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coat of arms Germany map
Coat of arms of the city of Gummersbach
Map of Germany, position of the city of Gummersbach highlighted

Coordinates: 51 ° 2 ′  N , 7 ° 34 ′  E

Basic data
State : North Rhine-Westphalia
Administrative region : Cologne
Circle : Oberbergischer Kreis
Height : 250 m above sea level NHN
Area : 95.42 km 2
Residents: 50,952 (Dec. 31, 2019)
Population density : 534 inhabitants per km 2
Postcodes : 51643, 51645, 51647
Primaries : 02261, 02266 , 02354 , 02263 , 02262Template: Infobox municipality in Germany / maintenance / area code contains text
License plate : GM
Community key : 05 3 74 012

City administration address :
Rathausplatz 1
51643 Gummersbach
Website :
Mayor : Frank Helmenstein ( CDU )
Location of the city of Gummersbach in the Oberbergisches Kreis
Rhein-Sieg-Kreis Oberbergischer Kreis Rheinisch-Bergischer Kreis Nordrhein-Westfalen Remscheid Wuppertal Ennepe-Ruhr-Kreis Märkischer Kreis Kreis Olpe Kreis Siegen-Wittgenstein Rheinland-Pfalz Waldbröl Morsbach Nümbrecht Wiehl Reichshof Gummersbach Marienheide Bergneustadt Engelskirchen Lindlar Hückeswagen Wipperfürth Radevormwaldmap
About this picture

Gummersbach ( listen ? / I ) is the district town of the Oberbergisches Kreis in the administrative district of Cologne in North Rhine-Westphalia . Audio file / audio sample

Gummersbach was formerly also known as the Lindenstadt , as linden trees lined the main street. Until the 1920s, the citizens also called their city Little Paris . Today Gummersbach is the most important medium-sized center in the Oberbergischer Kreis and is known for its handball Bundesliga club, VfL Gummersbach .


Gummersbach is located in the Bergisches Land , a region in the Rhenish Slate Mountains in the south of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia. Near Gummersbach lies the Homert , at 519.2 meters above sea level the highest point in the Bergisches Land, which is characterized by numerous forests and a few lakes. The closest larger cities are Lüdenscheid in the north, Bergisch Gladbach in the west, Remscheid in the northwest and Siegen in the southeast.

Neighboring communities

Lindlar Marienheide Meinerzhagen
Engelskirchen , Lindlar Wind rose small.svg Bergneustadt , Drolshagen
Engelskirchen Wiehl Reichshof


middle Ages

The first reliable mention of the place comes from the year 1109. A document from Archbishop Friedrich I of Cologne deals among other things with the reduction of the catheter tax for “ ecclesia que est in gumeresbracht ” (German: “the church in Gumeres brought ”). The second half of the 9th century is considered very likely for the layout of the place. In 2011, leading linguists contradicted the assumption that the Archbishop of Cologne Gunther acted as initiator and possibly namesake (defining word Gum- ). At present it is considered very likely that the naming via the personal name word Gundmar or Gummar in the genitive form "Gumer" or "Gummer" in connection with the construction of a single farm was already in the 7th / 8th. Century took place.

Modern times

In 1857 Gummersbach received city ​​rights .

As part of the regional reform in North Rhine-Westphalia on July 1, 1969, large parts of the former municipality of Lieberhausen and small areas of the neighboring municipalities of Bergneustadt, Bielstein, Denklingen, Gimborn, Marienheide and Wiehl were incorporated. At the same time there were assignments to Bergneustadt and Ründeroth. In the course of the second local government reform, which came into force on January 1, 1975, large parts of the former municipality of Gimborn were incorporated into Gummersbach (Section 15 (1) of the Cologne Act ); At the same time, smaller areas were spun off to Wiehl and Marienheide , and from each of them also incorporated into Gummersbach (Section 15, Paragraphs 2 and 3, Section 16, No. 1 of the Cologne Act).

Since 1999 there has been a lot of extensive construction work in the city center. In 1999, Kaiserstraße and Hindenburgstraße were converted into a pedestrian zone and the surrounding streets were converted into what is known as the inner city ring. With the bankruptcy of the Steinmüller company, also in 1999, the reconstruction of the western city center from the industrial site to a new part of the city center began (see section “Urban development - Steinmüller site”).

Population development

(Main and secondary residences)

Population development from 1890–2017
year population year population year population
1890 7,748 2003 54,212 2015 50,412
1910 16,050 2004 54,312 2016 50,368
1925 17,310 2005 54.286 2017 50,497
1950 30,617 2006 53,878
1953 31,557 2007 53,668
1957 32,150 2008 53,337
1967 32,822 2009 52.710
1977 49,285 2010 52,495
1990 50,965 2011 52.234
1995 54,462 2012 52.234
2000 53,311 2013 52.056
2002 54,318 2014 51,968



The mayors of Gummersbach have been documented by name since 1807. The following is a list of people from the past 200 years:

  • 1807–1813 Peter Georg Heuser (Maire)
  • 1813–1814 Christoph Wilhelm Abraham Pickhardt
  • 1814–1816 Friedrich Reinshagen (administrative commissioner)
  • 1816–1819 Friedrich Reinshagen
  • 1819–1834 Adolf Heuser
  • 1835–1839 Christian Pickhardt (mayor's office administrator)
  • 1839–1844 Christian Pickhardt
  • 1845 -1845Christian Müller (mayor's office administrator)
  • 1845–1848 Peter Wilhelm Huland (mayor's office administrator)
  • 1848–1853 Wilhelm Dümpelmann
  • 1853–1861 Johann Christian Bickenbach
  • 1861 Freiherr von Müffling (mayor administrator)
  • 1861–1867 Franz Pütz
  • 1867–1879 Friedrich Albers
  • 1879–1903 Ernst Bülowius
  • 1903–1914 Dr. Richard Barth
  • 1914–1924 Dr. Eduard Foller
  • 1924–1933 Dr. Hermann Kempkens
  • 1933–1945 Wilhelm Mackh
  • 1945–1946 Theodor Stuplich
  • 1946–1948 Martin Siebert
  • 1948–1952 Wilhelm Heidbreder
  • 1952–1964 Fritz Eschmann (FDP)
  • 1964–1975 Heinz Billig
  • 1975–1989 Hubert Sülzer
  • 1989–1999 Karl Holthaus
  • 1999–2004 Paul-Gerhard Schmitz
  • since 2004: Frank Helmenstein (CDU)

City council

Local election 2014
Turnout: 48.6% (2004: 47.5%)
Gains and losses
compared to 2009
 % p
-1.2  % p
+ 5.2  % p
-5.6  % p
-1.3  % p
+ 0.4  % p
+1.8  % p
Map of the urban area

The city ​​council of the city of Gummersbach has 44 seats. After the local elections on May 25, 2014 , the following distribution of seats results:

Political party CDU SPD GREEN FDP LEFT Pirates total
Seats 21st 14th 3 3 2 1 44


Urban development - Steinmüller area

After the bankruptcy of L. & C. Steinmüller , the city of Gummersbach bought the company premises in the city center from Babcock Borsig Power for around four million euros . The site is currently being redeveloped as part of the Regional 2010 structural program.

On November 2, 2007, the Gummersbach campus of the Cologne University of Technology was opened there. The gap between the university and the Karlstrasse / Hindenburgstrasse intersection is currently under construction. The new bus station, which is now located on this section of the ring, was opened for the timetable change at the end of 2015 in the immediate vicinity of the also newly built station, so that faster transfers between bus and train are possible.

From April 2007 to June 2008 the north gate of the Steinmüller site was rebuilt and upgraded with natural stone paving and high-quality lighting. Since the renovation, Fabrikstrasse has only been accessible to pedestrians. Furthermore, the bus lane in front of the “Bergischer Hof” shopping center on Brückenstraße was removed and replaced by a wide sidewalk. With this conversion, the Steinmüller site is to be better linked with the city center.

A multifunctional arena with 4,132 seats and standing places has been built for VfL Gummersbach since 2012 . The Schwalbe Arena was opened in August 2013 with a tournament.

Almost all of the old Steinmüller factories have been demolished in recent years. Only three halls are still preserved today, whereby Hall 32 is to be permanently preserved as a reminder of the industrial past and has been converted into an event hall for concerts, trade fairs and other events. The city garden was laid out south of Hall 32. A beach handball field is adjacent to the east of the park.

The largest new building project on the site was the construction of the Forum Gummersbach shopping center . It was built within two years and opened in September 2015. It houses over 70 shops and restaurants on an area of ​​15,000 m². The largest tenants are Saturn, Kult, Müller and the Dornseifer supermarket. At the same time as the shopping center, the connection between the Steinmüller site and the existing city center was opened via Kampgasse. Another connection was opened north of the forum in 2016. The new multiplex cinema Seven Gummersbach has been located next to the forum since mid-2019.

The remaining free plots are currently being marketed. There are u. a. Areas intended for a hotel and the district court.

To the west of the Steinmüller site is another old industrial area - the former site of the Ackermann company. The site was bought by the city and the buildings on the site were demolished. Here (2017) residential space close to the city center is being created in several so-called quarters. With the exception of a student residence, this is in the upper price segment. Furthermore, a day-care center has already been built here.

City and country partnerships

coat of arms

By the highest decree of King Wilhelm II of Prussia on July 27, 1892, the city of Gummersbach was granted permission to use a city coat of arms. The white and red chess bars on a golden background were the coat of arms of the Counts von der Mark , who ruled the Neustadt office and the Gummersbach fortress for 350 years. The spindle in the blue field symbolizes the industrial diligence of the population and in particular the textile industry , which at the turn of the century gave a large part of the population wages and bread. The crown of the wall was included in the coat of arms at the suggestion of the Royal Herald's Office in Berlin.


Evangelical Church - Oberbergischer Dom
Catholic Church Sankt Franziskus on Lindenplatz
Ev. Lieberhausen Church
  • In today's center of the city is the castle , a house built in 1700 by the then bailiff Pollmann (see also: Vogteihaus Gummersbach ), which is called "the castle" because of its stone construction - a common name for older stone houses in Oberberg. It is located on Kaiserstrasse in the pedestrian zone .
  • The Oberbergisches Dom : The Protestant church rises in the old town. It was built as a hall church in the 11th century in the Romanesque style .
  • Catholic parish church St. Franziskus: it is located on Lindenplatz. The nave was torn down after severe damage in the early 1970s and rebuilt according to plans by the Cologne architect Hanns Hoffmanns ; of the neo-Gothic predecessor church, only the tower remained, which is now a listed building.
  • Evangelical Church Hülsenbusch : The Evangelical Church in Hülsenbusch was rebuilt in the 18th century after a local fire andfurnished in a baroque style.
  • Colorful dungeons : In Lieberhausen there is one of several colorful dungeons in the Oberbergisches Land, a Protestant church with medieval ceiling paintings. In a restaurant opposite the church you can eat the Lieberhauser pancake.
  • Dams: The Oberbergische Kreis is known for its numerous dams. They are an attraction for tourists and campers. The Aggertalsperre and part of the Genkeltalsperre are located in the Gummersbach urban area .
  • City garden: A while ago a city garden was completed on the Steinmüller site south of Hall 32.
  • Hall 32 : Event hall and former production hall of the Steinmüller company
  • Schwalbe-Arena : multifunctional arena and home ground of the second division handball team VfL Gummersbach

City center

A few years ago, Kaiserstrasse and Hindenburgstrasse became a pedestrian zone in front of the former bus station. Since then, traffic has been running around the city center, via La-Roche-sur-Yon-Strasse (named after the French twin town) and Karlstrasse, which together with Brückenstrasse form the inner city ring. The newly created pedestrian zone is now Gummersbach's most important shopping street. There are further pedestrian zones in Moltkestrasse, Wilhelmstrasse and Schützenstrasse. Wilhelmstrasse was completely renovated in 2015 as one of the last pedestrian zones. At the meeting point of Kaiser-, Hindenburg- and Moltkestrasse is Lindenplatz, which is occasionally used for events (for example open-air concerts or Christmas markets).

Opposite the town hall is Bismarckplatz. Events take place here again and again. Every Tuesday and Thursday there is a weekly market that is open in the mornings.

One of the city's two cinemas, the Burgtheater, is located within the inner city ring (there was another cinema in Dieringhausen until 2008). It has five cinema halls. Outside the inner city ring you will find the city ​​theater with 800 seats. Opposite is the Eugen-Haas-Halle . Until 2013, it was the home ground of the Bundesliga handball team VfL Gummersbach, alongside the Lanxess Arena in Cologne . For the 2013/2014 season, VfL moved to the Schwalbe Arena , which was newly built on the Steinmüller site . The Gumbala adventure pool (Gummersbacher Badeland) is located on Singerbrinkstraße . The district building of the Oberbergisches Kreis is located on Moltkestrasse. Opposite is the district and city library . The new Forum shopping center has been located on the Steinmüller site since 2015. Since 2019 the new cinema Seven Gummersbach next door.

Hall 32 was opened in 2013 . Since then, concerts, church services, comedy and theater performances have taken place here. The hall offers space for up to 1,500 spectators. In the south there is a restaurant that is also responsible for the catering in the hall. In addition, there is a business area on the upper floor. a. is used by VfL Gummersbach at home games in the neighboring Schwalbe-Arena . For this purpose, the business area is also connected to the Schwalbe Arena via a bridge.

The core of the city center lies in a valley between the Steinberg , Hepel and Berstig peaks . Residential areas belonging to the city center are located on the surveys. The district hospital is on the Berstig.


  • Lido Bruch: At the front basin of the Aggertalsperre , the Lido Bruch opens every summer.


  • The VfL Gummersbach (men's team) was in the 1970s and 1980s, one of the most successful handball crews of Europe and played up to and including the 2018/2019 season in the first handball league.
  • The TuS Derschlag considered the second most successful handball team of the city, who also briefly played in the 1970s in the 1st League and plays in cooperation with VfL Gummersbach in the third league.


  • TuRa Dieringhausen 's women's team played in the Regionalliga West for two years
  • The DJK Gummersbach e. V. was founded in 1961 and plays in the district league B, season 3 from the 2009/2010 season.
  • 1. FC Gummersbach emerged as an independent club from the entire VfL Gummersbach club after the 1999/2000 season. He will play in the district league A again from the 2008/2009 season after playing in the Mittelrhein district league for a year. Due to a further relegation in the 2008/2009 season, 1.FC Gummersbach is currently playing in the district league B, season 3.


  • The LG Gummersbach combines the athletics departments of five clubs from Gummersbach and the surrounding area. The New Year's Eve cross run organized by the LG is possibly the oldest in Germany.

Other sports clubs:

  • In the DJK Gummersbach e. V. the sports table tennis, football, gymnastics and children's gymnastics are practiced.
  • The Gummersbacher Steeldart throwers are in the 1st Steeldart Club (SDC) Gummersbach "Friday the 13th" e. V. organized.
  • Reit-Fahrverein Gummersbach e. V.
  • The RCM Gummersbach e. V operates RC model sports on its club grounds in Halsterbach (near Eckenhagen); mainly glider, motor and helicopter flight.
  • German Alpine Club - Section Gummersbach e. V. is active in nature conservation, hiking, mountaineering, climbing, mountain biking and offers a family group.


Economy and Infrastructure


Almost 70% of employees work in the service sector. At a good 6%, the unemployment rate is below the state and national average. Important companies in the city area are u. a. Service companies such as Ferchau Engineering , Steinmüller Babcock Environment, Kienbaum Consultants International and Opitz Consulting , but also the wallpaper manufacturers AS Création and also P + S international, Abus Kransysteme and Gizeh Raucherbedarf . The industrial location is also characterized by the manufacture of parts for the automotive industry and mechanical engineering. The largest industrial areas are Windhagen-West, Windhagen-Ost and Sonnenberg. The start-up and technology center is also located in the Windhagen-West industrial park. In addition, the city center is an important service location that has several pedestrian zones and the Bergischer Hof shopping center with Karstadt as the anchor tenant.


bus and train

Gummersbach station , the building was demolished in January 2012
New bus station

The mostly single-track Oberbergische Bahn (RB 25) connects Gummersbach station with Cologne and Lüdenscheid. The Marienheide – Meinerzhagen – Lüdenscheid-Bruges section has been in operation again since 2017, Marienheide – Meinerzhagen since 2014 and Gummersbach-Marienheide since 2004. The trains run every hour in the direction of Meinerzhagen. In the morning and in the afternoon there is a 30-minute drive to Cologne. There is a 60-minute cycle in the direction of Lüdenscheid. The travel time from Gummersbach to Cologne Central Station is around 70 minutes and to Lüdenscheid 55 minutes. In the course of the renovation of the area around the station, the Gummersbach station building was demolished. The central platform was rebuilt and an underpass now connects the platform barrier-free to the east and west with the city center and the university of applied sciences .

The tariff of the Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Sieg (VRS) applies to all local public transport and the NRW tariff applies to all tariff areas .

Until the 1950s, Gummersbach had a tram , of which hardly anything can be seen today. After it was closed, it was replaced by a trolleybus network before the trolleybus was also replaced by conventional buses .

In the urban area there is also the Siegburg – Olpe railway line , which has been shut down and partially dismantled from Dieringhausen since 1979 (passenger traffic) and 1997 (freight traffic). Until Overath, however, this route is used by the Oberbergische Bahn.

See also : Oberbergische Verkehrs-AG , railway network in the Oberbergisches Land

The central bus station , built in the 1980s, was about 100 meters from the train station . It had eight bus platforms on which a total of 16 lines stopped. A new bus station went into operation right next to the train station in early 2016. Over 400 OVAG and VBL buses run here on weekdays; on weekends it is around 220 to 250 a day. The buses connect the center with the inner-city residential areas, most of the districts (either as regular or round trips) and with external destinations Bergneustadt , Drolshagen , Engelskirchen , Hückeswagen , Lindlar , Marienheide , Morsbach, Nümbrecht , Olpe , Overath , Reichshof , Remscheid-Lennep , Ründeroth , Waldbröl , Wiehl and Wipperfürth . The lines run every quarter of an hour, half an hour or an hour, depending on the day and time of the week.

Road traffic

Gummersbach is via the federal highways 4 ( E 40 ) Aachen - Cologne - Olpe and 45 ( E 41 ) Dortmund - Siegen - Frankfurt am Main - Aschaffenburg as well as the federal highways 256 Wipperfürth - Altenkirchen (WW) - Neuwied - Mayen and 55 Jülich - Cologne - Olpe - Meschede - Rheda-Wiedenbrück opened up. You can get to Gummersbach from the A4 via junction 25 (Gummersbach) and 26 ( Reichshof / Bergneustadt ) and from the A 45 via junction 16 ( Meinerzhagen ).

Fiber optic internet

In 2012, Deutsche Telekom built a fiber optic network in downtown Gummersbach, as well as in the Steinenbrück district and parts of the Karlskamp district . The network reaches speeds of up to 200 Mbit / s. FTTH with up to 200 Mbit / s is also available in the centrally located districts. In addition, since October 2014, even more remote parts have been supplied with 100Mbit VDSL2 vectoring .


There is a DVB-T (filling) transmitter in Gummersbach on the Kerberg; this has the same parameters as the Hohe Warte location (Engelskirchen) . It does not cover the entire city area and in the outer parts of the city you only have reception with a roof antenna.


Gummersbach District Hospital
Sparkasse and Lindenplatz


Gummersbach campus

Primary schools:

  • Municipal community elementary schools in the city center and in the districts of Becke, Bernberg, Derschlag, Dieringhausen, Hülsenbusch, Niederseßmar, Steinenbrück and Windhagen
  • Municipal network elementary school (with a Catholic train) in the Dieringhausen district.
  • Free Christian Confession School Gummersbach e. V.


  • Free Christian Hauptschule e. V. in the district of Karlskamp

Comprehensive schools:


  • Municipal secondary schools in the city center (on the Hepel and on the Steinberg)
  • Free Christian Realschule Gummersbach e. V. in the district of Karlskamp


  • Municipal Linden Gymnasium Gummersbach, both buildings in the city
  • Evening high school Rhein-Sieg, Oberberg branch in the Dieringhausen district
  • Free Christian Gymnasium Gummersbach e. V. in the district of Karlskamp
  • Business high school in the Oberberg commercial vocational college

Vocational schools:

  • Vocational college in Oberberg: nutrition, social affairs and technology
  • Vocational college Oberberg: commercial schools
  • BildungsCentrum Oberberg for technology and business

Vocational schools

  • Oberberg Health and Education Center in the Oberberg Clinic: Training in health and nursing, training in surgical assistance, advanced training in intensive and anesthetic care, in case management and practical instructions, advanced training in health and care.


Other educational institutions:

  • Musikschule Gummersbach e. V.
  • Jakob Moreno School (formerly Friedrich Fröbel School), school for people with learning disabilities in the city center
  • School for educational assistance of the Oberbergischer Kreis in the district of Vollmerhausen
  • Theodor Heuss Academy and Archive of Liberalism of the Friedrich Naumann Foundation for Freedom in the Niederseßmar district
  • Association for Social Educational Work V. in the district of Vollmerhausen
  • Adult Education Center : in the city center
  • District adult education center: in the Niederseßmar district
  • Steinmüller Training Center: in the city center (Rospestrasse) (basic training in the metal sector, specialist courses for trainees and qualification measures / training as a clerk for office communication, industrial clerk as well as wholesale and foreign trade clerks / in cooperation with the Mannheim University of Cooperative Education for a Bachelor of Engineering )
  • College institute in the city center (IT training and personality training)
  • Academy for Christian Leaders
  • District and city library Gummersbach


sons and daughters of the town

People with a relationship to the city

Honorary citizen

According to the statutes, the honorary citizenship of the city of Gummersbach expires with the death of the recipient.

See also


  • Dirk Adolphs: 125 years of L. & C. Steinmüller - 5 after 12 .
  • Dirk Adolphs: Alt-Gummersbach . Gronenberg, Gummersbach 1984, ISBN 3-88265-116-4 .
  • Josef Arnold, Jürgen Woelke: Alt-Gummersbach . Gronenberg, Gummersbach 1984, ISBN 3-88265-116-4 .
  • Gerhard Pomykaj: Gummersbacher story. Gronenberg, Gummersbach 1993-2006;
    • Volume 1: From the beginnings to the beginning of Napoleonic rule in 1806 (= contributions to the history of Gummersbach. Vol. 3). 1993, ISBN 3-88265-184-9 ;
    • Volume 2: From the beginning of Napoleonic rule to the end of the First World War (1806–1918) (= contributions to the history of Gummersbach. Vol. 5). 2006, ISBN 3-88265-261-6 .
  • Gerhard Pomykaj, Jürgen Woelke: Landmarks of Gummersbacher history: A short guide . In: Contributions to the history of Gummersbach . tape 4 . Sparkasse Gummersbach-Bergneustadt, Gummersbach 2000, ISBN 3-9808769-0-X ( ).
  • City of Gummersbach (Ed.): City of Gummersbach. 125 years of city rights. (1857-1982) . City Director, Gummersbach 1982.

Web links

Commons : Gummersbach  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files
 Wikinews: Gummersbach  - in the news

Individual evidence

  1. Population of the municipalities of North Rhine-Westphalia on December 31, 2019 - update of the population based on the census of May 9, 2011. State Office for Information and Technology North Rhine-Westphalia (IT.NRW), accessed on June 17, 2020 .  ( Help on this )
  2. Gerhard Pomykaj: Gummersbacher history. Volume 1: From the beginning to the beginning of Napoleonic rule in 1806. 1993.
  3. Günther B. Walzik: Settlement history yield of archaeological investigations on rural parish churches of the Rhineland (=  Habelt's dissertation prints. Series medieval history . H. 2). Habelt, Bonn 1981, ISBN 3-7749-1255-6 (also: Bonn, Universität, Dissertation, 1971).
  4. ^ Statements by Jürgen Udolph , Christian Lehmann, Albrecht Greule , Kirstin Casemir, Tobias Vogelfänger, Hans Ramge. City Archives Gummersbach, 2011
  5. Martin Bünermann: The communities of the first reorganization program in North Rhine-Westphalia. A handbook on municipal reorganization with systematic overviews and directories of the new and dissolved municipalities (=  Kommunale Schriften für Nordrhein-Westfalen . Volume 32 ). Deutscher Gemeindeverlag, 1970, ISSN  0454-2584 , p. 80 .
  6. ^ Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality directory for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes in municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart / Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 301 .
  7. State Returning Officer NRW
  8. ^ The Kingdom of Lesotho and The City of Gummersbach Sign a Development Cooperation Agreement. ( Memento of the original from December 3, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  9. Jörg Valentin: End the old year on an ongoing basis. ( Memento of the original from March 8, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. On: Spiridon magazine. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /