Mediterranean deep

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Genuatief, October 7, 1996: "A subtropical low-pressure vortex (cyclone) controls warm, humid air masses in the Mediterranean from the southwest against central Italy and southeast against the Alps"
Train routes of the barometric minima (low pressure trajectories ) according to WJ v. Bebber:
Va with the continuations
Vb towards the northeast,
Vc towards the east and
(barely visible) Vd towards the southeast

A Mediterranean Depression is a low pressure area in the Mediterranean area . Depending on the location of the core, it is also called the Balearic Low, Genoa Low or Adriatic Low .

A Vb-Wetterlage (pronounced: "five-B-Wetterlage", V = Roman 5 ) is characterized by the trajectory of a low pressure area from Italy across the Po Valley or the North Adriatic to the northeast. The train track known as "Vb" was declared by Wilhelm Jacob van Bebber in 1891 and integrated into the system of general weather conditions using this notation . The term Vb-Großwetterlage is still used today because the more modern German large-scale weather typology according to Hess / Brezowsky inadequately takes into account the action centers of the Mediterranean area.

With Va the cyclone track was by Bebber Biscay -Spain / France- Liguria concerned (see. Chart). A Vc-conditions corresponding to a low Adria, the eastward direction Balkan withdrawing and thence to a Balkan depth is. A Vd weather situation describes a system that withdraws to the southeast. The terms Va, Vc and Vd are no longer in use in today's meteorology.


The Vb / a low is caused by a cold air advance over France into the western Mediterranean, often in connection with a north-west weather situation , with the formation of a low in the western Mediterranean , or by a deep core pushed south from England or the Biscay ( Biscaya low ) over France (Va ), which moves south of the Alps.

If the action core via the Mediterranean area, the local hot, humid or above the slide Sahara superheated air masses on the (eastern) front side of the low pressure area to the in Central Europe, northern zones at the bottom of the cold air on ( sliding of from southeast). Because a southerly current with high air temperatures can transport a lot of moisture, this leads to long-lasting precipitation phases, which can also be quite productive in congested areas in the Alps and higher mountain ranges ( waterlogged precipitation ) and cause floods or abnormal amounts of snow with the risk of avalanches . In the area of ​​the eastern Mediterranean, dry, warm Saharan air is directed towards south-eastern Europe and leads to excessive heat there, the wind event is called Scirocco (Jugo): In front of the front line of the approaching Mediterranean low, Saharan dust events can spread to Central Europe. To the north of the Alps, abnormal foehn events accompany the Mediterranean lows when the precipitation rains down on the southern side of the Alps.

Typology of the Mediterranean lows

Track of hurricane Klaus January 24th, 2009 - typical Va trajectory with atypical strong winds

The Mediterranean Depression is one of the classic action centers of European weather events.

The origins of the Mediterranean lows are:

In the eastern Mediterranean, which is sealed off from currents by mountains on all sides (it is only open towards Eastern Sahara and the Red Sea region), deep cores no longer form.

In its early phase, the V weather situation is usually called the Mediterranean low:

  • A Balearic Depression lies in the western Mediterranean in the Balearic Islands . It can also remain stationary for a while and then, especially in autumn, ensures the rainfall in northeastern Spain, especially in Catalonia , and the French Midi .
  • A Genoa deep in the true sense is a special form, which, with low pressure center in the Gulf of Genoa , first at the Apennines imposed and then in the Alpine arc and the Piedmont , the Valais and the western and southern Alps falls as rain or -schneit, with strong foehn in the Northern Alps. The main affected is then the Po Valley up to the Alpine valleys from the Aosta Valley , the Northern Italian lakes , South Tyrol to the Klagenfurt Basin , and if the main Alpine ridge is rolled over, Ticino or the Upper Rhine region .
  • An Adriatic depression , which has jumped over the Apennines to the Adriatic or is only being formed there, generally follows the classic train path northeast (Vb), east (Vc) or southeast (Vd).

Mediterranean lows do not necessarily form an eastward withdrawing orbit, but can also disintegrate in the area around Italy.

The final phases of the Vb / c layers in particular pump large amounts of moisture to Central Europe over a longer period of time:

The modern Austrian weather system of the ZAMG differentiates

  • the early phases (i.e. Va after Bebber) as low over the western Mediterranean (TwM)
  • the decision-making phase of the further train track deep south of the Alps  (TS)
  • in the narrower sense deep on the Adriatic - Poland train route  (Vb)
  • and for the Vc / d routes Deep in Southwest Europe  (TSW)

From Bebber's typology, only the term five-B has established itself as a special case in today's meteorology .

Occurrence vb

Vb situations usually occur from spring to autumn, but can in principle occur at any time of the year and, with only a few events per year, belong to the rarer general weather conditions in Europe ( annuality approx. 2.3). The climatological cause of these events lies in the geographical latitude at which the action centers reach Europe from the Atlantic: If they arrive at about the level of the Alpine arc or south of it, they can take the Mediterranean route away from the frontal zone, which tends to point south . This global weather situation sometimes remains roughly the same for several weeks, so that whole series of Mediterranean lows then occur. Due to the saturation of the soil, this leads to a whole series of floods or, in the case of snow mass events, a sharp rise in snow depths without settlement and connection to large-scale, highly avalanche areas.

Influence of climate change on Vb

The Adria- / Vb-lows were recorded and evaluated in a catalog for the first time in 2014 in a comprehensive study on tracks of precipitation-relevant lows over Central Europe for the period 1950-2010 ( Weather Patterns, Cyclone Tracks and related precipitation Extremes , WETRAX; ZAMG and University of Augsburg ) . Forecast models see a decrease in summer Mediterranean lows compared to Atlantic lows for the next few decades, but an increase in outstanding extremes with Vb characteristics. Due to the expected warming of the future climate, it is predicted that the annuality of the Vb cyclones will decrease. The decline in Vb cyclones could be caused by the shift of the cyclone trail northwards over Europe. Modeling has shown that precipitation from future Vb cyclones could have a greater impact on the eastern coasts of the Mediterranean but less on the Alpine region than current Vb cyclones.

Characteristic weather values ​​and phenomena


Genoa low
, September 30, 1983 with precipitation fronts in the entire Alps-Adriatic region, characteristic of the Alpine arc as the northern and the Dinarides as the eastern border and concentrations on the Appennines

The Mediterranean lows pump warm air masses from the Sahara across the Mediterranean on the east side. There, they accumulate most strongly with moisture and form to the mountains of southern Europe intensive accumulation of precipitation . This applies to the Castilian Scheidegebirge and the Pyrenees , the Apennines , the Alps , the Dinarides , and also the Rhodope and other mountains in Southeastern Europe, with the Vb train also the Carpathian Arc . In the Alpine region and in the countries bordering to the north, the Vb / a weather situation is feared because of the often heavy rainfall.

This precipitation can be extreme. During the Elbe flood in 2002, for example, there was extreme rain in the Ore Mountains, for example in Zinnwald-Georgenfeld 312  mm in 24 hours . Such amounts of rain lead locally on the upper reaches of tidal waves, sometimes increasing within hours, and, if the rain front extends over a large area, to enormous water masses on the large rivers. Since the Mediterranean lows often move slowly or even stand still and continue to pump until they disintegrate, these heavy precipitation events can last for several days.

The northbound wind can push the water of the Adriatic to the north when there is a strong storm and, especially in November, overlap with high tides and lead to Acqua alta in the Venice lagoon.

Drought events

Scheme of a central Mediterranean low, Scirocco in the Eastern Mediterranean

Another effect are the air masses of Africa that are driven northwards before the cold front in the east, which do not accumulate moisture, but form hot, dry south-east to south winds, the Scirocco . These can become so intense that they transport enormous amounts of dust over a wide area to Europe ( Saharan dust events ) .

Eye formation (Medicane)

In extreme form, a Mediterranean depth can form a hurricane / typhoon- like eye, a cloud-free area in the center. They form in the Mediterranean region, for example, when a polar advance of cold air forms a dripping cut-off low . In contrast to real cyclones, these systems are not self-sustaining large-scale weather situations. In general, there are strong Mediterranean lows in the winter season, the release of the energy stored in the water temperature (about> 24 ° C) relative to the air temperature , as well as the Coriolis force , can contribute, but the cyclones are caused by Atlantic-Mediterranean or African-European Compensating winch driven. The eye formation usually lasts only a few hours and disintegrates quickly because there is not enough space for convective self-preservation in the Mediterranean area. The term medicane (too Mediterranean with hurricane ) has been used for such phenomena since the 1980s . Similar phenomena can be found in the subtropical North Atlantic in the Bermuda-Azores-Canary Islands ("surprise hurricanes").

Storms of this type are observed in the Mediterranean area every few years, events of the type were approximately: September 1947, September 1969, January 1982, September 1983, 13-17. January 1995, 2007, November 2011 Genoa low Rolf

List of Mediterranean low events

(Ha)The start date of an exceptional event in Central Europe is specified below. The year count changes at the beginning of the hydrological year (October 1st according to the definition in Switzerland), since it is a matter of flood or heavy snow events.

Events before 1970

  • The Magdalen flood of 1342, the most serious flood event in Europe in historical times (especially Main / Rhine and Danube), is attributed to a Vb weather situation.
  • Central Europe floods in 1501 on the Danube and Oder

Southern winter stagnation is responsible for:

  • 1951: the February episode of the avalanche winter 1951 with up to 4 m of fresh snow within 2 days. In March 1951, for example, Klagenfurt reported over 7 m of snow cover.




  • March 22: with 20 cm fresh snow from the east through Vb at Frankfurt-Hahn Airport in the Hunsrück through Tief Paul II
  • August 22nd: with torrential rains in Lower Saxony and in the Sauerland through low Quirinus
  • 0September 6: with 90 cm fresh snow on the Zugspitze and floods in Lower Austria from Tief Xaver
  • September 27th: Vb-Tief Faysal I from the Adriatic via Passau to the Eifel with floods in Aachen and the surrounding area
  • September 29th: Vb-Tief Faysal II from the Adriatic to the north to the Harz, the Innerste jumped over the banks


The 2009 hydrological season was characterized by an abnormally high frequency of severe Va / Vb situations; from October to March, almost a dozen different weather-effective Mediterranean lows were recorded.

  • (Ha) October 29, 2008: Vb-TiefYuliettafrom the Golfe du Lion over northern Italymovingnorth-east, with continuous rain, mountainous snow, Eastern Alps extreme foehn current
  • (Ha) November 27, 2008: A Genoa low connects with Biscay LowNinaand Central EuropeLow Phostine:heavy snowfall innorthern Italy(Trentino, South Tyrol, Liguria, Piedmont) toCarinthiaandTyrol(East Tyrol120 cm snow), flooding in Venice (20-year event, level 185 cm), also badly affectedLodiin Lombardy andPordenonein Friuli; Foehn storm in Upper Austria and Salzburg up to 100 km / h, 14 ° in Linz
  • (Ha) 11-13 December 2008: The BiskayatiefTinewith the classic V-Zugbahnfrom the 5th moves on the 7th over central Spain, and on the 10th over Italy On December 12th, pronounced high pressure wedge over France,southern foehn currentover the Alps to southern Sweden (foehn temperatures over 15 ° on the northern edge of the Alps) . Heavy snowfall again inNorthern Italy,Switzerland,SouthandEast Tyrol(with one death on December 17th), inCarinthiaover 1 m of snow (according to theZAMGan 80-year event), inTicino½ m, heavy traffic obstructions with numerous Bans, cut valleys (Lesachtal),avalanche warning levelsup to 4 in thesouthern Limestone Alps, floods fromVeniceviaRome(evacuations inOstia) tosouthern Italy, but also snow chaos innorthern Spainand theFrench Alps(100,000 households without electricity). Tinedisintegrates over the Adriatic.
  • (Ha) 12-17. December 2008: The advancing, similar lowVerenacontinues to bring snow chaos and intensifies the floods in Spain as far as Mallorca, France, Italy - in the Alpine region it remains of less impact than its two predecessors.
  • January – March 2009 a few more Va-TB lows follow, the most extreme of which is Klaus 23. – 25. January is which causes severe damage in northern Spain, southwest France and parts of Italy. An Atlantic hurricane in Va trainway is extremely rare. The other events also lead several times in a row to partly rain and partly snow chaos in Spain, southern France, central Italy and the Po region, as far as the southern Alps.
  • 23-30 June: Deep Quinton , created as a genoa low , was not an actual Vb location, but an altitude low with a similar track. Floods with peak values ​​of up to 100 a year in the CEE region, with over 20 fatalities and several 100 million euros in insurance damage.


  • from 5th to 11th January 2010: Daisy , a low with a classic Va – Vc track from the Iberian Peninsula to the Ukraine. In northern Spain there was no more severe snowfall in 25 years (January 5, 1985), from northern France via northern Germany severe damage from snowdrifts and wind breaks, several deaths in a row.
  • From March 7th, a slowly moving Adriatic low called Andrea, together with the stable north-central Europe high Isidor, which has collapsed into two cores , leads to an abnormal northeastern cold air ingress. The Mediterranean region is experiencing a snow chaos, in the Catalonia region there is more snow than in the January event, southern France is also badly affected, snow chains are necessary on Mallorca , 60 cm snow depth comes together on the Apennines , in Croatia even 70 cm. Storm gusts of up to 150 km / h damage numerous ships in ports and houses near the coast, even one fatality was reported. In the northern Alps, where the foehn currents caused by hurricane Xynthia at the end of February reached temperatures of up to + 18 °, temperatures dropped to -18 °.
  • May / June 2010 floods of the Oder and its tributaries.
  • August 2010 Floods of the Lusatian Neisse , the Oder and the Spree in Upper Lusatia .
  • September / October 2010 Floods of the Black Elster and its tributaries.


No special occurrences.


  • (Ha) 4th-9th November 2011:Genoa low Rolf ,blocked by a RussianhighWalli:severe floods in Italy (over 600 mm / 72 h in Liguria, several fatalities), abnormally high swell on the Côte d'Azur; Temperatures over 20 ° on the north side of the Alps due to foehn.
  • Beginning of February: Italy's low Julia over the Tyrrhenian Sea, in connection with the cold spell in Europe (Russia highs Cooper, Dieter ), leads to snow chaos in Italy (in Rome as it has not been since 1985) and in the Balkans, snow to Mallorca and Algiers.


  • Late May / early June lows Frederik / Günther : An abnormally moving Vb weather situation that was stable for a few days, especially between the Alps and the Ore Mountains as well as in the Czech Republic, caused heavy rainfalls and floods for days that locally exceeded the events of 2002 and 2005.


  • Christmas storm : In the wake of the hurricane Dirk over Western Europe, a short-lived but strong Italian low in northern Italy bringsviolent storms andenormous amounts of snowin the Alps ( northern Ticino , Misox up to 120 cm / 24 h, in San Bernardino the most intense snowfall since measurements began in 1952; East Tyrol up to 80 cm )
  • 11-18 May low Yvette : remains above the Balkans for an unusually long time; severe flooding on the Balkan Peninsula, and in the Danube and Carpathian regions; also severe storms due to a strong Western European high and pressure gradient
  • June / July: During the rainy early summer, a series of Mediterranean lows followed, on 29/30. June, July 22nd with bad weather around the Adriatic until July 28th. - On July 26, for example, the Carinthian State Museum in Klagenfurt was devastated by water ingress after a thunderstorm with heavy rain . The most violent event was the next low Quintia . After it came from the North Sea on July 28th in the Westphalian Münster (a station of the State Environment Agency registered a rainfall of 292 l / m² within 7 hours), two deaths and damages of more than 300 million euros, it moved over the The Alps and subsequently developed into a northern Italy-Adriatic low with a high-low characteristic: On July 29th, there was brief intense heavy rain with flooding, especially in eastern Austria (in Podersdorf 158 mm / 6 h, almost three times the monthly amount) and on the 30th in the Tyrolean Brixental (around Kössen ) and Salzburger Oberpinzgau (in Mittersill the Salzach was much higher than in 2005 ); in Romania, meter-high tidal waves claimed one death. (Vedea near Piteşti ).


  • 4th-6th and 10.-12. November 2014 : Deep Quendresa (at times with Medicane tendencies) and another (unnamed) low over the Ligurian Sea to Sicily; Foehn, partly in hurricane strength, north of the Alps, heavy flash floods in the southern Alps , sea ​​Alps and all of Italy
  • 10/11 August 2015: This small low (Detlef) in the context of the June – August heat wave and the overheated Mediterranean Sea showed an abnormal train path from the Western Alps to Malta. It led to severe storms in central and southern Italy ( Rossano Calabro 230 mm / 5 h, 350 mm / 1 d).


  • September 30th to October 4th 2015: Deep Quirin moved from the Balearic Islands (there were already violent thunderstorms) with reinforcements on October 1st and 2nd via Corsica and Sardinia . With hurricane gusts of up to 157 km / h ( Cap Corse on October 2nd) and rainfall of up to 250 mm within two days, it showed Medicane tendencies. Ultimately, the "eye" was missing. On the evening of October 3, the low in southern France (especially on the Côte d'Azur) caused severe weather with squalls and very large amounts of rain within a short time. In Cannes, 179 mm fell in two hours. The severe flooding caused by this killed at least 21 people.
  • April 22nd to May 3rd, later severe onset of winter : a deep system over northwestern Europe and two Mediterranean lows cause major agricultural damage in the region of southeastern Austria through cold air with precipitation in the Alpine region (30 cm of snow in valleys, late frost and floods).



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  • E. Kostopoulou, PD Jones. Comprehensive analysis of the climate variability in the eastern Mediterranean. In: International Journal of Climatology. 27: 9, 2007, pp. 1189-1214, especially Part I: Map-pattern classification.
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Vb layers:

  • Mitja Brilly (Ed.): Hydrological Processes of the Danube River Basin: Perspectives from 10 Danubian Countries . Springer, 2010, ISBN 978-90-481-3422-9 , especially Péter Kovács: Characterization of the Runoff Regime and Its Stability in the Danube Catchment. P. 143 ff; Stevan Prohaska, Aleksandra Ilic: Coincidence of Flood Flow of the Danube River and Its Tributaries. P. 175 ff; Pavel Petrovič, Katariná Mravcová, Ladislav Holko, Zdeněk Kostka, Pavol Miklánek: Basin-Wide Water Balance in the Danube River Basin. P. 227 ff (English).
  • M. Hofstätter, Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management: Vb-like weather conditions as the cause of excessive rainfall in the Alpine region. Feasibility study, final report, Vienna 2011 ( PDF , 4.3 MB,; Weblink Do special weather conditions cause intense precipitation ? ,
  • M. Mudelsee, M. Börngen, G. Tetzlaff, U. Grünewald: Extreme floods in central Europe over the past 500 years: Role of cyclone pathway `` Zugstrasse Vb '' . In: American Geophysical Union. (Ed.): Journal of Geophysical Research . Vol. 109, D23101, 2004, doi : 10.1029 / 2004JD005034 (English, focus on the Elbe area).


  • J. Kouroutzoglou, HA Flocas, K. Keay, I. Simmonds, M. Hatzaki: Climatological aspects of explosive cyclones in the Mediterranean. In: International Journal of Climatology. 31, 12, 2011, pp. 1785-1802.

Web links

Commons : Mediterranean Tropical Cyclones  - Collection of Images, Videos and Audio Files

Individual evidence

  1. DWD forecast 20120203 ( cold wave in Europe 2012 , classic large-scale weather situation): Mighty Russia high Dieter , medium Iceland low , strong Italy low Julia , high core isolated from the Azores high above the Biscay; an intermediate low over the Baltic Sea and a high-pressure bridge between Eastern Europe and Biscay being formed; another mighty action low off Newfoundland
  2. A föhninger northeast wind from the Po Valley in the Genoa area;
    La tramontana: il famoso vento ligure che accompagna i travasi di aria fredda padana verso il golfo di Genova, portando persino la neve sulle coste , Daniele Ingemi in, November 5, 2012;
    La Tramontana Scura , → Didattica , April 22, 2008.
  3. University of Bonn. Institute of Geography: Colloquium geographicum. Volumes 1-4. Verlag in commission from F. Dümmler, 1951, pp. 36, 61 ( limited preview in the Google book search).
  4. M. Messmer, JJ Gómez-Navarro, and CC Raible: Climatology of Vb cyclones, physical mechanisms and their impact on extreme precipitation over Central Europe . Ed .: Earth System Dynamic. 2015.
  5. WETRAX , ZAMG: Research / Climate / Temporal Climate Analysis , accessed on July 26, 2015;
    WETRAX - the project and the results. BMLFUW: Water> Water in Austria> The water cycle , accessed on July 26, 2015;
    WETRAX , LFU Bayern: Water >> Climate change and water balance >> Projects , accessed on July 26, 2015.
  6. ↑ In particular Section How are the floods of 2002 and 2013 to be classified? in BMLFUW: WETRAX - the project and the results;
    Alfons Krieglsteiner: The risk of flooding will continue to increase ,, June 19, 2015.
  7. Martina Messmer, Christoph C. Raible, Juan José Gómez-Navarro: Impact of climate change on the climatology of Vb cyclones . In: Tellus A: Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanography . tape 72 , no. 1 , January 1, 2020, ISSN  1600-0870 , p. 1–18 , doi : 10.1080 / 16000870.2020.1724021 ( [accessed February 18, 2020]).
  8. a b Storm, rain, snow: six low pressure areas cover Europe with storms ,, accessed on November 19, 2019.
  9. a b c d e Medicane ( Memento of the original dated November 5, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . In: DWD : Weather Lexicon.
  10. R. Mayengon: Warm core cyclones in the Mediterranean. In: Mar. Weather Log, Vol. 28, No. 1, 1984, pp. 6-9.
  11. ^ A b Ernest, Matson: A Mediterranean tropical storm? In: Weather, November 1983, pp. 332-337.
  12. Are there hurricanes in the Mediterranean, the Black Sea or the Polar Sea? , Hurricane FAQ M7) in Thomas Sävert: Forces of Nature
  13. to Saevert: natural forces and tropical storms like low pressure area over the western Mediterranean ( memento of the original from November 12, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics of November 9, 2011
  14. was reported as a hurricane by NOAA after satellite analysis and listed NOAA 01M; the following M is supposed to represent a class of Mediterranean hurricanes. The Mediterranean is not one of the seven WMO recognized cyclone formation areas, the storm is the first entry in this category
  15. From technical to integral flood protection. After the storm in 1987 ... ,
  16. Initial situation: gif,
  17. a b forecast 20081127. Institute for Meteorology, FU Berlin
  18. ↑ Air mass combat  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , News archive, November 30, 2008 07:55@1@ 2Template: Dead Link /  
  19. a b Chronicle: Venice surprised by the flood; Austria: Heavy snowfalls caused chaos . In: Salzburger Nachrichten . December 2, 2008, p. 20; 8 .
  20. ^ "Land under" in Northern Italy. Handelsblatt, November 27, 2008, accessed December 12, 2008 .
  21. Forecast 20081205. Institute for Meteorology, FU Berlin
  22. Forecast 20081207. Institute for Meteorology, FU Berlin
  23. Forecast 20081210. Institute for Meteorology, FU Berlin
  24. a b c Switzerland and Northern Italy in deep snow. In: Die Presse , December 11, 2008, accessed December 12, 2008 .
  25. a b Snow: Carinthia fears a new Mediterranean low. In: Die Presse, December 14, 2008, archived from the original on January 9, 2010 .;
  26. ↑ The depth of the Mediterranean lets half of Europe sink into snow. In: Die Presse, December 10, 2008, accessed December 14, 2008 .
  27. Forecast 20081215. Institute for Meteorology, FU Berlin
  28. Forecast 20090124, Institute for Meteorology, FU Berlin.
  29. Weather conditions for January 2009  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Toter Link /   , ZAMG, 27.-29.
  30. see also en: Winter of 2009–2010 in Europe # March
  31. Forecast 20100307. Institute for Meteorology, FU Berlin.
  32. Forecast 20100310. Institute for Meteorology, FU Berlin
  33. Snowfall 2011 on Commons
  34. Barcelona experienced the worst snowfall in 25 years. In: Spain Pictures. Retrieved March 10, 2010 .
  35. a b c d e dpa, after snow chaos in Italy, Croatia and Spain. In: Die Zeit online. March 10, 2010, archived from the original on March 13, 2010 ; accessed on October 12, 2015 .
  36. Temperature fluctuations in March 2010. It is 13 degrees too cold for the time of year . In: Salzburger Nachrichten . March 9, 2010, local section Stadt und Land , p. 4 .
  38. forecast 20130601 ,;
    Weather map 20130601, ZAMG.
  39. Heavy snowfalls in the south and intermediate high after the big snow , MeteoSwiss, daily news , December 26th and 27th, 2013.
  40. A fierce greeting from Frau Holle. Chaos. Winter weather in Carinthia and East Tyrol . In: Salzburger Nachrichten . December 27, 2013, Austria .
  41. A short-term dragged low with Vb characteristic that was formed by the front crossing of a Baltic Sea low (Kristina) over the Alps.
    Forecast June 29 , 2014,;
    Weather map June 29, 2014, 18 UTC , June 30, 2014, 06 UTC , June 30, 2014, 18 UTC , all ZAMG.
  42. A low-high-low instability Paula on July 20 from the North Sea over the Alps to the Adriatic region, then migrates like a Vb for several days over the Balkans and in East Central Europe, partly reinforced by Algeria lows.
    Forecast July 20th, July 21st , 07.22., 07.23., 24.07. , July 25, July 26, July 27 , July 28 , 2014, all;
    Weather map July 22, 2014, 12 UTC , July 25, 2014, 18 UTC, July 26, 2014, 18 UTC , all ZAMG
  43. ^ Unwetter: Historical books destroyed ,, July 27, 2014; Heavy rain caused flooding ,, July 27, 2014.
  44. ↑ In July 2014, an Adriatic low brought intense rainfall and floods.  ( Page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Toter Link /   BMLFUW Hydrographic characteristics and extremes.
  45. Heavy rain in Münster ,
  46. Flood devours astronomical sums , Westfälische Nachrichten of August 13, 2014
  47. Quintia: forecast July 28 . , July 29th , 07/30/14, all;
    Weather map July 29, 2014, 00 UTC , July 30, 2014, 06 UTC , July 31, 2014, 00 UTC , July 31, 2014, 12 UTC , all ZAMG.
  48. a b Floods in Lower Austria and Salzburg,, July 30, 2014.
  49. 650 firefighters in stormy weather ,, July 30, 2014; Severe weather: 342 fire brigade operations ,, July 31, 2014.
  50. Severe weather brought new rain record ,, July 31, 2014.
  51. Flood: water levels sank slowly ,, July 31, 2014; Cleaning up after the flood,, August 1, 2014.
  52. One death in floods in Romania ,, July 30, 2014.
  53. Forecast for Sun 09.08.15 12 UTC , DWD; Weather situation as of August 10, 2015, 00 UTC . ZAMG;
    Forecast for Tue 11.08.15 12 UTC , DWD; Weather situation as of August 11, 2015, 12 UTC . ZAMG;
    Allerta Meteo, ciclone nel basso Tirreno: tempeste di pioggia e tornado nelle prossime 24-36 ore al Centro / Sud., August 11, 2015 - with analysis image;
    Highest warning level: Severe storms in southern Italy: vacationers evacuated. In: Kleine Zeitung online, August 12, 2015;
    Alluvione in Calabria: Rossano e Corigliano ko, una “tempesta perfetta”., August 12, 2015;
    Tempesta nella notte la Calabria è sott'acqua., August 13, 2015.
  54. Heavy thunderstorms, heavy rain in the central Mediterranean area , from October 4, 2015, accessed on October 5, 2015.
  55. ↑ Number of victims after floods increased to 21 , of October 5, 2015, accessed on October 5, 2015.
  56. Dead and missing: Deep Luis floods northern Italy and southern France - Ferrero ceases production , November 24, 2019.