|coat of arms||Germany map|
|State :||North Rhine-Westphalia|
|Administrative region :||Cologne|
|Circle :||Oberbergischer Kreis|
|Height :||220 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||85.88 km 2|
|Residents:||21,315 (Dec 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||248 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postal code :||51789|
|Primaries :||02266, 02207 , 02206 , 02267|
|License plate :||GM|
|Community key :||05 3 74 020|
|LOCODE :||DE LDR|
|Address of the
|Mayor :||Georg Ludwig ( CDU )|
|Location of the municipality of Lindlar in the Oberbergischer Kreis|
Lindlar lies between 7 ° 15 'and 7 ° 28' east longitude and 50 ° 58 'and 51 ° 5' north latitude. The highest point of Lindlar with a height of 376.3 meters is near Oberlichtinghagen, the deepest with 110 m near Oberbilstein.
The area around Lindlar is characterized by dry heights and moist river valleys. The mountain saddles and valleys form watersheds between Sülz and Wupper or Lindlarer Sülz and Olpebach, Lindlarer Sülz and Lennefer Bach as well as Lennefer Bach and Leppe. The main rivers are the Lindlarer Sülz , which joins the Kürtener Sülz in Hommerich and then flows into the Agger, the Lennefer Bach and the Leppe .
The Lindlarer Sülz flows into the municipality near Oberhabbach, bends west at Brochhagen and takes on the Breunbach, which rises near Waldheim (Lindlar) , in Hartegasse . It now flows through the Sülztal, takes on the Ommerbach coming from Ommerborn at Quabach and joins the Kürtener Sülz to the Sülz at Hommerich.
The Lennefer Bach rises northeast of Lindlar and flows into the Sülz at Obersteeg.
The Leppe flows through the Leppetal and takes in the Scheelbach near Kaiserau. The Leppe flows into the Agger near Engelskirchen.
Expansion of the municipal area
The community of Lindlar is relatively sparsely populated. It extends from Hohkeppel and Schmitzhöhe in the southwest to Hartegasse and Breun in the northeast. The main town of Lindlar has expanded over the past few decades and so the place has grown together with various courtyards and places in the area, especially since 1945. The area now extends from Falkenhof and Oberheiligenhoven in the west via Altenlinde and Schwarzenbach in the north, Pinnappel and Weyer in the east to Schümmerich and Altenrath in the south.
The rest of the community, with the exception of the church villages, still shows the usual appearance of scattered settlements. These show the typical shape of the hamlet for the Bergisches Land, which is located in the transition from the individual courtyard to the village structure.
|Kürten||Wipperfürth||Wipperfürth , Marienheide|
Structure of the community
Lindlar is divided into the main towns: Lindlar (center, 8,582 inhabitants on June 30, 2010), Frielingsdorf , Linde , Hohkeppel , Schmitzhöhe , Kapellensüng / Hartegasse . These main places are also the church villages .
Lindlar is counted to the "Bergisches Bergland". The soils are not very productive, there is primarily pasture land.
Fossil finds from the years 2008/2009 have been comprehensively evaluated and prove that what is known to be the oldest forest in the world was in Lindlar. In 2008 paleontologists discovered remains of leaves and branches. In the Middle Devon, about 390 million years ago, before the dinosaurs, the two to three meter high trees - calamophyton - grew on a sand island in the shallow sea. It is believed that the trees were washed into the sea by a prehistoric tsunami, were covered with mud and are still petrified today. The Lindlarer Grauwacke , a 350 million year old sedimentary rock, owes its origin to these sludge deposits .
Settlement and first documented mention
Of the supposedly ten stone axes from the Neolithic period that are said to have been discovered northeast of Kemmerich , the material of which is unknown and which passed into private ownership without the heirs being known, only one remains. Another flint ax find at Fenke is also known; the device is made of flint. Until the Middle Ages , the Bergisch primeval forests extended in this region to the Rhine , which were probably only occasionally inhabited by hunters or individual settlers . The systematic settlement of the Bergisches Land did not begin until the fifth or sixth century during the great migration . Initially, the settlers followed the course of the rivers; Lindlar may have been settled for the first time during this period.
Lindlar was first mentioned in a document in 1109. In the document, Archbishop Friedrich I of Cologne reduced the taxes of the Lindlar parish church to the main episcopal church from one pound to ten shillings . Lindlar is known as Lintlo , this name is based on "linden bushes". Furthermore, the Lindlar church had to belong to the St. Severin monastery in Cologne and had a Fronhof that still bears this name today. A mill also belonged to a Fronhof . Since the church is referred to as “located in the village”, other buildings must have existed and since a cathedral tax only had to be paid by a parish church, the Lindlar church had to be a parish church.
A parish church on the other hand suggests a permanent pastor who was provided with land. In Lindlar, for example, there must have been a Wiedenhof, i.e. a parsonage, this was located next to the current rectory and was demolished in the course of the new building of the Volksbank. Since the cathedral tax usually fluctuated between 3 and 10 shillings, but Lindlar originally had to pay 1 pound, Lindlar must have been a particularly large parish.
Since Lindlar was already Kirchdorf in 1109, the time of clearing must be set earlier, between 893, the earliest documented time for clearing in the Rhenish area, and 1109. The time can, however, be narrowed down further, as a document from the year 958 exists, in which the St. Severins monastery in Cologne is assigned the church to "Kaldenkapellen" (= Hohkeppel). Since the Hohkeppler church was demonstrably subordinate to the Lindlar parish church, it must have already existed at this point in time, so its creation is to be set for the period between 893 and 958.
Since the Hofverband Lindlar was a spiritual manor and this was excluded from a number of legal acts, it needed the assistance of a Vogt , a secular ruler. According to a document from 1174, the Counts of Berg were the guardians of Lindlar. Court courts in Steinbach, Steinenbrücke and Heiligenhoven can be documented during this period .
The court court of Steinbach and Heiligenhoven was owned by the Counts of Berg, which in Steinenbrücke belonged to the free aristocratic monastery of St. Maria in the Capitol , which had concentrated the administration of their Bergisch property in Dürscheid , but was presumably only in the late 13th century by the counts taken to mountain. So there were three landlords in the Lindlar area: the St. Severin monastery, the St. Maria monastery in the Capitol and the Counts of Berg. Each manorial estate had its own manor (Fronhof, Meierhof) in which the court court met and its own mill. The mill of the St. Severinstift stood in the village of Lindlar, that of the Maria Abbey in the Capitol in Dürscheid and that of the Counts of Berg in Scheel .
The regional court was superordinate to the court court, one such can be proven for the Count's Herrenhof Steinbach. There you will also find the old hallway name “Im Galgenbüschchen”.
The tower of the Romanesque church dates from the 12th century and has been preserved to this day. The tower dome was built in the 18th century. A three-aisled late Gothic nave with a transept was inaugurated in 1500, the current nave was replaced by a new building in 1826. The parish church's baptismal font has also been preserved from the 12th century. The parish church in Lindlar was the mother church of the churches in Hohkeppel (until 1400) and Engelskirchen (until 1554).
The church was in the medieval Lindlar center of the village . This was secured with a small outer ditch and a wall planted with a hedge . In different directions there were passages that were secured by trap gates, similar to drawbridges. The street name “Am Falltor” still reminds of such a passage.
In the course of time more and more areas were cleared and made arable, partly at the free will of the farmers, partly on the orders of the sovereign . The centers of this expansion were the Fron- and Herrenhöfe. Representatives of the landlords ruled here and the tithe had to be handed in. In addition, there was the obligation of the peasants to do manual and clamping services. The court and administrative work that was increasingly occurring was also carried out in the Fronhof.
The Fronhof in Lindlar was mentioned for the first time in a document from 1174 as curtis in lintlo , until then it was the lifting point for the Upper Bergisches Stift tenth of the large parish Gummersbach-Meinerzhagen. The Fronhof was administered by a Meier . He had to deliver his donations to the monastery on Severinstag. According to a register, eight Köttersgüter belonged to the Fronhof and oats, barley and flax were grown. Sheep and chickens were kept as farm animals. On August 6, 1663, the Fronhof with court (court court) and fiefdom was transferred to Johann Adolf Schenck from Nideggen zu Ober- Heiligenhoven by purchase. The street name “Im Fronhofsgarten” in Lindlar still reminds of the former Fronhof.
In 1247 a document from Archbishop Konrad von Hochstaden gives information about the Meieramt in Lindlar. A local administrative officer of the Count in Lindlar was already present this year. This also confirms once again why no parish church was built in Steinbach, but rather the residents of the manor of the Counts of Berg visited the parish church in Lindlar.
A Henricus from Novo Castro was also executed as a witness . To identify his residence with Neuenberg is not exactly verifiable, since Schloss Burg an der Wupper also appeared under this name.
At the end of the 13th century, the old Meier constitution was broken, the landlord bonds were defied by the fact that the lease was no longer paid to the Lehnshof, but to the parish . Several parishes were now combined into one district, headed by the bailiff. The bailiff of Lindlar resided in Steinbach Castle , which can be documented for the 13th century, because when Count Adolf von Berg wrote to his “bailiffs” in 1268, the Steinbach and Steinbach Castle must already have existed. The parish was in turn divided into smaller honors .
A decisive event made the Leppe near Lindlar the state border: in 1273, Count Adolf von Berg pledged the Bailiwick of Gummersbach, which also included Gimborn, to Count Everhard von der Mark.
In 1311 Heinrich, Herr zu Löwenburg sold the Overath settlement to Count Adolf von Berg. Overath became part of the Bergisches Land and was incorporated into the Steinbach office.
The first Landwehr ( Bergische Landwehr ) appeared in Lindlar in this century . They consisted of trenches and trimmed trees and shrubbery and were a kind of unmanned rampart with sometimes two to three trenches and ramparts. Four Landwehr lines ran through Lindlar, one from the Horpetal past Weyer, Rübach and Holl. It reached the Sülztal near Löhe and Brochhagen. Via Stüttem it continued to the north. Probably the oldest Landwehr line ran south of Remshagen, at that time still part of Berg, coming from Leppetal again at Dassiefen along the state border, at Scheel and Lichtinghagen further inland at Schnipperinghausen but again running along the state border.
Lindlar was on two important trade routes, the Altenberg-Gimborn and Cologne-Marienheide road. Remains of the old ravines can still be made out in the area today. There were probably a few customs stations in Lindlar, even if they can only be traced back to the 17th century. Apparently, they were in Lindlar-Mühlenseite, on the old road to Engelskirchen and in Horpe ("am Horper Schlagbaum").
1363 was then noted in a document: "Office Steinbach in the Duchy of Berg with Wipperfeld , Bechen , Kürten, Olpe , Lindlar, Overath, Engelskirchen, Keppel (Hohkeppel) and the parish of Wipperfürth." The office Steinbach was one of the oldest offices in Bergisch and was named after Steinbach Castle in Ober-Steinbach. This castle still exists today as a ruin.
At that time, a regional court was set up in Lindlar , which covered the entire area of Lindlar, Engelskirchen and Hohkeppel.
15th to 18th century
Due to the general increase in population, Hohkeppel was raised to independent parishes in 1440 and Engelskirchen in 1554 . The division of offices and honors lasted until the 19th century, when the constitution was reformed by Napoleon .
From March 31, 1629 to June 17, 1634, Lindlar was owned by Count Adam von Schwarzenberg, Lord of Gimborn .
On December 17, 1625, Brandenburg troops robbed the church. In the years 1795 and 1796, the place suffered greatly from the billeting of the Soldateska. Tyrolean snipers and barko hussars alternated with French troops. Among other things, had General Ney and the staff of General Richepanse here their quarters .
The first pharmacy in Lindlar was mentioned in a document as early as 1701 in a report by the evangelical preacher Hoffmann from the Delling.
On October 20, 1795, the people of Lindlar chased the French out of the town, down the Lenneferbach to Bensberg .
Napoleon elevated the Duchy of Berg to a Grand Duchy in 1806 . By decree of November 13, 1808, Napoleon divided the country of Berg into départements , arrondissements and cantons . The old Bergische Amt Steinbach was divided into two cantons, Lindlar came to the arrondissement of Mülheim. The canton of Lindlar consisted of the parishes of Lindlar, Engelskirchen , Hohkeppel and Overath , from which the three Mairien ( mayor's offices) Lindlar, Engelskirchen and Overath had been formed by the municipal administrative order of December 18, 1808 , which completely separated the administration of justice provided by the administration. The canton was the lower district of the administration of justice. The old Hohen Keppel district court was converted into a peace court in 1811, which remained responsible for the same district until Overath was separated from the peace court in 1816. The judicial district with the three communities Lindlar, Engelskirchen and Hohkeppel remained until December 31, 1974 ( Lindlar District Court ). The Lindlar Regional Court remained, but was raised to a court of justice in the canton Lindlar. The peace court was not renamed the district court until 1879 .
1815 to 1870
The Congress of Vienna decided in 1815 to annex the Rhineland to Prussia . There were no changes in relation to the municipal boundaries. From then on, Lindlar belonged to the Wipperfürth district in the Cologne administrative district. In 1828 the place had 5,430 inhabitants, of which 2,728 were male and 2,702 female, as well as 5,396 Catholic and 34 Protestant. Although the March Revolution of 1848 had no direct impact on Lindlar, a " vigilante group " was set up to maintain order. The mayor's office with Lindlar, Engelskirchen and Hohkeppel existed until 1851, the official seat of the mayor was Lindlar.
1871 to 1918
In 1877 the community tried to set up a "post office" to Wipperfürth and Bergisch Gladbach . Despite a “fare guarantee” offered by the municipality, both journeys were finally refused by the post in 1880 . In 1882, a “volunteer fire brigade corps” was formed in the village, and their equipment was financed by the community. In 1895 a new building had to be built for the district court. The community bore the costs because otherwise the court would have been relocated to Engelskirchen. In 1897, the council formed a committee that dealt with the subject of " railways ", since Lindlar's connection to the railway network was seen as urgently needed. Before that, a railway line to Immekeppel had already been built in 1890 . However, all efforts of the community to continue this route to Lindlar were initially unsuccessful. This project was only approved by the government in 1906, so that in 1909 work began on upgrading the tracks and the line opened in 1912.
The first telephone system was installed in Lindlar as early as 1899 . At this time there were elementary schools in Lindlar (four, six by 1900, eight by 1912), Linde (two classes), Waldbruch (one class), Süng (two classes), Frielingsdorf (three classes from 1883), Hohkeppel, Schmitzhöhe and lime kiln. Due to the growing number of pupils, a new building for the Lindlar elementary school was built in 1909. The "secondary school", which reopened in 1896, was closed in 1914 due to a lack of students and at high costs.
Due to the legacies of the Lindlar pastor Johannes Fischer and the carpenter Christian Miebach, the Lindlar hospital was opened in 1891 . The sisters of the poor servants of Jesus Christ from Dernbach in the Westerwald took over the care . In the early 20th century, three Lindlar newspapers were created: the Bergische Agent (1903), the Bergische Türmer (also 1903) and the Lindlarer Zeitung (1912). In 1904 the council approved the construction of a town hall (today the House of Encounter ).
1919 to 1932
After the armistice of November 11, 1918, all areas west of the Rhine and east of the Rhine an area known as the "Bridgehead Cologne" within a radius of 30 kilometers were occupied . To the east of the "bridgehead" followed a 10 km wide "neutral zone". The western part of the community was occupied, the eastern part belonged to the neutral zone. Since the occupation troops blocked all traffic, it was agreed to adapt the zone boundary to the municipal boundary. The billeting of Allied soldiers put a heavy burden on the population. During the occupation there was an enormous smuggling traffic, especially from Lindlar to the unoccupied Horpe. On November 6, 1919, the troops withdrew again. Failure to fulfill the Versailles Treaty in 1921 resulted in the establishment of a customs border between the zones, so that a customs officer was working at the Lindlar train station . During the occupation of the Ruhr area by the French in 1923 , there was again enormous traffic on the "smuggling road", which was already in use in 1919, as the route from Lindlar to Remshagen was the only uncontrolled connection from the occupied to the unoccupied area. Since the Belgian occupiers refused to tighten controls, French units penetrated the Bergisches Land in early 1923 and closed all border crossings . This resulted in passive resistance , which led to numerous arrests. In 1924 the French left again. The council, elected for the first time in 1919, also included two women: Luise Kremer and Carola Lob. In 1922, the post office approved the Lindlar – Wipperfürth route, but drew the community's attention to the fact that initially no bus could travel because there was none. The bus left the Lindlar train station and took the route via Kürten. In 1927 the plan of the Lindlar - Wipperfürth railway line was dropped in favor of the Bergisch Gladbach - Wipperfürth line.
1933 to 1945
After Hitler came to power on January 30, 1933, things also changed in Lindlar. Since the NSDAP was not represented in the Lindlar council, a new municipal council was introduced on April 6, 1933 . The two elected community representatives of the SPD stayed away from the first meeting. This council remained in office until May 4, 1934. Fritz Bergerhoff was mayor from 1934 to 1945 . On August 6, 1935, the community was awarded its current seal because the seal with the Prussian eagle could no longer be used. The seal is handed down from the old Hohenkeppeler regional court, which had its seat in Lindlar after 1700. In 1936 the streets in Lindlar were renamed according to a council resolution, parts of the main street were renamed as “ Adolf-Hitler-Straße ”, the Eichenhofstraße south of the church became partly “Korbstraße” or “Auf dem Korb” and Horst-Wessel- Straße. Some of these street names are still in use today, such as the names for “Kölner Straße”, “Schwarzenbachstraße”, “Rheinstraße” or the “Rosenhügel”. In 1937 a camp site for the Hitler Youth was set up on Uferstrasse as well as a camp for the “ Reich Labor Service ” in Heiligenhoven Castle and the “Female Labor Service” in Schwarzenbach.
During the war there were two POW camps in Lindlar, one in Lindlar itself and one in Hommerich. The Hommerich camp in particular became well known across the region: 42 out of 98 Soviet prisoners of war died here after being mistreated and malnourished . In 1942 the bells of the churches in Lindlar, Linde, Hohkeppel and Frielingsdorf were delivered to be melted down. Only the bells from Hohkeppel survived the war , stored in Hamburg . In the same year, the Lindlar Hospital was used as a reserve hospital. Lindlar was initially considered relatively safe from air raids . It was not until 1944 that the first aerial bombs fell on the Lindlar area, first on Schmitzhöhe and Schönenborn, then on house property with two fatalities and on Scheel with one fatality. When the theater of war neared the Rhine in 1945 , five citizens of Lindlar were also killed in a bomb attack in Engelskirchen on March 19, 1945 . In April 1945 the front approached the municipal area and heavy air raids followed, in which over 13 people were killed. From April 12, 1945 the US Army was in Frielingsdorf and Engelskirchen and reached the borders of the Lindlar mayor. This was followed by a strong artillery fire on the place, which killed four Lindlar citizens, and the hospital received 25 direct hits. On April 13, around 8 a.m., the Americans occupied Lindlar without a fight and advanced to Wipperfürth.
The Second World War claimed a total of around 500 deaths within the Lindlar community (both civilian and fallen). On April 9, 1945, about eight days before the Americans marched into Overath, ten Soviet prisoners of war from Overath were shot by an officer of the Volkssturm in a Lindlar quarry as a result of the murder of a party man . Since the bodies were only sparsely covered with gravel, the Americans found them straight away. The already badly decomposed corpses were dug up and kept in open coffins on the church square. Now all residents of Lindlar were forced to walk past the open coffins and look at the corpses. American cameramen filmed this and a short report was shown on American newsreel. The real killer went into hiding and was never caught. The freed Soviet prisoners of war soon took revenge themselves and shot four people from Lindlar.
Due to the influx of mostly Protestant refugees , the only Protestant church around, in Kürten- Delling , quickly became too small for the faithful. Since 1949 the Protestants were allowed to hold a Protestant service in the Catholic parish churches in Lindlar and Frielingsdorf. This interim solution only changed in 1950 with the formation of an independent Protestant parish in Lindlar. In 1954 the Protestant Jubilate Church was built in Lindlar . In 1965 the Protestant Rogate Church in Frielingsdorf was built, which was closed and sold in 2007.
In 1964, the council of the community decided to set up a single-class secondary school for boys and girls from Easter 1965 , and a special school was set up in the same school year . At the beginning of the 1968/69 school year, the old elementary schools were dissolved and divided into elementary and secondary schools . All Protestant and Catholic primary schools in Lindlar have now been dissolved and combined as follows: elementary schools in Lindlar, Frielingsdorf, Kapellensüng and Linde, secondary schools in Lindlar and Frielingsdorf. All primary schools with the exception of Lindlar were community primary schools . In the former municipality of Hohkeppel there was a primary and secondary school in Schmitzhöhe. In the early 1970s, the winter school was moved from Lindlar to Wipperfürth. In 1977 the secondary and secondary school was housed in the school center on Wilhelm-Breidenbach-Weg. The secondary school in Frielingsdorf was later closed. Since 1998 there has also been a grammar school in Lindlar , which moved into the premises of the Catholic elementary school in Lindlar. This was divided into two primary schools. Today Lindlar has primary schools in Frielingsdorf, Kapellensüng, Linde, Schmitzhöhe, Lindlar-West and Lindlar-East, a special, secondary and secondary school as well as a grammar school in Lindlar.
The Cologne-Mülheim – Lindlar railway line (popularly known as the “Sülztalbahn”) was shut down in 1966 despite fierce protests from the community administration , and the last passenger train was running in 1960. Freight traffic was stopped on May 22, 1966. The Marienheide – Engelskirchen small railway was also discontinued in 1958. The last operation took place on a small stretch from Kaiserau to Engelskirchen. The small railway was completely dismantled, some stations and structures of the "Sülztalbahn" and large parts of the embankment in the Immekeppel area are still standing.
As part of the municipal reorganization on January 1, 1975, not only was the Lindlar District Court dissolved, but the municipality of Lindlar was also added to the Oberbergischer Kreis. The municipality of Hohkeppel was transferred to the municipalities of Overath (cf. § 10 No. 2 Cologne Act ), Engelskirchen (cf. § 13 para. 2 No. 2 Cologne Act) and Lindlar (cf. § 14 para. 1 Cologne Act ) distributed. Parts of the municipalities of Engelskirchen, Gimborn, Olpe and Overath were also added (see Section 14 (2) Cologne Act). Since the 19th century, Lindlar has belonged to three districts: from 1816 to 1932 the Wipperfürth district , from 1932 to 1974 the Rheinisch-Bergisches Kreis and since 1975 the Oberbergischer Kreis. The change of district also had an impact on traffic, so Wupsi (KWS Kraftverkehr Wupper- Sieg AG) was no longer driving in Lindlar , but Oberbergische Verkehrs-AG (OVAG).
Localities, villages, hamlets
The Lindlar municipality council has 36 seats, which are distributed among the individual parties as follows:
- 1808–1809: Georg Klug
- 1809–1815: Johann Joseph David Friederichs
- 1815–1836: Franz Alexander Court, mayor for Lindlar, Engelskirchen and Hohkeppel
- 1836–1839: Heinrich Schade, Adolf Nelles, Johann Heinrich Bau, acting mayors
- 1839–1844: Johann Heinrich Bau
- 1844–1846: Friedrich Bremmer, acting mayor for Lindlar, Engelskirchen and Hohkeppel
- 1846–1851: Friedrich Bremmer, Mayor of Lindlar, Acting Mayor of Engelskirchen
- 1851–1890: Wilhelm Hofstadt
- 1890–1897: Adolf Mausbach
- 1897–1918: Johann Peiffer
- 1919–1925: Joseph Kelleter
- 1926–1934: Fritz Jung
- 1934–1945: Fritz Bergerhoff
- 1947–1949: Karl Stiefelhagen (CDU)
- 1950–1956: Wilhelm Fischer (CDU)
- 1956–1975: Josef Bosbach (CDU)
- 1975–1979: Josef Vollmer (CDU)
- 1979–1999: Siegfried Sax (CDU)
- 1999–2004: Konrad Heimes (CDU) as full-time mayor
- 2004–2011: Hermann-Josef Tebroke (CDU) as full-time mayor
- since 2012: Georg Ludwig (CDU) as full-time mayor
coat of arms
"The Scheffen Sigel zu Keppel" is the inscription of the seal of the former Keppel zu Lindlar court in the old Bergisches Amt Steinbach. It shows the coat of arms in a baroque shield in the seal field: in the upper field the ascending Bergische lion as the ruler's coat of arms, in the lower field a scales symbol of the justice of the lay judges.
The seal is 3.05 centimeters tall and comes from a document dated December 4, 1781 in Volume XV of the Catholic parish archive in Lindlar.
Lindlar was first mentioned in a document in 1109, but a document from 958 mentions Hohkeppel (Kaldenkepelle). Since the municipality of Lindlar made up the largest part of the Hohkeppel district court at that time, the Keppel jury seal could be used as the basis for the municipality's coat of arms.
The municipality received the right to use the coat of arms on August 6, 1935 by the President of the Rhine Province.
- Brionne , Normandy , France (since October 9, 1983)
- Shaftesbury , Dorset , England (since December 12, 1981)
- Kaštela , Dalmatia , Croatia (since March 2, 1987)
Lindlar was predominantly Catholic until the Second World War , but a Protestant church was built in 1956 due to the increased number of Protestant residents. At the beginning of the 1990s, an evangelical free church also settled there, and the New Apostolic Church has existed since November 7, 1982.
So there is now in Lindlar
- six Catholic churches in Lindlar (pilgrimage), Frielingsdorf (pilgrimage), Kapellensüng, Linde, Schmitzhöhe and Hohkeppel (pilgrimage)
- Saint Severin is venerated in St. Severin in the center of Lindlar. The pilgrimage takes place on October 23rd.
- a Protestant church in Lindlar (the Rogate church in Frielingsdorf was closed and sold in 2007)
- an evangelical free church in Lindlar
- a New Apostolic Church in Lindlar
Lindlar has a cultural center with over 800 seats, in which theater and music events take place regularly. Smaller events make use of the “Alte Schule” council room on Eichenhofstrasse.
The Lindlar community library has a large selection of books and is supported by a support association.
The municipality describes itself as a tourist municipality and sees itself as a holiday and leisure location. The historic centers of Lindlar, Hohkeppel and Linde are worth seeing. In addition, there are often crossroads and many smaller chapels along the hiking trails in the Oberbergisches Land . Many sights are listed as historical monuments .
- Castles and Palaces
- Within the area are the ruins and former Wasserburg Eibach , the castle Neuenberg , the castle Under Heiligenhoven , the castle Heiligenhoven and Georghausen Castle .
- The Catholic parish church of St. Severin dates from the 12th century. There are other catholic old and worth seeing churches in Hohkeppel and Linde. The Evangelical Jubilate Church was built between 1954 and 1956.
- There is probably no other area in the Bergisches Land that is as richly marked with crosses and footfalls as the municipality of Lindlar. The quarries on the Brungerst produced stones that survived the centuries and were hewn by masters.
Buildings and plants
- At the market square
In the town
- Lamsfuß forge, Hauptstrasse, from the late 18th century, restored in 1986.
- Lindlar District Court , Pollerhofstrasse.
- Old winter school, Pollerhofstrasse
- House Kelleter, Bachstrasse
- House Plietz, Eichenhofstrasse
- House of Encounter
- House Gronewald
- Catholic rectory.
- "Old School" council chamber.
- House Willmer, Am Fronhofsgarten
Monuments and sculptures
- War memorial , Eichenhofstrasse, 1877
- Lindlar “Bessemsbenger”, Eichenhofstrasse, wooden figure
- “Ark for Peace” at the church, 5to-Stein 1999
- Stone carving family: Steenkueler-Brunnen, Marktplatz
- Flea markets, craft markets, farmers' markets in the Bergisches Freilichtmuseum and a Christmas market take place regularly . A specialty is a classic car market in Schmitzhöhe in Lindlar. Every Friday there is a weekly market in the town center.
- The LVR open-air museum in Lindlar is not far from the village . In Lindlar-Altenrath there is a curiosity museum and in Lindlar-Linde a private collector has also collected locomotives on the former site of the train station.
Schools and educational institutions
In Lindlar there are six primary schools in different villages: Frielingsdorf, Kapellensüng, Linde, Schmitzhöhe, Lindlar-West and Lindlar-Ost. The secondary schools are a Hauptschule, Realschule, Gymnasium and a special school for learning disabled and e-pupils. Hauptschule and Realschule are housed in a school center and not far from there is the grammar school founded in 1997. The next vocational training facility is in Wipperfürth, Gummersbach or Bergisch Gladbach. There is also a branch of the VHS in Lindlar .
Official affairs of the youth welfare office can be dealt with in Lindlar. The Oberbergische Kreis has set up a branch in the community. The District Police Department's North Police Department, as the district police authority of the Oberbergischer Kreis, has a district office.
The volunteer fire brigade operates four units in the municipality: Lindlar fire fighting train, Frielingsdorf-Scheel fire fighting train, Hohkeppel fire fighting group and Remshagen fire fighting group
LindlarTouristik was set up for tourism issues .
The Herz-Jesu-Krankenhaus Lindlar had 60 beds in the geriatric department as well as an attached medical center. In 2005 it was expanded to include a geriatric day clinic with ten beds. Since 1999 there has been a cooperation with the St. Josef Hospital Engelskirchen in the form of the "Katholische Kliniken Oberberg gGmbH". Since the end of 2005 there has been no emergency doctor on call at the Lindlar hospital. Emergency medical care is ensured in the Lindlar community via the so-called rendezvous system. The NEF (emergency doctor vehicle) from Engelskirchen or Wipperfürth - manned by a paramedic and an emergency doctor - can drive to all areas of operation in Lindlar. An ambulance (ambulance) and a KTW (ambulance) are still stationed in Lindlar, if this is in use, the area is supplied by the neighboring guards Engelskirchen and Wipperfürth. In addition, if necessary, the RTW Kürten or RTW Overath from the Rheinisch-Bergisch district also drives as part of the supra-local assistance in the western area of the community. In 2009, the internal and urological departments were relocated from the Herz-Jesu Hospital in Lindlar to the St. Josef Hospital in Engelskirchen, so that only the geriatrics remained in Lindlar . On June 18, 2018, the last geriatric patients were transferred to the Engelskirchen hospital. Lindlar no longer has its own hospital. The ambulance station attached to the house is to have a new base outside the hospital.
freetime and sports
Lindlar is one of the few municipalities to have its own amusement park . It borders directly on the Schloss Heiligenhoven park and the Lindlar cultural center. There is also a park at Haus Plietz in the center of the village.
The community has seven sports fields, a stadium with a grass field and one with artificial turf and tartan track , which was thoroughly modernized in 2008, seven gyms , including two large triple gyms and a gymnastics hall, and above the sports field there is an archery range set up independently by the club and seven tennis courts . In addition, Lindlar has an indoor swimming pool with a large water slide, a wellness area and sunbathing and sports field, riding arenas, a golf course , several shooting ranges and bowling alleys .
Gliding can be practiced at Lindlar Airport . It is located in the southern part of the municipality on the north side of the Holzer Kopf ridge , which borders the Aggertal between Engelskirchen and Loope in the north.
Lindlar has around 200 km of marked circular hiking trails (see also hiking trails in the municipality of Lindlar ). Some of the streets have separate cycle paths. Cyclists mainly use the forest and agricultural roads.
Economy, industry and infrastructure
From the 16th to 19th centuries, in addition to agriculture and the stone carving trade (mining and processing of the greywacke ), the iron industry and mining were almost the only source of income for the residents in the area around Lindlar and were in high economic prosperity. Numerous iron hammers and smelting furnaces were operated there, some of which can still be found today. In addition, handicrafts such as paper processing , home industry and file cutting were maintained. In the early 1980s, companies also settled in the new Klause industrial area .
The agriculture was the driving factor for the colonization of the area around Lindlar and plays an important role today. Although the number of farms has decreased significantly, a large part of the area of the municipality of Lindlar is in agricultural use.
In the Middle Ages, the original beech forests were gradually cleared and converted into agricultural land, paths laid out and settlements built. The natural, closed forest areas were destroyed, but at the same time new natural areas were created which led to the high biodiversity of plants and animals in the Bergisches Land today.
In the past, the importance of agriculture for Lindlar was demonstrated above all by the agricultural school (see history section) and the agricultural association founded in 1852 .
Agriculture had a difficult situation in Lindlar, because the land was divided into dry heights and swampy valley meadows. On the heights the climatic and soil conditions were unfavorable for arable farming, in the valley the high humidity. The population of Lindlar was largely dependent on agriculture (with the exception of the inhabitants of the industrialized areas of the municipality) and so it was necessary to use areas that were only partially suitable for agriculture. Up until the 19th century, agriculture initially served the goal of self-sufficiency . At that time about a third of Lindlar's area was used for agriculture and another third was covered by forests. By applying the real inheritance , the agricultural areas were often fragmented and hardly effectively usable. Most of the farms were just generating the subsistence level . The farm size was mostly between four and six hectares . The main crop was the potato . It provided the basis for nutrition. Due to the lack of grazing land, animals were mostly kept indoors and provided milk and meat. Most of the farms had a piece of forest.
In the beginning of the 20th century, there were repeated forced killings of snot-sick horses, cattle with lung problems, etc. in order to contain epidemics . On April 3, 1929, the Wipperfürth district approved on a trial basis to hold cattle markets for cattle and pigs. The cattle markets did not seem to have any success. For the last cattle market in 1929, the mayor demanded “that the cattle market should be better stocked and visited than before. The livestock market is in question if there is no stronger upturn in the future. This facility can only fulfill its purpose if it is known beyond the borders of the community and is visited by strangers. […] The farmers are responsible for the fact that this facility, which is so important to them, is closed due to a lack of interest. ”This was the last cattle market.
In the course of the 19th century, there was a change from small-scale to modern agriculture. By removing field hedges , piping and straightening streams, draining wet meadows and using extensive technical aids such as fertilizers, herbicides, etc., there was ultimately a drastic reduction in natural spaces and biodiversity.
The livestock were of particular importance in the predominantly self - sufficient agriculture in the Bergisches Land. They were not only used for basic supplies of milk, meat, eggs, wool, leather and other goods, but also as draft animals for tilling the fields or for haulage services . Because of the harsh climate, especially robust breeds were able to cope with the poor conditions and the stable housing.
- In agriculture, there is among the cattle especially the " Rotbunte lowland beef ", the " Red Höhenvieh " and the " Glanvieh ". In the past, the animals were used both as draft animals and for milk production. The "Red Holstein" were increasingly used in the 19th century and indicated an initial intensification of livestock husbandry, as the Red Holstein lowland cattle had a higher milk and meat production than the old Red Cattle. All three races, however, are no longer competitive with the current standard cattle breeds and so these animals are almost everywhere today by the Holsteins give more milk, displaced. In 1915 the total number of cattle was put at 3,185 with 192 keepers. In the general cattle census on December 2, 1975, a total of 276 keepers were recorded with a total of 8,027 head of cattle. The number of keepers decreased to 271 in 1976 and the number of cattle rose to 8,038. The trend towards fewer keepers keeping more cattle continues to this day. The figures from 1977 should be mentioned as an example, here there were 8,138 animals for 252 owners.
- Keeping one or two sheep per farm was very common in the 19th century. A more intensive keeping was not possible because of the lack of pasture. Above all, the " Rhön sheep " were kept, which coped with the humid mountainous climate and with the keeping conditions.
- The keeping of horses as work animals was very costly and therefore not very common in agriculture in and around Lindlar, which was predominantly characterized by poor smallholders. The warm-blooded animals preferred in the 19th century were replaced by cold-blooded horses in the course of time. Due to the growing motorization of agriculture, the number of work horses is now almost zero. Nowadays horses are mainly kept for sports purposes in the municipality of Lindlar.
Quarries and mining
Grauwacke has been mined in Lindlar for more than 1000 years . A hundred years ago this branch of industry was the main employer of the Lindlar population, but today there are only three manufacturing companies. In many places there are former quarries, which are now an important habitat for all kinds of animal species. The Lindlarer Grauwacke was used for building on site, examples of which are the steeple of the Catholic parish church of St. Severin. There were also sales in the wider area, for example to Cologne and Siegerland. In this context, the Cologne-Mülheim-Lindlar line is worth mentioning, which transported the rock by rail until the 1960s. For this purpose, a braking line ran from the main mining area - the Brungerst - to the station in Altenlinde.
Iron and lead ore
Iron ore was often mined in the area around Lindlar , for example near Dassiefen, where it can be traced back to the 16th century. Another hut is mentioned in 1587 near Stoppenbach. In the beginning of the 19th century, the French occupiers endeavored to promote industry. Several smaller iron and lead mines were in operation in Lindlar . Only the Castor mine in the southeast of what was then the Hohkeppel community gained some importance. This branch of industry can be found in Lindlar until the 1860s, after which the pits were closed. Only the Castor mine (now called Kastor ) was used again from 1903 to April 1906.
In the village of Lindlar itself, not only greywacke but also iron ore was mined on the Brungerst. The relics of the Astraea mine , around 750 m north of the village center, can be found in historical source material and from findings in the area. The pit was located on the site of the former Nord-West-Verpackung factory, previously the Bismarck bicycle factory (Bismarckstrasse). The mining activity is documented for the first time in a deed of mortgage from the Witze von Steinen und Sohn trade from January 15, 1772. However, an application to pursue mining activities was made as early as 1762. The mine has been proven to have existed until at least 1806. In a list drawn up in the Grand Duchy of Berg for the tithe yield, the mine was mentioned with a gross yield of 65 heaps and a workforce of thirteen miners. The ores were delivered to Abrahamstal for smelting. All mining activities ceased until 1855. Another 822 tons of iron stone were mined between 1859 and 1882. At the beginning of the 20th century, the mayor of Lindlar turned to the owner with a petition to resume mining operations, as otherwise workers were likely to emigrate. The mining operations were not resumed, but in anticipation of the railway construction approved in 1906, a file cutting shop and in 1935 the Nord-West-Verpackung factory settled in the area of the former mine. Most of the rest of the pit is now covered by the Grauwackesteinbruch on the Brungerst.
In 1964, an underground tunnel was found on the Paffenberg during excavation work. This tunnel was 70 to 80 cm wide and between 1.7 and 1.8 m high. As far as can be seen, it led about 110 m into the slope. The tunnel was erroneously assigned to the “Prometheus” mine field, which was approved in 1860, but it must date from the 18th century. However, the Eisenstein mine “Prometheus” was found at “Auf'm Kamp” and “Am Ufer”, northwest of the town center. However, it cannot be said whether the tunnel was not driven again in the 19th century. A corrugated tree with a chain and bucket, the remains of a ladder and a wooden cart were found in the tunnel. Some of the parts were handed over to the building yard of the Lindlar community and are lost today, others are in the property of the property owner. The tunnel entrance is filled in today.
Heavy industry: iron and steel
Lindlar can look back on a rich tradition in the industrial processing of iron and steel. Early, water-powered iron hammers were found in the valleys as early as the 18th century. The Sülztal and Leppetal were decisively shaped by this early industrialization. An example of this is the commissioning of a Sülztaler iron hammer by Christian Hamm. In the Leppetal near Kaiserau there are still important companies in the steel industry that export their products worldwide, including the more than 125-year-old Schmidt + Clemens company .
Lindlar is connected to the motorway network via the A4 federal motorway (Cologne – Olpe). The cheapest is to use the Engelskirchen junction (7 kilometers away) or Overath – Untereschbach (15 kilometers).
The next operational train station is in Engelskirchen on the Oberbergische Bahn from Cologne to Lüdenscheid.
The Lindlar station was 1912-1966 the terminus of the Cologne-Lindlar railway . After the shutdown, all tracks were dismantled. The route was built over at the cut that led into Lindlar and can no longer be seen there. Some of the structures on the line are still standing, especially the station buildings, for example in Hommerich, Linde and Lindlar, as well as the large viaduct near Linde and large parts of the old embankment in the Immekeppel area.
The Leppetalbahn from Engelskirchen to Marienheide also ran through the area of the municipality of Lindlar . The tracks on this line were dismantled in 1958.
There are some connections during the day. Buses no longer operate in the evening and at night.
The following lines run through the municipality of Lindlar:
|Lindlar - Fenke - Frielingsdorf - Hut / Berghausen - Kotthauserhöhe / Wasserfuhr - Gummersbach train station (OVAG, Mon-Fri, limited traffic on Saturdays)|
|Marienheide train station - Hut - Frielingsdorf (OVAG, Mon-Fri, limited Saturday traffic as taxi bus)|
|Open-air museum - Lindlar - Remshagen - Neuremscheid - Engelskirchen Bf. (OVAG, Mon-Fri school bus service, otherwise taxi bus, no Saturday and holiday traffic)|
|Wipperfürth - Lindlar - Altenrath - Engelskirchen Bf. (VBL, Mon-Fri approximately every hour, Saturday and public holidays as a taxi bus)|
|Wipperfürth - Dohrgaul - Frielingsdorf - Engelskirchen Bf. (OVAG, Mon-Fri, Saturdays and Sundays as a taxi bus)|
|Frielingsdorf - Hartegasse - Lindlar - Linde - Biesfeld - Dürscheid - Herkenrath - Sand - Bergisch Gladbach (S) (OVAG, Mon-Fri approximately every 2 hours, Saturday and public holidays, taxi bus 332 between Frielingsdorf and Lindlar)|
|Lindlar - Hohkeppel - Köttingen - (Halfenslennefe) / Schmitzhöhe (OVAG, two trips on school days, otherwise taxi bus as feeder to line 421)|
|Industrial area Klause - Lindlar - Waldbruch - Schmitzhöhe - Hommerich - Kürten School Center (KWS, one trip on school days)|
|Untereschbach - Hohkeppel - Lindlar - Linde - Kürten School Center (KWS, one trip on school days)|
|(Hommerich) - Biesfeld - Olpe (KWS, only school traffic)|
|Lindlar - Schmitzhöhe - Immekeppel - Moitzfeld - Bensberg ( RVK , Monday to Friday 30-minute intervals until 9 p.m., evening traffic and weekends every hour, no night traffic), - beyond that, Mon-Fri every hour as an express bus (SB40) via the motorway to Cologne Central Station.|
|Immekeppel - Untereschbach - Hohkeppel (RVK, one trip on school days)|
Citizen bus routes (rides on Mondays, Tuesdays, Thursdays and Fridays):
- Town hall - bus station - Engelskirchen train station - hospital (and back)
- Town hall - bus station - Falkenhof (round trip)
- Town hall - bus station - Altenrath (round trip)
- Town hall - bus station - Klespe - Hohkeppel (and back) - two trips only on Wednesdays
There are three industrial areas in Lindlar: Klause , whose development began in the late 1970s, and Hommerich and Kaiserau.
- Josef Bosbach, Mayor of Lindlar from 1956 to 1974
- Josef Vollmer, Mayor of Lindlar from 1974 to 1984
- Siegfried Sax, Mayor of Lindlar from 1984 to 1997
- Wilhelm Meinerzhagen (March 18, 1968), chief physician at the Lindlar Hospital from 1930 to 1959, member of the council from 1948 to 1956.
- Johann Breidenaßel (December 12, 1974), long-time mayor of the municipality of Hohkeppel, numerous publications in the Rheinisch Bergisch calendar.
- Josef Gronewald on March 13, 1992
- Richard Fabritius on March 14, 2001
- Wilhelm Breidenbach (1859–1934), community dean and local researcher
- Josef Külheim (1902–1961), electrical engineer and local researcher
- Carola Lob, dialect poet
Sons and Daughters of the Church:
- Johann Joseph Gronewald (1804–1873), teacher, founder of the Johann Joseph Gronewald School on Gronewaldstrasse in Cologne
- Otto Lob (1834–1908), conductor, composer and teacher
- Johann Anton Hubert Kesseler (1836–1898), clergyman
- Johannes Sassenbach (1866–1940), journeyman saddler, union leader, social attaché of the German Reich in Rome, first social democratic city councilor in Berlin, author, publisher, born in Breun
- Bernhard Schulz (1913–2003), writer and journalist, author of short stories about Lindlar
- Hubert Luthe (1927–2014) was the second bishop of Essen.
- Karl Oerder (1928–2019), Roman Catholic religious priest and provincial and mission procurator of the Salesians Don Bosco
- Dirk Hoeges (1943–2020), Romance scholar, historian, translator and publisher
- Dieter Müllenborn (* 1948), recipient of the Federal Cross of Merit
- Thomas Kirchner (* 1954), art historian and director of the German Forum for Art History in Paris
- Volker Kutscher (* 1962), writer
- Guido Hoffmann (* 1965), soccer player and coach
Other personalities associated with the community:
- Aloys Pollender (1799–1879), physician, discoverer of the anthrax bacillus
- Franz Steinbach (1895–1964), historian, born in Engelskirchen, moved to Lindlar as a child; Director of the Institute for Historical Regional Studies of the Rhineland at the University of Bonn from 1928 to 1961; Author of numerous books on Rhenish history, folklore and regional studies
Bearer of the "Lenkeler Bessemsbenger Order":
The "Lenkeler Bessemsbenger Order" has been awarded annually since 1978 by KG Rot Weiß Lindlar e. V. to the Lindlar resident who masters both his private and professional life with wit and humor. The order is known far beyond Lindlar's municipal boundaries.
- 1978: Josef Bosbach †
- 1979: Hermann-Josef Stellberg †
- 1980: Ernst Nolden
- 1981: Josef Gronewald †
- 1982: Hans-Josef Ries †
- 1983: Annele Meinerzhagen †
- 1984: Karl Heinrich Quabach †
- 1985: Josef Manfred Krämer
- 1986: Manfred Kümper
- 1987: Alois Eschbach
- 1988: Fritz Flocke †
- 1989: Karl Blumberg
- 1990: Josef Rottländer
- 1991: Paul Schröder †
- 1992: Rosalinde Wiemann
- 1993: Manfred Hamm †
- 1994: Irmtraud Schätzmüller
- 1995: Hans Braun †
- 1996: Egon Reissig †
- 1997: Liesel Schüttler †
- 1998: Erich Tix †
- 1999: Elisabeth Broich
- 2000: Bernd Jüncke
- 2001: Jutta Fleischhauer
- 2002: Stefan Blumberg
- 2003: Peter Wirtz
- 2004: Ernestine Bidinger †
- 2005: Helmut Müller
- 2006: Ursula Homberg †
- 2007: Siegfried Globke †
- 2008: Ulrich Werner
- 2009: Erwin Overödder
- 2010: Robert Wagner
- 2011: Bernd Althaus
- 2012: Hans Georg Höller
- 2013: Karl Heinz Dinsing
- 2013/14: Wilfried Werner
- 2014: Katharina Hagen
- 2015: Marianne Frielingsdorf
- 2016: Rolf Müller
- 2017: Günter Fahlenbock
- 2018: Joachim Stüttem
- 2019: Karl Egon Kremer
- Josef Külheim: Lindlar. Martini & Grüttefien, Wuppertal 1955.
- Anton Jux, Josef Kühlheim: Homeland book of the community of Hohkeppel for the millennium celebration 958–1958. With preliminary work on the parish history by Peter Opladen. Hohkeppel municipality, Hohkeppel 1958.
- Gerd Müller: Lindlar, a Bergische municipality tells ... Lindlar municipality, Lindlar 1976.
- Wilhelm Breidenbach: Contributions to the local history of the community Lindlar. Published by Josef Gronewald. Braun, Lindlar 1977.
- Friends of the Lindlar secondary school (ed.): History makes school. Lindlar (school) history from the 19th century to today. Written by students and teachers. With the collaboration of Thomas Gerst. Friends of the Lindlar secondary school, Lindlar 1990, ISBN 3-922413-32-3 .
- Richard Fabritius: Lindlar - a community in the “Third Reich” 1933–1945 (= contemporary historical documentation. Vol. 2). Braun, Lindlar 1995.
- Josef Gronewald: Buildings and streets in Lindlar. Braun, Lindlar 1996, digitized version (PDF; 993 kB).
- Stefan Blumberg: 300 years of Sankt Reinoldus Steinhauergilde Lindlar. Self-published, Lindlar 2005.
- Gabriele Emrich (Ed.): 900 years of Lindlar. A journey through time in words and pictures . Municipality of Lindlar, Lindlar 2009, ISBN 978-3-00-026379-8 .
- Günter Jacobi: When the stone carvers in Lindlar set up their guild and broke the marble, Lindlar 2007, ISBN 978-3-00-023746-1 .
- Population of the municipalities of North Rhine-Westphalia on December 31, 2019 - update of the population based on the census of May 9, 2011. State Office for Information and Technology North Rhine-Westphalia (IT.NRW), accessed on June 17, 2020 . ( Help on this )
- oldest forest is said to have stood in Lindlar. Focus.de from August 20, 2015. Retrieved October 21, 2015.
- Arthur Marschall: The prehistoric and early historical settlement of the Bergisches Land. Schmidt, 1954, p. 93.
- Dieter Hoof: The stone axes and stone axes in the area of the Lower Rhine and the Meuse. Habelt, 1970, p. 246, n.159.
- Martin Bünermann: The communities and districts after the municipal territorial reform in North Rhine-Westphalia. A handbook on the local reorganization with a list of the new municipalities and districts and the dissolved municipalities as well as a map with the new administrative boundaries . With an explanatory introduction by Heinz Köstering (= municipal writings for North Rhine-Westphalia . Volume 36 ). Deutscher Gemeindeverlag, Cologne a. a. 1975, ISBN 3-555-30092-X .
- European elections / local elections 2014 .
- Lindlar election results 2009 (accessed on September 13, 2009)
- Frielingsdorf pilgrimage site, page 12 , accessed on December 12, 2017.
- Bearer of the Lenkel Bessemsbenger Order
- New medal holder and brief outline of the order's history
- Website of the municipality of Lindlar
- Local authority profile Lindlar, IT.NRW, state database as of December 10, 2014