Batman ( English for bat man ) is a comic figure invented by Bob Kane and further developed by Bill Finger , whose civilian identity is that of the billionaire Bruce Wayne and who wears a black suit resembling a bat. Batman first appeared in May 1939 in the US comic magazine Detective Comics (Issue 27). The publishing house later renamed itself after the abbreviation of this series in DC Comics ; Batman is considered his most popular cartoon character.
Origin and controversy about authorship
The character Batman was created in 1939 by the author Bill Finger (1914–1974) and the draftsman Bob Kane (1915–1998). Both were primarily influenced by the fictional characters Zorro and D'Artagnan (from The Three Musketeers ) and the comic book character The Shadow . The Bat Whispers (1930), a silent film by Roland West, and Sherlock Holmes' razor-sharp mind were also role models. Before the first appearance, Finger changed the originally stiff cape into a flowing one and conceived Batman as the second identity of Bruce Wayne. Its name goes back to the Scottish freedom fighter Robert the Bruce and the US national hero Mad Anthony Wayne .
For a long time, the artist Bob Kane was considered the sole creator of Batman. Impressed by the success of Superman, created in 1938, and the prospect of a regular, weekly income, he proposed in 1939 Vincent Sullivan, the publisher of National Comics Publications , later DC Comics, to create another superhero character for the Detective Comics series . Kane's first design consisted of "Bird-Man", a blond boy in a blue and red costume, with feathers on his back and a mask. This draft did not seem mature, which is why Kane turned to the author Bill Finger, who was already employed in Kane's studio.
Finger's passion for pulp magazines , horror literature , hardboiled novels and German expressionism first led to the development of Batman, its optics and aesthetics, the background story and world drawing. In the 27th issue of Detective Comics from March 30, 1939 (dated May) Batman made his debut with the story The Case of the Chemical Syndicate (Eng. "The case of the chemical syndicate"). However, Bob Kane sold the character and story as his sole work, not including Bill Finger. Bill Finger, who urgently needed a regular income, got it this way and was also used to working as a ghostwriter , agreed. In the following years he became the "creative engine" of the Batman stories, worked out their universe, unknown to the public.
In February 1940, the US series Batman , which is still running today, debuted with the # 1 , despite several restarts, and from 1941 further Batman stories appeared in World's Finest Comics . Gotham, as the central setting, was already used in Washington Irvings Salmagundi in 1808 as a synonym with negative connotations for New York City . Finger named the previously nameless city in 1941 after a chance find in a New York telephone directory, where he came across "Gotham Jewelers". In addition to Batman, as the creation of the “ Golden Age of Comic Books ”, Finger also created numerous antagonists that are still popular today, such as the Joker , the Riddler , Catwoman , Two-Face , the Penguin and Scarecrow . Bill Finger looked after Batman until the late 1940s. Even before that, due to the increasing number of publications, the work as an author was hardly manageable alone, which is why other authors such as Jerry Robinson , George Roussos or Sheldon Moldoff supported Kane and Finger.
In the 1950s, the popularity of superhero comics declined, increasingly referred to as " junk literature" and exposed to the censorship policy of the Comics Code Authority . From the 1960s, artists and comic fans began to network and the first conventions, i. H. Comic fairs came about. The fact that the hitherto little-known Bill Finger was introduced to Batman at a convention in New York in 1965 by Jerry Bails , the organizer and "Father of Comic Book Fandom", caused a minor scandal. Bails then wrote the letter "If the truth be known or a finger in every plot," which he circulated across the country and which sparked controversy in which he fought for Bill Finger's approval. Until the late eighties, Bob Kane, unwilling to share his fame, denied the creative involvement of Bill Finger.
At the same time, Batman gained new popularity , especially through the real series starring Adam West . Bob Kane, who had become wealthy, retired from active comics business, while Bill Finger continued to work as a writer, now less successfully. Together with Charles Sinclair, Finger wrote the screenplay for episodes 11 and 12 of the live series in 1966. Since he was first named in the opening credits as the author of his own creation, created 27 years earlier, Finger is said to have burst into tears, as Sinclair confirmed in an interview for the documentary Batman & Bill by Don Argott.
Bill Finger died on January 18, 1974, penniless in his one-room apartment in New York, while the television was on. Batman's popularity continued to grow, including new interpretations of comics in the eighties. In Tim Burton's 1989 film adaptation , Kane, in an advisory capacity, insisted on being named as the sole author of Batman in the opening credits. Still, in 1989, Kane also said that Finger was a "contributing force." That Finger was an "unsung hero" who "never received the fame and recognition he deserved."
From 2000 the picture changed. Grant Morrison , known for his highly acclaimed graphic novel Arkham Asylum , was now in charge of the regular Batman series at DC . He demonstratively dedicated every Batman story he wrote to Bill Finger. Author Marc Tyler Nobleman researched the history of the comic book character and its background. It has been an open secret for decades that Kane did not create Batman alone, but that a significant influence came from Finger, to which all significant features can be traced. His 2012 book Bill the Boy Wonder: The Secret Co-Creator of Batman re- heated the discussion. He also encouraged Athena Finger, the granddaughter of Bill Fingers, to fight for her grandfather's approval from DC and Warner. Nobleman held lectures for three years, which DC met with reassurance, until the publisher announced in September 2015 that from now on, Bill Finger would also be named as co-author of every Batman publication.
Just one month later, in the third edition of the Batman & Robin Eternal series of October 2015, Finger was named as co-creator, 76 years after Batman's first appearance and 41 years after Finger's death. The following year, Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice saw the first mention of Fingers on the big screen, with which, according to Emanuel Brauer in the comixene , a tragedy and “historically grown injustice” finally came to an end.
Bruce Wayne as Batman
Batman is the billionaire Bruce Wayne. As a child, Bruce Wayne had to watch after going to the theater as a mugger shoots his parents, Thomas and Martha Wayne, in a dark alley. After a generous donation, the responsible social welfare office “overlooks” the orphan . Bruce is therefore raised by Alfred Pennyworth , the family's butler. He swears at his parents' grave to rid his hometown of Gotham City from crime . To do this, he trains with the best martial artists worldwide and studies criminology , chemistry , mathematics , physics and technology .
He gives himself the name Batman when, looking for a symbol that should scare the crooks, he sees a bat that has lost its way into his villa and designs a suit to match. Wayne believes that criminals are by nature a "cowardly and superstitious pack," so his disguise would add fright to them. Bruce Wayne's motivation is to become the world's best criminologist, hand-to-hand fighter and athlete of his time, to use these skills in the fight against crime. In real life, Bruce Wayne poses as a filthy rich snob (who is therefore also listed under the Fictional 15 ) and womanizer , which, however, only serves as a facade to hide his secret identity .
Batman is not a superhero in the strict sense of the word, like Superman , because he has no superpowers. His superiority is based on intelligence, willpower, hard training, his technical resources and the enormous financial strength of his family fortune (he owns the global Wayne Enterprises ).
From the beginning, Batman had resolved, if necessary, to use extreme force against the crime; But he had set himself two iron rules: he would never kill another person (if it could be avoided) and, traumatized by the murder of his parents, he would never use a firearm (in the comics since 1940), because on the one hand that was him on a par with the criminals he was hunting, and on the other hand, the comic producers feared that teenage readers might imitate Batman.
The Gotham City public is divided on Batman. Some see in him the savior and hero, others criticize him as a lawless avenger ( vigilante ) with questionable methods . Sometimes he questions suspects under (apparently) life-threatening circumstances, in which he z. B. dangling over an abyss. Another is the secret identity as Matches Malone , with which Batman determines after the death of the real match Malone in the circles of the underworld in order not to be recognized as Batman.
Batman has had a kind of friendship with Superman for some time. They trust each other so much that they have revealed their respective secret identities. In addition, Superman has entrusted his fellow hero with a ring made of kryptonite , which could be the only weapon against himself should Superman ever become a danger.
In the course of time Bruce also met many attractive women, but apart from the reporter Vicki Vale, who almost revealed his identity, all relationships were only temporary: So much seems to connect him to the thief Catwoman (Selina Kyle), but this Law as well as his heroic activity stands between them (in US Batman # 50 / Vol.3 from September 2018 she therefore broke the wedding ). Talia al Ghul, the daughter of his old adversary Ra's al Ghul , is also a major risk factor because of her loyalty to her father. With this, however, Batman has a son: Damian. However, Batman only found out about this after years. Damian is now the fifth Robin at Batman's side. With Poison Ivy (Pamela Isley), Batman is still not sure whether his feelings for her are not due to her pheromones alone .
Character and stature
There were decades in which Batman occasionally had a flippant saying on his lips or you could even see him smiling (laughing was always very rare), but he was never a beaming man. Batman has always been an ambivalent character, a grim and bitter guy who goes about his business seriously and ascetically . Steve Kups from Panini-Verlag thinks that Batman is "not always particularly lovable anyway, but sometimes an extraordinary asshole" (based on the All Star Batman series by Miller and Lee). Lars Banhold diagnosed with Batman also even features of a sociopath : Ernst, humorless and with questionable morals concerning revenge and vigilantism .
According to Lars Banhold, a clear political orientation of Batman is hardly possible. Rather, this depends on the interpretation of the respective author. In some comics he seems anarchist , in others fascistoid .
Batman is considered one of the most popular superheroes, who also beats the publisher's Superman. Reasons for this are probably the sometimes disgruntled Batman with all his weaknesses and edges, who appeals to more readers than the almost infallible Superman. The writer Dietmar Dath describes this in the FAZ as saying that Superman is what we would like to be, while Batman is what we are, only better.
Bruce Wayne's stature changed over the years. While Wayne aka Batman was rather slim and athletic and muscular in the beginning and the first decades, his image changed from the mid-1980s, which is still formative today: broad back, strong chin and broad cheekbones.
Evaluation of the motives
It has long been debated whether Batman's motives - fighting crime and corruption in Gotham City - are actually as selfless as they appear at first glance. Critics note that through his alter ego Batman, billionaire Bruce Wayne is basically only protecting the system from which he draws his wealth. However, this approach does not take into account the psychological background of Bruce Wayne's becoming Batman, the murder of his parents. In addition, it must be mentioned that Batman is primarily not a lawman and insists on justice, but rather feelings of revenge are what drives him.
Some comic versions, such as those by Frank Miller or Jim Lee , also show a Batman who pursues his goals fanatically, almost like a psychopath , and acts almost ruthlessly against his enemies, although he follows the guidelines he has set himself. In addition, these versions show that Batman, through his demeanor and costumes, to a large extent created the enemies he is now fighting.
Costume and accessories
The "Dark Knight" costume has undergone numerous changes over the decades, and as the Batman saga continued, it turned from a simple hero-in-pantyhose model to a helpful high-tech armor. His costume was always rich in shades of meaning and, despite all changes, always recognizable. The mood of the current Batman is also reflected in his costume: the cloak is sometimes in a rich royal blue , sometimes in a deep black. The bat on the hero's chest was initially black, then became part of an emblem on a yellow background, intended as a target for snipers, therefore armored until it became the darkest part of the costume again. The bat ears have also changed over time: In the Real series from the 1960s with Adam West , these look more like measly mouse ears, while in other versions, like Bernie Wrightson's gloomy Batman , they have been almost devilish for a long time Horns work. It is comparable with his body suit , which is once a light gray (with black overpants), another time is deep black.
The bat belt has always been of particular importance, the wonder box with smoke bombs, chemicals, rope, "batarangs" and everything that is needed for a last-minute rescue. In addition, with the immense fortune of his parents, he developed some unique vehicles such as the Batmobile that match his costume and also contain some special technical inventions. He stores these in the Bath Cave , a large stalactite cave under his Wayne Manor mansion .
In the 1960s, Batman was a brief member of the Justice League and was instrumental in helping the superheroes experience a rebirth. He's been back for some time, also at the side of his friend Superman, sometimes even as a leader.
His character also changed. Batman had long been a cheerful, criminal-hunting playboy and billionaire with incredible tech gimmicks, but the picture darkened from the 1980s. Socially critical elements became part of the stories; Batman had to do with poverty , misery , even Black Panthers and radical feminists .
Frank Miller exacerbated this development. In 1986 he made in The Return of the Dark Knight ( The Dark Knight Returns a resigned his fifties who is not entered for ten years, more than Batman in appearance) of Bruce Wayne, frustrated with car race time kills and provoked himself, judged dangerous situations after whether they would be "a good death". In the face of an extremely brutal youth gang, Batman returns, beats up crooks with pleasure and finally feels "like a man at 20, 30" again. Batman still seems to be driven by the trauma of the murder of his parents, but his night work also serves to overcome a rather late onset of a midlife crisis - and the never-mentioned insight that he really doesn't know what to do with his life. Both elements made Batman much more believable, more comprehensible and thus attractive again for an adult reading audience.
Another milestone is the graphic novel Arkham Asylum - A Dark House in a Dark World by Grant Morrison and Dave McKean . Arkham Asylum was first published in late 1989 and is still considered the most successful graphic novel ever with more than 500,000 copies sold. The comic, which is explicitly aimed at adult readers, does not show a heroic Dark Knight, but a doubter who is confronted with his fears and thus creates an interesting psychogram of the hero. In terms of drawing and narration, the demanding graphic novel stood out from the market and, along with Frank Miller's The Return of the Dark Knight and The Killing Joke by Alan Moore , is considered the superhero milestone of the 1980s, as these had a lasting impact on the genre.
In 1992, Bruce Wayne was broken in the Knightfall saga by the bad guy Bane . In the following period, in which he was in a wheelchair, Wayne was therefore, against the will of Alfred and Nightwing, represented as Batman by Jean Paul Valley (alias Azrael ). However, he was mentally unstable, extremely brutal and had no qualms about killing his opponents. After Wayne recovered, a fight broke out between the two and the real Batman was able to triumph over Azrael and take his place again. The US-American readers could vote on the outcome of this fight beforehand, because the authors of the comic and the publishing directors were concerned that the “old” Batman could no longer keep up with his classic values with the “modern” and brutal Batman in his Hi-tech armor. However, an overwhelming majority voted for classic Batman.
In the saga "Plague", his hometown was struck by an epidemic (1996). In a subsequent saga, the city was devastated by an earthquake (1998). Then the US government declared the city a no man's land (1999). Soon after (2002) Bruce Wayne was charged with the murder of his girlfriend Vesper Fairchild and fled the trial before he could prove that David Cain (the father of temporary Batgirl Cassandra Cain) was the real killer.
In 1999, as part of the animated series Batman of the Future (original title: Batman Beyond ), the young Terry McGinnis followed in the footsteps of the now graying Bruce Wayne to get revenge on his father's murderer, a henchman of Derek Powers (the new CEO of Wayne's Corporation), and take on Wayne's legacy in bat costume.
In 2001 DC Comics started a special series of comics called Just Imagine Stan Lee Creating ... in which Spider-Man inventor Stan Lee wrote stories about how he would have created the DC characters. In this series, Batman is an African American named Wayne Williams. He also only becomes Batman after a prison term. Robin appears later, but does not become Batman's partner here.
In 2002 Frank Miller continued his "Dark Knight" saga with The Dark Knight Strikes Again (also known as "DK2" for short), but was unable to set new accents in terms of narrative or content.
In 2003, in one of the most successful Batman stories of all time, the dark knight faced an initially unknown opponent named Hush, who managed to instrumentalize all of Batman's important enemies for his own purposes. He turned out to be Thomas Elliot, a childhood friend of Wayne's who wanted revenge for Bruce leading a (seemingly) perfect life.
In 2005 the series All Star Batman started . Again from the pen of Frank Miller and drawn by Jim Lee. It retells the story of the murder of Robin's parents and his first encounter with Batman and the following recording. What is noticeable about this series is that Batman is once again portrayed as a "giant puke" and antipath.
From 2006, science fiction elements were incorporated into many Batman comics . These were explained as Wayne's hallucinations due to the influence of mind-altering gases and extensive stimulus withdrawal training. This development culminated in the comics Batman RIP , in which Batman was driven insane by Doctor Hurt , and Final Crisis , in which he is apparently murdered by Darkseid with his omega rays.
Bruce Wayne returned to Gotham in Batman # 54 in Germany and faced his "killer" Doctor Hurt. Henceforth two men embodied Batman: Bruce Wayne (in the series Batman Incorporated and Batman: The Dark Knight ) and Dick Grayson (in Batman , Detective Comics and Batman and Robin ).
In September 2011, 52 DC Comics series were restarted ( The New 52 ), including several Batman series. Now Bruce Wayne is again the only character who can be described as Batman. Dick Grayson returned to his costume as Nightwing . This was also retained after the DC Rebirth (2016).
The cartoon character of Batman was published by other media in early times. In addition to movies and TV series, this also includes audio and video games.
In publishing Pabel Moewig appeared from 1956 to 1976, a stapling and book series titled Bat Die Schwarze with extensive parallels with Batman. The protagonist in a bat costume acts against crime and as an alter ego has a bourgeois existence as public prosecutor Tony Quinn.
The character of Batman provided the basis for numerous parodies :
- Donald Duck is best known in Europe as Phantomias - a Batman / superhero parody by the Italian Disney drawers Guido Martina and Giovan Battista Carpi .
- Another Disney parody of Batman is Darkwing Duck , who even has enemies similar to Batman. Although the similarities to Batman are unmistakable here, Darkwing Duck serves more as a parody of The Shadow .
- The satirical magazine Titanic published at the time of Batman boom and the wall opening of the GDR in 1989, a comic with the figure Genschman that the then Foreign Minister Hans-Dietrich Genscher was modeled. Trademark: giant ears instead of bat wings ("goose meat mo des left ear freeimochn?").
- In some Simpsons episodes and comics , Bart Simpson has the alter ego "Bartman". In addition, the Simpson characters Radioactive Man and Fallout Boy and the accompanying television series are based on Batman and Robin .
- In the first episode of the cartoon series The Tick , the character “Die Fledermaus” comes into play, an unmistakable parody of Batman.
- The television series Batman with Adam West is parodied in the episode The Fearless Ferret in the animated series Kim Possible .
- In the animated series Cosmo & Wanda - When Elves Help , Catman appears in five episodes, whose real name is Adam West and is spoken by Adam West in the English dub .
- The 1973 porn film Batpussy parodies Batman and lets a protagonist hop through Gotham City as Batpussy at a ball . Even Batman XXX: A Porn Parody and Dark Knight XXX: A Porn Parody (each with Andy San Dimas ) and BatFxxx: Dark Night Parody are porn parodies of Batman.
- Kevin Smith also parodied Batman in his film Jay and Silent Bob Strike Back , which is about the film adaptation of a comic book. There is also a Kevin Smith comic called Bluntman and Chronic , which also revolves around two superheroes modeled after Batman and Robin.
- Another parody of Batman is Holy Musical B @ man , a production by the Starkid group .
- In the cartoon series SpongeBob SquarePants there are the secondary characters "Mermaid Man and Blue Bass Boy", two retired superheroes who live in the nursing home. Visually and in terms of appearance, the pair is based on or parodies the dynamic duo Batman and Robin from the Batman television series . In their secret base (analogous to the bath cave) there is a collection of weapons and an invisible vehicle. The equipment also includes a belt with integrated high-tech tools, the absurdity of which is similar to the legendary bat belt from the television series.
- In the cartoon series Ugly Americans , the main character Mark Lilly is bitten by a bat creature and gradually transforms into a bat creature as well. The powers that he receives (similar to Spider-Man ), he uses as a "Batperson" to fight crime. At his side is "Koalaboy" as a parody of Robin.
Other characters in the role of Batman
- Jean Paul Valley : When Bruce Wayne's spine was broken by Bane during the Knightfall saga and he was paralyzed in a wheelchair for a long time, he was represented by Jean Paul Valley, aka Azrael. Valley used a whole new costume that was more of a high-tech armor. Valley, however, was mentally unstable, often ripped off the rails through excesses of violence and did not shy away from killing opponents. Interestingly, this type of Batman was an experiment by the publisher, which, given the success of comic series like Spawn , asked the question of how far the "old-fashioned" Batman was still relevant. Most of the readership, however, wanted the "real" Batman back and after his recovery Wayne recaptured the bat costume from Valley, who did not want to give it up voluntarily.
- Dick Grayson : After the alleged death of Bruce Wayne, Dick Grayson, the first Robin and later Nightwing, became the new Batman. Dick had represented Wayne several times during his lifetime (including before Jean Paul Valley during the Knightfall saga). Wayne's son Damian was at his side by the new Robin.
- Jason Todd : The second Robin, who had been believed dead for years and has since grown up, claimed the role of Batman because he saw himself as Wayne's legitimate successor. In his time as Batman, however, he murdered and tortured what he believed was necessary to teach criminals more fear and respect for the costume.
- Tim Drake : The third Robin and later Red Robin also donned the Dark Knight costume during Bruce Wayne's alleged death to find out who was committing the tortures and crimes in Batman's name. He also donned the Batman of the Future costume during the Futures End saga after Terry McGinnis died in the past while attempting to avert a bleak future. This story has also been part of the official comic canon since The New 52, like Batman of the Future.
- Damian Wayne : He is the son of Bruce Wayne and Talia al Ghul, this is the daughter of Ra's al Ghul. In a story that tells the events of the future, he becomes the new Batman.
- Terry McGinnis : First introduced in the Batman of the Future series , its story was later incorporated into DC's official comic book canon. In addition, it later turns out that he is also Bruce Wayne's son.
- Other people than Batman appeared in various individual volumes and the so-called " Elseworlds " stories. According to the DC, however, these are out of continuity and therefore do not count towards the plot of the main series.
Like Superman, the Batman comics were also used as propaganda against the Nazi state during the Second World War . Unlike Superman, however, Batman did not fight at the front, and as a counterbalance he was given powerful enemies early on, who had special powers and made life difficult for him.
Batman has one of the most extensive and bizarre collections of opponents in the entire comic book world. One of his most extraordinary and well-known opponents is the Joker , who in the 1980s even killed Robin (Jason Todd), Batman's younger helper, and shot Barbara Gordon ( Batgirl ), paralyzing them from the waist down ( The Killing Joke ). This called itself from now on "Oracle" and supported Batman as a source of information and a hacker . In addition, the Joker murdered Sarah Essen Gordon, the wife of Commissioner James Gordon, during No Man's Land.
In contrast to Batman, the Joker is ironic and it is not uncommon for him to parody his opponents. Elementary questions and illogical connections are often ridiculed by their own authors using the joker. For this reason, the Joker is also more popular than Batman himself with many fans of the Batman comics and films.
Many of Batman's opponents are detained in Arkham Asylum or Blackgate Prison.
Publication in German-speaking countries
Batman was only slowly becoming popular in Germany. For the first time, German comic readers got to see the Dark Knight in the fortnightly colored Buntes-Allerlei series of magazines published by Aller Verlag, which published mainly Superman stories from 1953 to 1954. In the first issue of 1954, Batman (together with Robin) appears alongside Superman in a reprint of the US World's Finest Comics magazine # 66 (1953) and a second time in Buntes Allerlei 11/54 when they meet again Superman. Then Batman disappeared again in German climes.
In 1966 the Stuttgart publishing house Ehapa heralded a new Batman era in Germany. First there was another Batman guest appearance (in Superman 2/67). From the next issue (3/67), the two heroes then shared the magazine series until its end of 1985 (26/85) as Superman and Batman . The bi-weekly comic book, the 32 pages of which the two now shared, was supplemented with the publication of Batman paperbacks and special volumes. In the mid-1970s and early 1980s, the Dark Knight experienced his best time there. From 1976 to 1985 a further 44 Batman special editions, 23 Batman super volumes (1974–1986) and 41 Batman paperback books (1978–1988) were published.
After Ehapa discontinued its Batman program in 1988, Hethke-Verlag took over the publication of Batman comics for the German market. Nine large-format Batman booklets (1989–1991), six Batman classic albums (1990–1991), with reprints of old Batman stories, 22 softcover albums (1989–1992), and 32 special volumes (1989–1992) were published. .
In parallel with Hethke, Carlsen Verlag began publishing Batman comics in 1989 , relying on thick paperbacks , starting with the printing of Frank Miller's The Return of the Dark Knight . By 1998, 33 volumes had been published under Carlsen, including the complete Knightfall saga in ten volumes .
Since the early 1990s, Batman comics experienced a great boom , especially through the two live-action films by Tim Burton and the animated series Batman: The Animated Series . From 1995 Dino Entertainment began to publish the comic book companion series to The Animated Series , which means that after almost ten years, Batman comics were sold again at German kiosks. In 1997, Dino also took over the publication of the Real series, the issue of which the publisher added numerous specials and special volumes. The publisher set itself the goal of a true to the original, complete and chronologically correct publication and closed the gap between the German and US-American editions with 63 regular editions (including 18 issues in three so-called time warp boxes). In 2001 the Dino Verlag stopped its superhero program and was taken over by Panini in 2003.
Immediately afterwards, Panini took over the publication of superhero comics on the German market, including Batman. The first series ran from 2001 to 2003, followed by the next from 2005 to 2006. The current Batman comic series has been published monthly since the beginning of 2007. Panini also prints other Batman special editions. Panini's editions receive a lot of praise for their high quality and the fact that they are true to the original. However, with single issue prices that are more than twice as high as at the heyday of Dino-Verlag, Panini is no longer aimed so much at the mass market, but primarily at collectors.
- Lars Banhold: Batman - Construction of a Hero (= yellow. Writings on comic research # 1), Ch.A. Bachmann Verlag, Bochum 2008, 4th edition 2009, ISBN 978-3-941030-02-2 .
- Scott Beatty : Batman - The World of the Dark Knight. Dino Entertainment , Stuttgart 2002, ISBN 3-89748-548-6 .
- Lukas Etter / Thomas Nehrlich / Joanna Nowotny (eds.): Reader superheroes. Theory - History - Media. Transcript Verlag , Bielefeld 2018, ISBN 978-3-8376-3869-1 .
- Hannes Fricke: Batman's metamorphoses as an intermedial superhero in comics, prose and film: The survival of the mythical figure, the primal scene - and the joker . In: IASL , 2009 ( link under “Articles”).
- Ben Harris / Sebastian Raatz (Eds.): Hollywood Story - The Ultimate Guide to Batman , Centennial Media, New York City 2019.
- Damien K. Picariello (Ed.): Politics in Gotham: The Batman Universe and Political Thought. Springer International, Cham 2019, ISBN 978-3-030-05775-6 (English).
- Glen Weldon: The Caped Crusade: Batman and the Rise of Nerd Culture , Simon & Schuster UK , 2017, ISBN 978-1-4767-5673-8 (English).
- Mark D. White, Robert Arp: The Philosophy in Batman - A Journey into the Soul of the Dark Knight. Wiley-VCH Verlag , Weinheim 2012, ISBN 978-3-527-50681-1 .
- Batman Anthologie (= DC Hardcover # 9), Panini Comics , Stuttgart 2014, ISBN 978-3-95798-067-0 (20 comics from the period from 1939 to 2013, with editorial explanations).
- Batman's greatest opponents anthology (= DC Hardcover # 32), Panini Comics, Stuttgart 2019, ISBN 978-3-7416-1022-6 (15 comics from 1978 to 2013, with profiles of many opponents).
- Batman in the Internet Movie Database (English)
- DC Database Project: Batman , DC Comics encyclopedia Wiki (English)
- Link catalog on Batman at curlie.org (formerly DMOZ )
- Cover picture of US Detective Comics # 27 .
- Ben Harris / Sebastian Raatz (eds.): Hollywood Story - The Ultimate Guide to Batman , Centennial Media, New York City 2019, p. 9.
- Les Daniels: Bat-Man. The Complete History: The Life and Times of the Dark Knight . Pp. 16-49. London 1999, pp. 19-28 (English).
- Bill Finger in Jim Steranko's History of Comics # 1, 1970 (English).
- Matthias Lohre : Decision at Bannockburn , PM History # , Hamburg 2018, pp. 32–39, .
- Emanuel Brauer: 80 Years of Batman - Shadows over Gotham and its own past ; in Comixene # 131, summer 2019, p. 42.
- Emanuel Brauer: 80 Years of Batman - Shadows over Gotham and one's own past ; in Comixene # 131, summer 2019, p. 43.
- Lars Banhold: Batman - Construction of a Hero (= yellow. Schriften zur Comicforschung # 1), Ch.A. Bachmann Verlag, Bochum 2008, 4th edition 2009, ISBN 978-3-941030-02-2 , p. 24.
- Emanuel Brauer: 80 Years of Batman - Shadows over Gotham and its own past ; in Comixene # 131, summer 2019, p. 44.
- Emanuel Brauer: 80 Years of Batman - Shadows over Gotham and its own past ; in Comixene # 131, summer 2019, p. 45.
- In Batman Begins (2005) and since the restart of the DC universe (2011, see US Batman (Vol.2) # 4), Joe Chill is the killer of Bruce Wayne's parents.
- Peter Coogan: Superhero. The Secret Origin of a Genre. USA 2006, p. 112 (English).
- German edition: Batman # 26 , Panini Comics , May 2019.
- Steve Kups in All Star Batman , anthology # 1, Panini Comics , Stuttgart 2008, p. 4.
- Batman: Unhappy, humorless and homoerotic. Evening newspaper , accessed on November 23, 2015 .
- Dietmar Dath in Classic of Comic Literature # 7: Batman , FAZ-Feuilleton , 2005.
- German edition: Batman # 54 , Panini Comics, June 2011.
- Black Bat Story. www.schwarzefledermaus.de, 2018, accessed on April 20, 2018 .
- story - interview with the DC editors ; in Hit Comics # 26, Hit Comics Verlag / JNK , Berlin May 2001, pp. 60-61.