He announced his decision on April 27, 1992, 18 years to the day as Foreign Minister.

Other engagement

From 1968 to 1982 he was a member of the board of trustees of the Friedrich Naumann Foundation.

In 1994 and 1995 Genscher was honorary professor at the Otto Suhr Institute for Political Science at the Free University of Berlin . In 1998 he became chairman of the supervisory board of WMP Eurocom AG Berlin, a communications consultancy in the fields of business, media and politics. From 1999 to December 2010 he worked as a lawyer for Büsing, Müffelmann & Theye (Berlin office). Since 2000 he has been a managing partner of Hans-Dietrich Genscher Consult GmbH.

From 2001 to 2003 Hans-Dietrich Genscher was President of the German Society for Foreign Policy (DGAP). He was honorary president of the European Movement Germany , of which he was president from 1992 to 1994, as well as an honorary citizen of the city of Halle, into which his place of birth Reideburg was incorporated in 1950 (belonged to the Saalkreis), and where he received his training.

In 2001 he acted as a mediator in the wage dispute between Deutsche Lufthansa AG and Vereinigung Cockpit e. V. Genscher was a member of the board of trustees of the A Soul for Europe initiative of the Zukunft Berlin foundation .

In the summer semester of 2002 he was the third holder of the Johannes Gutenberg Endowed Professorship at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz .

In 2013 Genscher played an essential mediating role in the release of the Russian government critic Mikhail Khodorkovsky .

He was a member of the Presidium of the German Society for the United Nations and a member of the Global Zero initiative .

According to journalist Johannes Bockenheimer, agencies brokered Genscher as a speaker at prices ranging from 22,000 to 24,000 euros, e.g. B. at savings banks.


Barbara Genscher (right) in the Petersberg guest house , 1990

Hans-Dietrich Genscher was a Protestant Christian who, through numerous encounters, also developed a personal relationship with Pope John Paul II . From 1958 to 1966 he was married to Luise Schweitzer. The daughter Martina, who is married to Reinhardt Zudrop , emerged from this marriage . Since October 1969 Genscher was with his former secretary Barbara, geb. Schmidt, married. He had lived in the Pech district of Wachtberg near Bonn since 1977 , where he died of cardiovascular failure in his house at the age of 89. On April 17, 2016 Genscher was honored with a state ceremony in the former plenary hall of the Bonn Bundestag, now part of the World Conference Center Bonn . After a funeral service in the Gnadenkirche zu Pech, the burial took place in the Rheinhöhenfriedhof in Wachtberg-Ließem .

Positions and controversies

In making political decisions, Genscher relied on the Harmel Report of 1967, "which, with military strength and the simultaneous readiness for negotiations, wanted to promote détente between East and West".

The orientation of German foreign policy during Genscher's term of office is often characterized, criticized, but increasingly recognized as Genscherism . The direct representation of German interests would largely be dispensed with and multilateral institutions would be influenced. The most important institutions of his term of office included the European Community , the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe and the Helsinki Process . Right up to the end, he spoke out in favor of cooperation with Russia, was skeptical of the sanctions imposed on Russia and advocated reviving the NATO-Russia Council .

In an interview with Spiegel in 2013, Genscher, as honorary chairman of the FDP, called his party “guilty” for electoral defeats and called for more empathy, passionate debates and a farewell to a “one-topic party”. He did not "approve of the thematic narrowing to tax cuts", but warned against it at an early stage. He also criticized the FDP's second vote campaign as "unworthy". Classic neoliberalism must - according to Genscher - include social responsibility, and the FDP must once again become a party of the progressive center. In addition, he spoke out in favor of a programmatic and personnel renewal and promoted Christian Lindner , today's federal chairman of the party.

In July 1992, Der Spiegel published a report that the MfS had kept a file on Genscher in which he was referred to as an IM , although he had no contact with the State Security. According to former Stasi employees, the file is said to have been created using data from the curriculum vitae of a GDR citizen in order to politically undermine him, who also regularly traveled to the GDR privately during his party and ministerial career, by means of a disinformation campaign To be able to put pressure. The forged file is said to have been destroyed in the early 1980s.

Genscher and the Foreign Office subordinate to him were accused of having done too little to prevent the 1977 murder of Elisabeth Käsemann by the Argentine military junta . It is estimated that around 100 other Germans and people of German origin shared this fate in Argentina.

Hans Dietrich Genscher Prize

Since 1995 the Johanniter-Unfall-Hilfe e. V. every two years the Hans-Dietrich-Genscher-Preis to people who have made a special contribution to emergency rescue or rescue medicine. The prize is endowed with 2500 euros. The award bears Genscher's name because, during his time as Federal Minister of the Interior, the politician was instrumental in ensuring that over 30 rescue helicopters are in use in Germany today.

Reception and satirical representations

Genscher 2014: the yellow tank top
  • Genscher's fashionable trademark was a yellow tank top , the color of which also represented his party. One of these garments was auctioned several times for charitable purposes.
  • Genscher's protruding ears were often associated with an elephant - alluding to the patience ascribed to him - element of caricatures . Genscher denied speculation that he had his ears big. A selection of caricatures hung as framed copies on the tiled walls of a toilet in his private house.
  • The French illustrator Jean Mulatier drew four cover caricatures of Genscher, Helmut Kohl, Helmut Schmidt and Franz Josef Strauss for Der Spiegel before the 1976 federal election campaign . During a visit to the editorial office with publisher Rudolf Augstein , the then Chancellor Schmidt noticed that Genscher looked like a bat and cabbage like a bergamot pear in the picture .
  • In September 1989 Genscher was portrayed on the cover of the satirical magazine Titanic as a comic figure with the headline "Genschman mustn't die". It alludes to a heart attack that Genscher had previously suffered. The nickname "Genschman" alludes to the character of the comic superhero Batman and his bat costume. The comic of the same name by Achim Greser , Christian Schmidt and Hans Zippert was later published . The name found its way into everyday language.
  • His frequent professional trips abroad as Federal Foreign Minister were reflected in jokes, such as: For example: " If two planes meet. Genscher sits in both. “The verb genschern became a household word in the game Doppelkopf due to the fact that he and his party changed his (coalition) partner during the so-called Wende .

Awards and honors (extract)

In 2012, a permanent exhibition was opened in the Genscher House , the house where he was born in Halle-Reideburg. a. on the division and unity of Germany. In 2013 the house was named by the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom as a meeting place for German unity .

Correspondence and factual files from Genscher's work for the FDP are in the archive of liberalism of the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom in Gummersbach .

Appointments in Genscher's honor

  • Due to his contribution to Namibia's independence , a street in the Katutura district of the capital Windhoek was named after Genscher while he was still alive . In the Croatian port city of Trogir there is the "Kohl-Genscher-Straße" (Ulica Kohl Genscher), the name of which is intended to honor Genscher and Helmut Kohl's services to Croatian independence. In Germany, too, Genscher was honored with street names during his lifetime: In the Star Park industrial park in Queis (not far from his birthplace Reideburg) there has been a Hans-Dietrich-Genscher-Strasse since 1996 ; also since 2002 in Loddin on Usedom.
  • Since June 2, 2016, a bus of the municipal transport company HAVAG with the name Hans-Dietrich Genscher has been running in Genscher's birthplace Halle (Saale) . In addition, a seat is covered with yellow upholstery; based on the yellow tank tops, which were often worn by Genscher and strongly associated with him.
  • On September 30, 2016, the Wachtberg secondary school in Wachtberg - Berkum was renamed the Hans-Dietrich-Genscher-Schule - Regional School on site - Profiled Community Secondary School .
  • In March 2017, the FDP decided to rename its party headquarters in Berlin, the previous Thomas Dehler House , to the Hans Dietrich Genscher House .
  • Due to an initiative of students and teachers of the previous Johann-Gottfried-Herder-Gymnasium in Halle (Saale) and a corresponding resolution by the city council, the school has been named Hans-Dietrich-Genscher-Gymnasium since August 1, 2017 . The city council also decided on March 31, 2017 to solemnly rename the station forecourt as Hans-Dietrich-Genscher-Platz .
  • At the beginning of July 2018, at the request of the FDP parliamentary group, the Wuppertal city ​​council decided to rename the station forecourt in Barmen to Hans-Dietrich-Genscher-Platz. Genscher had his constituency in Wuppertal from 1965 to 1998.
  • in the school year 2017, the former high school in was Halle (Saale) with the name of Johann Gottfried Herder to Hans-Dietrich Genscher school renamed


Hans-Dietrich Genscher was a member of the federal government under Willy Brandt, Helmut Schmidt and Helmut Kohl.


  • (Collaboration): The public service at a crossroads. Godesberger Taschenbuch-Verlag, Bonn-Bad Godesberg 1972, ISBN 3-17-109041-4 .
  • Bundestag speeches. AZ-Studio, Bonn 1972.
  • (Collaboration): Education reform. Balance sheet and forecast. Godesberger Taschenbuch-Verlag, Bonn-Bad Godesberg 1973, ISBN 3-87999-000-X .
  • (Collaboration): Public service and society, a performance record. Godesberger Taschenbuch-Verlag, Bonn-Bad Godesberg 1974, ISBN 3-87999-004-2 .
  • (Collaboration): Celebrities in the environmental discussion. Contributions to the III. International WWF Congress. Schmidt, Berlin 1974, ISBN 3-503-01152-8
  • (Ed.): Liberals in charge. Hanser, Munich / Vienna 1976, ISBN 3-446-12288-5 .
  • Foreign policy in the service of security and freedom. Verlag Bonn Aktuell, Stuttgart 1976, ISBN 3-87959-055-9 .
  • German foreign policy. Verlag Bonn Aktuell, Stuttgart 1977, ISBN 3-87959-078-8 .
  • German foreign policy. Selected keynote speeches 1975–1980. Verlag Bonn Aktuell, Stuttgart 1981, ISBN 3-87959-159-8 ; Revised and significantly expanded new edition: German Foreign Policy. Selected articles 1974–1984. ibid. 1985, ISBN 3-87959-238-1 .
  • (Ed.): Cheerfulness and hardness. Walter Scheel in his speeches and in the judgment of contemporaries. Festschrift for the 65th birthday. Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart 1984, ISBN 3-421-06218-8 .
  • (Ed.): Thinking ahead ... Perspectives on German foreign policy. Bonn Aktuell, Stuttgart 1987, ISBN 3-87959-290-X .
  • Responsibility for the future. Talk. Book publisher Der Morgen, Berlin 1990, ISBN 3-371-00312-4 .
  • On the way to unity. Speeches and documents from turbulent times. Siedler, Berlin 1991, ISBN 3-88680-408-9 .
  • We want a European Germany. Siedler, Berlin 1991, Goldmann 1992 ISBN 3-442-12839-0 .
  • First hand politics. Columns of the Federal Foreign Minister a. D. Hans-Dietrich Genscher in the Nordsee-Zeitung Bremerhaven. Nordwestdeutsche Verlags-Gesellschaft, Bremerhaven 1992, ISBN 3-927857-36-X .
  • Comments. ECON-Taschenbuch-Verlag, Düsseldorf / Vienna 1994, ISBN 3-612-26185-1 .
  • Memories. Siedler, Berlin 1995, ISBN 3-88680-453-4 ; Goldmann, Munich 1997, ISBN 3-442-12759-9 .
  • Great moment for the Germans. Hans-Dietrich Genscher in conversation with Ulrich Wickert . With six contributions. Hohenheim, Stuttgart / Leipzig 2000, ISBN 3-89850-011-X .
  • with Ulrich Frank-Planitz (Ed.): Just a change of location? An interim balance sheet of the Berlin Republic. For Arnulf Baring's 70th birthday . Hohenheim, Stuttgart / Leipzig 2000, ISBN 3-89850-074-8 .
  • The chance of the Germans. A conversation book. Hans-Dietrich Genscher in conversation with Guido Knopp . Pendo, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-86612-190-4 .
  • The role of Europe in the context of globalization , in: Caroline Y. Robertson-von Trotha (Ed.): Challenge Democracy. Democratic, parliamentary, good? (= Kulturwissenschaft interdisciplinary / Interdisciplinary Studies on Culture and Society, Vol. 6), Baden-Baden 2011, ISBN 978-3-8329-5816-9 .
  • with Christian Lindner : Building bridges. Two generations, one passion . Hoffmann and Campe, Hamburg 2013, ISBN 978-3-455-50296-1 .
  • Ignition spark from Prague. How in 1989 the courage to be free changed history with Karel Vodička . dtv, Munich 2014, ISBN 978-3-423-28047-1 .
  • My opinion. In conversation with Hans-Dieter Heumann. Propylaea, Berlin 2015, ISBN 978-3-549-07464-0 .


Web links

Commons : Hans-Dietrich Genscher  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
Commons : Hans-Dietrich Genscher  - Album with pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Former Foreign Minister Genscher is dead. In: welt.de . April 1, 2016, accessed April 1, 2016 .
  2. a b Former Foreign Minister Genscher honored at home and abroad. In: wz.de. Westdeutsche Zeitung , April 2, 2016, accessed on April 2, 2016 .
  3. On the death of Hans-Dietrich Genscher: "We are all incredibly grateful to him". Holger Zastrow in conversation with Ann-Kathrin Büüsker. In: deutschlandfunk.de , April 1, 2016, accessed on April 2, 2016.
  4. Former German Foreign Minister Hans-Dietrich Genscher has died. In: nzz.ch , April 1, 2016, accessed on April 2, 2016.
  5. Hanns-Bruno Kammertöns, Stephan Lebert : Hans-Dietrich Genscher: "It was difficult to lead a normal life" . In: ZEITmagazin . No. 20, May 12, 2011.
  6. Hans-Dieter Lucas (Ed.): Genscher, Germany and Europe. Nomos, Baden-Baden 2002, ISBN 3-7890-7816-6 , p. 25.
  7. Malte Herwig: Moral catastrophe . In: Süddeutsche Zeitung , 23 December 2011. Quote: “while the index card says 1944” .
  8. Contemporary history: From Grass to Genscher - Who was still in the NSDAP . In: Die Welt , July 1, 2007
  9. Ulrich Herbert , University of Freiburg, Darmstädter Echo, Saturday, June 13, 2015, p. 5.
  10. ^ Arnd Krüger : Sport and Politics. From gymnastics father Jahn to state amateur. Torch bearer, Hanover 1975, ISBN 3-7716-2087-2 .
  11. "He really took me to his chest". In: Zeitmagazin , No. 42/2014, October 29, 2014, accessed on March 22, 2016 (interview).
  12. Joachim Scholtyseck : The FDP in the turn. In: Historical-Political Messages. 19, 2013, ISSN  0943-691X , pp. 197–220, pp. 201 f ( PDF; 71.7 kB ).
  13. FAZ.net: Naked fear and great hope .
  14. ^ Denise Dittrich (2009): The FDP and German foreign policy. An analysis of liberal foreign policy since reunification , p. 47 ( online ).
  15. a b genscher.de (PDF).
  16. bmt-law.de ( Memento from December 9, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
  17. Lufthansa: Genscher should settle the wage dispute. In: Spiegel Online , May 23, 2001.
  18. ^ A Soul for Europe Board of Trustees . Future Berlin Foundation.
  19. spiegel.de .
  20. dgvn.de
  21. Johannes C. Bockenheimer: Bill Clinton, the Absahner . In: Handelsblatt . No. 119 , June 25, 2013, ISSN  0017-7296 , p. 10 .
  22. -kna-: "As a Christian I am prepared" - Genscher on questions of religion and life on the Domradio website ; Retrieved April 3, 2016
  23. BMI: Press release of April 5, 2016 ( Memento of April 5, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
  24. General-Anzeiger Bonn: Farewell to Hans-Dietrich Genscher: Memories of a great one , accessed on April 18, 2016.
  25. knerger.de: The grave of Hans-Dietrich Genscher .
  26. Richard Kiessler: He felt the wind of change and used it for German unity. In: Hamburger Abendblatt , 2./3. April 2016, pp. 2–3. Retrieved April 2, 2016.
  27. Richard Herzinger : Germany is experiencing the return of genscherism . In: Welt Online of December 4, 2014, accessed April 1, 2016.
  28. Peter Carstens: Genscherism - compensatory mediation . In: faz.net , December 22, 2013, accessed April 1, 2016.
  29. Harold James: History of Europe in the 20th Century. Fall and rise 1914–2001. Munich 2004, ISBN 3-406-51618-1 , p. 402.
  30. Putin is our partner . In: tagesspiegel.de , December 18, 2012, accessed April 10, 2016.
  31. Genscher calls for a new beginning with Putin . In: süddeutsche.de , August 20, 2015, accessed April 10, 2016.
  32. It came as it had to . In: Der Spiegel 41/2013, October 7, 2013, online in the Spiegel Online archive .
  33. Genscher alias tulip . In: Der Spiegel . No. 29 , 1992 ( online ).
  34. Why didn't Genscher save a German student? In: welt.de , June 5, 2014, accessed April 1, 2016.
  35. ^ Johanniter Accident Aid : Hans Dietrich Genscher Prize .
  36. ^ Auction - record price for Genscher's yellow sweater. Retrieved April 6, 2011 .
  37. Courage Prize for Genscher , At: NOZ.de , September 19, 2000, accessed on April 10, 2016
  38. He himself with Markus Lanz on May 30, 2012.
  39. Genscher rejects assumptions - Genscher big ears. In: RP-online , March 10, 2002, accessed April 1, 2016.
  40. Children's TV program Willis VIPs ( episode How cold was the Cold War? Hans-Dietrich Genscher ) by Willi Weitzel ; Bayerischer Rundfunk, 2006; retransmitted on April 2nd, 2016 at 10:10 am on ARD.
  41. Date: Sept. 20, 1976 Subject: Mulatier presentation - DER SPIEGEL 39/1976. Retrieved June 28, 2020 .
  42. Hans-Dietrich Genscher as a comic hero: When Genschman saved the world , Spiegel Online from April 1, 2016, accessed on April 2, 2016
  43. "Titanic" author of the superhero Genschman - He will continue to hunt villains. Hans Zippert in conversation with Christine Watty. In: Deutschlandradio Kultur from April 1, 2016, accessed on April 2, 2016.
  44. Genscher's birthday party: retro party with yellow tank tops . In: Spiegel Online , March 22, 2013, accessed April 2, 2016
  45. Genscherism will be missing . Jürgen Trittin in zeit.online , April 2, 2016, accessed on April 10, 2016
  46. Announcement of awards of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany. In: Federal Gazette . Vol. 25, No. 43, March 9, 1973.
  47. List of all decorations awarded by the Federal President for services to the Republic of Austria from 1952 (PDF; 6.9 MB)
  48. Press release on the award ( Memento of October 23, 2014 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on November 20, 2010 (Czech).
  49. https://web.archive.org/web/20071130033051/http://www.president.lv/images/modules/items/PDF/item_1543_ordenis.pdf
  50. president.ee
  51. Mercator Professorship 2009: Dr. Peter Scholl-Latour. Press release from the University of Duisburg-Essen, November 6, 2009.
  52. ^ Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom (ed.): Genscher receives the foundation's first freedom award . November 15, 2006 ( freiheit.org [accessed December 23, 2017]).
  53. Hans-Dietrich Genscher receives 'Prize of the German Society eV' Retrieved on December 11, 2017 .
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