|Air temperature dependent days|
|not uniformly defined:||Cold day|
|Weather- dependent days|
|Cloud cover||Bright day|
|Cloud cover||Cloudy day|
|Cloud cover||Foggy day|
|Humidity / temperature||Sultry day|
|Precipitation||Snow (cover) day|
The climatology is an interdisciplinary science of Subjects meteorology , geography , geology , oceanography and physics . She researches the laws of the climate , i.e. the average state of the atmosphere at a location and the processes that take place in it. For this purpose, climate science makes use of statistical methods, among other things .
Climatological findings result from long-term observation and modeling of radiation , temperature , air pressure , winds and wind systems and precipitation as well as geographical factors such as longitude and latitude, altitude, surface shape, soil quality and vegetation. Atmospheric physics and palaeoclimatological investigations are also incorporated into climatological research.
Climatology deals with atmospheric phenomena of different spatial and temporal orders of magnitude. Because the large spatiotemporal differences also result in differences in the methodology, a three-stage classification of the standards has proven itself.
- The microclimate is limited to a few meters to a few kilometers, e.g. B. a room, a meadow or a street.
- The mesoclimate refers to landscapes or countries up to a few hundred kilometers in extent.
- The macroclimate describes continental and global relationships.
The time scale fluctuates between a few minutes of microturbulence, daily and monthly changes in the seasons, to trends over the years, such as global warming .
In climatology, areas with similar climatic conditions can be assigned to climatic zones according to different systems (classifications) . The air classification after Koppen this purpose uses the mean annual temperature - and the precipitate distribution, shown in a hygrothermal climate diagram . The individual zones are provided with a two to four-digit letter code. As the boundary of a climate zone, Wladimir Peter Köppen suggested the natural distribution of certain typical plant species.
Climatology and climate research is not a sharply delimited, closed science, but rather, as a primary branch of meteorology and geography, deals with the physical phenomena of the earth's air envelope and its interaction with the conditions of the earth's surface in space and time.
There are four sub-disciplines of climatology:
- The Theoretical Climatology and General climatology deals with physics of the atmosphere, in particular the composition and structure of the atmosphere, the solar constant , the radiation budget , the heat balance , the air temperature , the water balance , the precipitation , the air pressure and wind , the planetary circulation and more recently with the development of climate models .
- The Regional climatology deals with weather and climate in the tropics , subtropics , the extratropical west wind zone and the polar regions .
- The Special climatology deals with climate change, the climate history and climate research , including the greenhouse effect , the global warming as well as the vulnerability ( vulnerability ) of the systems affected by climate change.
- The Applied Climatology deals with global warming, in particular the climate change and the adaptation to the consequences of climate change .
In addition, many specialist areas or sub-disciplines of climatology have developed. However, some of these overlaps are often the subject of scientific work, so that fixed names have been established that can usually be assigned to the specific climatology.
- The climatology mainly studied the interaction of the climate system with other systems , thus for example ecosystems . In this context, the terms urban and terrain climatology can also be assigned to climatic geography.
- The Bioclimatology examines the effects of climate on the animal, especially to humans.
- The terrain climatology deals with the climate of the lower atmosphere, the atmospheric boundary layer . Above all, the interactions between the atmosphere and the nature of the natural surface of the earth are considered.
- Urban climatology also examines the climate of the boundary layer , but observes the changes in the climate caused by urban structures, i.e. the effects of buildings and streets on the local climate. See: Urban Climate .
- The paleoclimatology deals with the history of climate , ie the climate of yesteryear into the early forms of the earth's atmosphere , it occupies a central position in climatology one, however, is the Historical Geology attributed.
- The historical climatology deals with the climate history in historical times, so in eras, in which there are written sources. In addition, it has several interfaces with some specialty areas of archeology , such as glacier , coastal and geo- archeology .
- The Aero Climatology is the study of climate processes in the atmosphere.
- The radiation climatology examined the effects of the radiation (such as UV radiation ) on the climate and living things.
The climatological models are used to find possible trends and weight individual factors.
state of research
The state of research in climatology is summarized and published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) at regular intervals. It also contains brief summaries of key messages for policy makers.
In addition to the IPCC, the American Association for the Advancement of Science - the world's largest scientific society - shows that it is indisputable in climatology that man-made climate change is taking place and emphasizes the consensus that prevails on many aspects of climatology.
- Joachim Blüthgen, Wolfgang Weischet : General climate geography. 3. Edition. De Gruyter, Berlin 1980, ISBN 3-11-006561-4
- Rudolf Geiger : The climate of the air layer close to the ground. 4th edition. Vieweg, Braunschweig 1961
- Peter Hupfer (Ed.): The Earth's Climate System. Diagnosis and Modeling, Variations and Effects. Akademischer Verlag, Berlin 1991, ISBN 3-05-500712-3
- Wladimir Köppen : Climates of the Earth. De Gruyter, Berlin 1928
- Wilhelm Lauer : climatology. 2nd Edition. Westermann, Braunschweig 1995, ISBN 3-14-160284-0
- Christian-Dietrich Schönwiese : climatology. 3. Edition. UTB, Stuttgart 2008 ISBN 978-3-8252-1793-8
- Wolfgang Weischet: Introduction to general climatology. 5th edition. Teubner, Stuttgart 1991, ISBN 3-519-43404-0
- Johann Gottfried Galle : Basics of the Silesian climatology. J. Max & Komp., Breslau 1857.
- www.wetter-und-klima.de - A homepage with lots of information on the subject
- www.m-forkel.de/klima/ - Everything about "Earth's climate"
- www.stadtklima.de - Information from the Meteorological Institute of the University of Freiburg
- www.envi-met.com - A microclimatic urban climate model
- www.pik-potsdam.de - Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research
- Climatic Research Unit, University of East Anglia (English)
- Institute for Atmosphere and Climate , ETH Zurich (English)
- A closer look into the history of the earth possible - article in Spiegel Online on March 31, 2008
- Wendy Parker: Climate Science. In: Edward N. Zalta (Ed.): Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy . The climatology from an epistemological point of view
- Note: In contrast to the color markings for the temperature thresholds, the 0 ° C line on the graphic is on the border between turquoise and blue. → Annual cycle of the graphic (animated)
- Climatological knowledge days in the weather dictionary of the German Weather Service
- Germany : 15 ° C according to VDI 2067 ; Austria , Switzerland , Liechtenstein : 12 ° C according to Usance
- also T med ≥ 10 ° C: day of the main vegetation period
- Wilhelm Lauer : Climatology. 1995.
- Fifth assessment report of the IPCC partial report 1 (scientific basis): German translation of the main statements of working group 1 (scientific basis) of the fifth assessment report, 2013.
- The Reality, Risks, and Responses to Climate Change. . American Academy of Arts and Sciences . Retrieved December 27, 2017.