Forest cone ( Euconulus trochiformis )
|Reinhardt , 1883|
The right-hand wound casings are more or less conical with a more or less strongly convex base. In the overall habit, the housing therefore appears conical-spherical. The cases have 4 to 6.5 whorls that increase moderately and evenly. The seam can be more or less deep. The last handling can have a more or less distinct edge. The mouth is at an angle to the coil axis. The mouth is usually symmetrical or asymmetrical crescent-shaped. The edge of the mouth is simple, straight and not thickened. Due to the tight winding, no navel can be seen.
The shell is thin and translucent. There are usually fine strips of growth on the top. There may be faint spiral lines at the bottom. The surface of the case is accordingly silky-shiny to very shiny.
In the male part of the genital system, the prostate is comparatively very small and is more or less on top of the large fallopian tube (oviduct). The spermatic duct (vas deferens) enters the epiphallus apically, which merges into the long penis. Around the middle of the penis, a large blind sack-like appendix (caecum) is attached, which can usually be as large or even significantly longer than the penis itself. The penile retractor is positioned approximately in the middle of the epiphallus. In the female tract, the free fallopian tube is very long, the lower part is glandular. The reservoir of the spermatheque is elliptical and moderately large. The stem of the spermatheque is comparatively very short and the reservoir still comes to lie below the egg ladder. The spermatheque can also be regressed. The vagina is significantly shorter than the free fallopian tube, and the atrium is almost as long. The soft body is only slightly light brown or light gray in color. The foot is very narrow and the tentacles relatively long.
In the other genera of the Euconulinae the large blindsck (caecum) in the lower part of the penis is almost always absent, or it is very small.
Geographical distribution and habitat
The genus is distributed holoarctic. However, the scope of the genus is uncertain. Maybe the distribution area is much larger.
The taxon was created in 1883 as a subgenus by Conulus Fitzinger, and in 1833 by Otto Reinhardt. Conulus Fitzinger, 1833 is a younger homonym of Conulus Leske, 1778 and is therefore invalid. Otto Reinhardt counted five species (fulvus, praticola, pupula, pustulinus and phyllophilus) to be part of his new subgenus, a sixth species was put with question marks, Henry Augustus Pilsbry and James Henry Ferriss identified Helix fulva as a type of the genus Euconulus . An unsolved nomenclature problem is the genus Petasina Beck, 1847, for which Helix fulva was also designated as a type species. However, it is currently used in a different sense.
Schileyko divided the genus Euconulus into nine subgenera in 2002. Some of the sub-genera are not recognized by the MolluscaBase or are treated as independent genera. However, this would give the genus a scope far beyond the type species. However, MolluscaBase is inconsistent and buggy on this page. All species that are usually assigned to these synonymized sub-genera are not listed under Euconulus , but (as in MolluscaBase) only the species of Euconulus s. st. or the subgenus Euconulus (Euconulus) . Welter-Schultes also considers E. alderi to be a valid taxon.
- ? Euconulus alderi (Gray, 1840)
- † Euconulus alveolus (F. Sandberger, 1887), Pleistocene
- Euconulus callopisticus (Bourguignat, 1880)
- Light cone ( Euconulus fulvus (OF Müller, 1774))
- Dark cone ( Euconulus praticola (Reinhard, 1883))
- † Euconulus styriacus Harzhauser, Neubauer & Binder, 2014, Miocene
- Forest cones ( Euconulus trochiformis (Montagu, 1803))
- Alexandru V. Grossu: Gastropoda Romaniae 4 Ordo Stylommatophora Suprafam: Arionacea, Zonitacea, Ariophantacea şi Helicacea. 564 pp., Bucharest 1983, pp. 401/02.
- Otto Reinhardt: Some of Mr. DW Kobelt in Schwanheim a. Japanese hyalines collected by Mr. Hungerford sent to M. for assessment. Meeting reports of the Society of Friends of Nature Research in Berlin 1883: 82-86, Berlin 1883 Online at Biodiversity Heritage Library (p. 86).
- Henry Augustus Pilsbry, James Henry Ferriss: Mollusca of the Southwestern States: IV. The Chiricahua Mountains, Arizona. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 1910: 44-147, 1910 Online at Biodiversity Heritage Library , p. 131.
- AnimalBase: Petasina Beck, 1847
- MolluscaBase: Euconulus Reinhardt, 1883
- Francisco W. Welter Schultes: European non-marine molluscs, a guide for species identification = identification book for European land and freshwater mollusks. A1-A3 S., 679 S., Q1-Q78 S., Göttingen, Planet Poster Ed., 2012 ISBN 3-933922-75-5 , ISBN 978-3-933922-75-5 (S. 208)
- AnimalBase: Euconulus Reinhardt, 1883
- Mathias Harzhauser, Thomas A. Neubauer, Martin Gross, Herbert Binder: The early Middle Miocene mollusc fauna of Lake Rein. Palaeontographica Department A, 302 (1-6): 1 - 71, 2014.