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Climatological knowledge

Day temperature T: max / med / min
Day temperature  T : max / med / min

Air temperature dependent days
  • T max  ≥ 35 ° C
  • Desert day
  • T max  ≥ 30 ° C
  • Hot day
  • T min ≥ 20 ° C
  • Tropical night
  • T max ≥ 25 ° C
  • Summer day
  • T med <15 ° C / 12 ° C
  • Heating day
  • T med ≥ 5 ° C
  • Vegetation day
  • T min <0 ° C
  • Frost day
  • T max <0 ° C
  • Ice day
    not uniformly defined: Cold day
    Weather- dependent days
    Cloud cover Bright day
    Cloud cover Cloudy day
    Cloud cover Foggy day
    Humidity / temperature Sultry day
    Precipitation Precipitation day
    Precipitation Rainy day
    Precipitation Hail day
    Precipitation Snow (cover) day
    storm Storm day
    storm Thunderstorm day

    The climatology is an interdisciplinary science of Subjects meteorology , geography , geology , oceanography and physics . She researches the laws of the climate , i.e. the average state of the atmosphere at a location and the processes that take place in it. For this purpose, climate science makes use of statistical methods, among other things .

    Climatological findings result from long-term observation and modeling of radiation , temperature , air pressure , winds and wind systems and precipitation as well as geographical factors such as longitude and latitude, altitude, surface shape, soil quality and vegetation. Atmospheric physics and palaeoclimatological investigations are also incorporated into climatological research.


    Climatology deals with atmospheric phenomena of different spatial and temporal orders of magnitude. Because the large spatiotemporal differences also result in differences in the methodology, a three-stage classification of the standards has proven itself.

    • The microclimate is limited to a few meters to a few kilometers, e.g. B. a room, a meadow or a street.
    • The mesoclimate refers to landscapes or countries up to a few hundred kilometers in extent.
    • The macroclimate describes continental and global relationships.

    The time scale fluctuates between a few minutes of microturbulence, daily and monthly changes in the seasons, to trends over the years, such as global warming .


    In climatology, areas with similar climatic conditions can be assigned to climatic zones according to different systems (classifications) . The air classification after Koppen this purpose uses the mean annual temperature - and the precipitate distribution, shown in a hygrothermal climate diagram . The individual zones are provided with a two to four-digit letter code. As the boundary of a climate zone, Wladimir Peter Köppen suggested the natural distribution of certain typical plant species.


    Climatology and climate research is not a sharply delimited, closed science, but rather, as a primary branch of meteorology and geography, deals with the physical phenomena of the earth's air envelope and its interaction with the conditions of the earth's surface in space and time.

    There are four sub-disciplines of climatology:


    In addition, many specialist areas or sub-disciplines of climatology have developed. However, some of these overlaps are often the subject of scientific work, so that fixed names have been established that can usually be assigned to the specific climatology.

    • The climatology mainly studied the interaction of the climate system with other systems , thus for example ecosystems . In this context, the terms urban and terrain climatology can also be assigned to climatic geography.
    • The Bioclimatology examines the effects of climate on the animal, especially to humans.
    • The terrain climatology deals with the climate of the lower atmosphere, the atmospheric boundary layer . Above all, the interactions between the atmosphere and the nature of the natural surface of the earth are considered.
    • Urban climatology also examines the climate of the boundary layer , but observes the changes in the climate caused by urban structures, i.e. the effects of buildings and streets on the local climate. See: Urban Climate .
    • The paleoclimatology deals with the history of climate , ie the climate of yesteryear into the early forms of the earth's atmosphere , it occupies a central position in climatology one, however, is the Historical Geology attributed.
    • The historical climatology deals with the climate history in historical times, so in eras, in which there are written sources. In addition, it has several interfaces with some specialty areas of archeology , such as glacier , coastal and geo- archeology .
    • The Aero Climatology is the study of climate processes in the atmosphere.
    • The radiation climatology examined the effects of the radiation (such as UV radiation ) on the climate and living things.


    Climatology uses models to describe complex phenomena. These models are also used as computer models to estimate the effects of climate change in various scenarios .

    The climatological models are used to find possible trends and weight individual factors.

    state of research

    Milestones in climate science since 1800

    The state of research in climatology is summarized and published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) at regular intervals. It also contains brief summaries of key messages for policy makers.

    In addition to the IPCC, the American Association for the Advancement of Science - the world's largest scientific society - shows that it is indisputable in climatology that man-made climate change is taking place and emphasizes the consensus that prevails on many aspects of climatology.


    See also

    Portal: Weather and Climate  - Overview of Wikipedia content on the subject of weather and climate


    Historical literature

    Web links

    Commons : Climatology  - collection of images, videos and audio files
    Wiktionary: climatology  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
    Wiktionary: Climate science  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations


    1. Note: In contrast to the color markings for the temperature thresholds, the 0 ° C line on the graphic is on the border between turquoise and blue. →  Annual cycle of the graphic (animated)
    2. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Climatological knowledge days in the weather dictionary of the German Weather Service
    3. Germany : 15 ° C according to VDI 2067 ; Austria , Switzerland , Liechtenstein : 12 ° C according to Usance
    4. also T med ≥ 10 ° C: day of the main vegetation period
    5. ^ Wilhelm Lauer : Climatology. 1995.
    6. ^ Fifth assessment report of the IPCC partial report 1 (scientific basis): German translation of the main statements of working group 1 (scientific basis) of the fifth assessment report, 2013.
    7. ^ The Reality, Risks, and Responses to Climate Change. . American Academy of Arts and Sciences . Retrieved December 27, 2017.